MAUT – DEATH:
When a person is about to die, make him lie down
flat on his back. Place his feet towards the
qiblah and raise his head so that his face
could be towards the qiblah. Sit near him
and recite the kalimah aloud so that by
listening to you he will also commence reading.
Do not order him to read the kalimah
because this is a very difficult time and we do
not know what he will utter.
moment he recites the kalimah once, keep
quiet and do not try to make him read it again
and again until he passes away. Because the
purpose of this is that the last words that are
uttered by him are that of the kalimah.
It is therefore not necessary that the
kalimah be continuously recited until he
passes away. However, if he starts talking of
any worldly matter after having recited the
kalimah, commence reciting the kalimah
again. Once he recites it, keep quiet.
Once the breathing begins to stop, he starts
taking quick breaths, the limbs get loose and he
is unable to stand, the nose gets crooked and
the temples begin to cave in, one should know
that death has approached. At that time, the
kalimah should be recited in a loud voice.
reciting Surah Yaaseen, the severity of
death decreases. This Surah should be
recited by sitting near his head or anywhere
else near him. If one cannot recite it oneself,
one should ask someone else to recite it.
that time, do not speak anything that will turn
his attention towards the world because this is
the time of leaving the world and presenting
oneself in front of Allah Ta'ala. Do such things
and talk of such things that his heart turns
away from the world and directs itself towards
Allah Ta'ala. In this lies full benefit for the
dead person. To bring his family and children in
front of him, or anyone else for whom he had a
lot of love, or to talk of such things towards
which his heart turns or whose love enters his
heart is extremely detestable at such a time. If
a person passes away with love for the world in
his heart, then, Allah forbid, it is a terrible
at the time of death, he uttered some words of
kufr, do not worry about it and do not
announce it. Instead, think that due to the
difficulty of death his mind is not normal and
this therefore occurred. When one is not in
one’s senses, everything is forgiven. Continue
making dua to Allah Ta'ala for his
Once the person dies, straighten all his limbs.
Close his mouth in the following way: take a
cloth and tie it in such a way that it goes from
below his chin and around both sides of his
head. Thereafter, tie a knot so that his mouth
does not open. Close his eyes and thereafter tie
the toes of both his feet together so that his
legs do not move about. Cover him with a sheet
and thereafter, as far as possible, hasten
towards his ghusl and kafan.
the time of closing his mouth, recite the
Translation: "In the name of Allah and on
the creed, religion and faith of Rasulullah."
After he passes away, some incense should be
burnt near him. A person upon whom ghusl
is fard or a woman in her haid or
nifaas should not sit near the dead
After a person dies, it is not be permissible to
recite the Quran near him as long as he has not
been given the ghusl.
Ghusl of the Deceased:
Once all the preparations for the grave and
kafan are complete and the deceased is about
to be given a bath, a wooden bed or platform
should be brought and incense sticks or any
other type of perfume should be burnt around
that wooden bed. After the incense is burnt for
an odd number of times around the bed, lay the
deceased person onto it and remove his clothing.
Cover the area between his navel and knees with
a piece of cloth so that this portion of his
body remains covered.
the place where he is being bathed is such that
the water will flow away, then this will be
good. If not, dig a hole under the wooden bed so
that all the water will collect at that spot. If
a hole was not dug and the water spread
throughout the house, even then there is no sin
in this. The object is that one should not have
difficulty in walking about, and no one should
slip and fall.
method of bathing the deceased is as follows:
First wash the private parts of the deceased.
However, do not touch the private parts with
your hands nor look at them. Instead, wrap your
hands with a cloth and wash his private parts by
inserting your hands under the cloth that was
originally placed over the area between his
navel and knees.
Thereafter, make wudu for him. However,
do not gargle his mouth, do not pour water into
his nose nor wash his hands upto his wrists.
Instead, wash his face first, thereafter his
hands upto his elbows, make masah of his
head and then wash both his feet. It is also
permissible to wet some cotton wool and cleanse
his teeth, ear lobes, and nostrils. If the
deceased was in a state of impurity or a woman
was in her haid or nifaas, it will
be obligatory to wash these parts in the way
nostrils, ears and mouth should be sealed with
cotton wool so that water does not go inside at
the time of wudu or ghusl. After
making wudu for him, apply some soap or
any other cleaning agent to his head and cleanse
it. Thereafter, make the deceased lie on his
left side and wash him with water that has been
made hot with berry leaves (or any other
cleansing agent). This water should be poured
three times from head to toe until it reaches
his left side. Thereafter, make him lie on his
right side and pour water in the same way three
times. Use such an amount of water that will
reach his right side.
done this, make him sit up while leaning him
back slightly and rub his stomach gently. If any
stool or urine comes out, wipe it and wash it
off. The expulsion of urine or stool will not
affect his wudu and ghusl in any
way and there is no need to repeat this.
Thereafter, make him lie on his left side again
and pour camphor water three times from head to
toe. Thereafter, wipe his body with a cloth or
towel and make him wear his kafan.
there is no water that has been made hot with
berry leaves, ordinary warm water will suffice.
He should be washed three times in the same way
mentioned above. Very hot water should not be
used to bathe the deceased.
method of bathing the deceased is the sunnah
method. If someone does not bathe the deceased
three times in this way but washes his entire
body once only; even then the fard will
Once the deceased is placed on the kafan,
apply perfume to the head. If the deceased is a
male, apply perfume to his beard as well.
Thereafter, apply camphor to the forehead, nose,
both palms, both knees, and both the feet. Some
people apply perfume to the kafan, and
even place a piece of cotton wool that has been
immersed into perfume into the ears. All this is
based on ignorance. Do not do anything beyond
what the Shariah has mentioned.
not comb the hair, clip the nails nor cut the
hair from anywhere. Leave all these things as
a man passes away and there are no men to give
him ghusl, it is not permissible for any
woman except his wife to give him ghusl.
It will not be permissible even if the other
woman is his mahram. If even his wife is
not present, tayammum should be made for
him. However, his body should not be touched
with the bare hands. Instead, wear a glove and
then make tayammum.
the husband dies, it is permissible for the wife
to give him ghusl and make him wear the
kafan. But if the wife dies, it is not
permissible for the husband to touch her with
his bare hands (nor is it permissible for him to
give her ghusl). However, it is
permissible for him to look at her and touch her
while she is covered.
woman who is in her haid or nifaas
should not give ghusl to the deceased. To
do so is makruh and not permissible.
is preferable for the closest relative to give
the ghusl. If she cannot give ghusl,
any other religious minded woman could do so.
the person who is giving ghusl notices
some blemish on the deceased, he should not
mention it to anyone. If, Allah forbid, the
deceased's face became distorted or blackened at
the time of death, the person giving ghusl
should not even mention this to anyone nor
should he announce it. All this is not
permissible. However, if the deceased used to
commit sins openly, e.g. if she was a dancer, a
musician or a prostitute, then it will be
permissible to mention these things. This is so
that others will abstain from such things and
repent to Allah Ta'ala.
a person drowns and dies in the sea, it is
fard to give him a ghusl once he is
taken out of the water,. Drowning in the water
will not suffice for his ghusl. This is
because giving ghusl to the deceased is
fard on those who are alive and they did
not take any part in his drowning. However, if
at the time of taking him out, they make
intention of ghusl and move him about in
the water, the ghusl will be complete.
Similarly, if any water falls onto the deceased
or water reaches him in some other way, it will
still be fard to give him ghusl.
only a person's head is found somewhere, he will
not be given ghusl. Instead, he will be
buried just as he is. And if more than half of a
person's body is found, it will be necessary to
give him ghusl irrespective of whether he
is found with his head or without. If it is not
more than half but exactly half, then he will
only be given ghusl if he is found with
his head. If not, he will not be given ghusl.
If less than half is found, ghusl will
not be given irrespective of whether he is found
with his head or not.
a deceased is found somewhere and it is not
known whether he is a Muslim or a kaafir,
ghusl will be given to him and salaat
will also be performed over him if he is found
in Dar ul-Islam.
the corpses of Muslims are found among the
corpses of the kuffaar and they cannot be
distinguished from each other, ghusl will
be given to all of them. If they can be
distinguished, the corpses of the Muslims will
be separated and ghusl will be given to
them. Ghusl will not be given to the
corpses of the kuffaar.
a close friend of a Muslim is a kaafir
and he passes away, his corpse should be given
to those who are of the same religion. If no one
can be found or they refuse to accept his body,
then due to necessity, it will be permissible
for that Muslim to give him ghusl.
However, this ghusl should not be given
in the normal sunnah method. That is, he
should not be given wudu, his head should
not be washed thoroughly nor should camphor be
applied to his body. Instead, he should be
washed just as any other impure object is
washed. By washing a kaafir, he does not
become pure. So much so, that if someone offers
salaat over him, that salaat will not be valid.
rebels or highway robbers are killed, ghusl
should not be given to the dead among them as
long as they were killed in the actual battle.
one who renounces Islam (murtad) is
killed, ghusl should not be given to him.
If the followers of that religion which he
accepted ask for his body, it should not be
given to them.
a deceased person is given tayammum
because of a lack of water and later water is
found, ghusl should be given to him.
Kafan for the Deceased:
is sunnah to enshroud a woman with five
pieces of cloth. That is, a shirt, loincloth, a
head band, a sheet and a chest band. The
loincloth should be from head to toe. The sheet
should be slightly longer than that. The shirt
should be from the neck till the feet. However,
it should not have any side panels or sleeves.
The head band should be 180cm x 90cm. The chest
band should be as wide as the distance from the
chest to the knees. It should be so long that it
could be closed.
anyone is not enshrouded in five cloths, but
only three cloths, i.e. the loincloth, sheet,
and head band, this is also permissible and this
kafan will be sufficient. It is makruh
and a sin to use less than three cloths.
However, if there is a severe need or no other
alternative, then to use less than three will
also be permissible.
the chest band extends from the chest till the
navel, it will also be permissible. But it is
preferable to have it till the thighs.
kafan should be first smoked with some incense
an odd number of times. Thereafter, the deceased
should be enshrouded.
method of enshrouding the deceased is as
follows: firstly spread out the sheet, then the
loin cloth above it, and thereafter, the shirt
above it. Thereafter, lay the deceased on this
and make her wear the shirt. The hair of the
head should be parted and placed above the sheet
on her chest. One part of the hair should be
placed on the left hand side and the other on
the right. Thereafter, place the head band over
the head and hair. It should not be tied nor
wrapped. Thereafter, wrap the loin cloth: first
the left side and then the right side.
Thereafter, tie the chest band. And then wrap
the sheet: first the left side and then the
right side. Thereafter, tie the kafan on the
head side and feet side with a strip of cloth.
Also tie another strip of cloth around the
stomach so that the kafan does not get loose on
the chest band is tied after the head band but
before wrapping the loincloth, this is also
permissible. It will also be permissible if it
is tied after all the cloths.
Once the kafan is completed, send the deceased
away so that the men could offer the salaat and
complete the burial.
is also permissible for women to offer the
janaazah salaat. However, since this does
not happen, we will not mention the mas'alas
concerning the salaat and the burial.
is not permissible to place one's will or
lineage of a saint in the kafan or the grave.
Similarly, it is not permissible to write the
kalimah or any dua on the kafan or
the deceased's forehead with camphor or any pen.
However, it is permissible to place the cover of
the Ka'bah or the scarf (or any other
clothing) of one's spiritual guide as a source
child that dies a few moments after birth or
immediately after birth will also be given
ghusl and kafan in the same way as mentioned
above. Janaazah salaat will also be
offered over him and he will also be buried in
the normal way. This child should also be named.
child that is stillborn, and there are no signs
of life at the time of birth will also be given
ghusl in the normal way. However, do not
enshroud him in the normal kafan. Instead, wrap
him in a piece of cloth and bury him. He should
also be given a name.
a woman aborts (miscarries) and the child is not
formed as yet, i.e. it's hands, feet, face,
nose, etc. have not formed as yet, it should not
be given a bath nor a kafan. Instead, it should
be wrapped in a piece of cloth and buried in a
hole. If any of it's limbs are formed, the same
rule will apply as that of a baby that is
stillborn. That is, it should be named and given
ghusl, but it should not be given the
normal kafan nor should salaat be offered over
it. Instead, it should be wrapped in a cloth and
the time of delivery, only the child's head
appeared. At that time it was alive. Thereafter,
it died. The same rule will apply as that of a
baby that is still-born. However, if a major
portion of the baby appeared and it passed away
after that, it will be regarded as if it was
born alive. If it was born from the head
section, then upto the chest will be regarded as
"a major portion". But if it is born the other
way, then upto the navel.
a young girl who is close to the age of puberty
(but has not matured as yet) passes away, then
the five pieces of cloth for the kafan which are
sunnah for a mature woman will be
sunnah for her kafan as well. If five pieces
are not available, three pieces will suffice. In
other words, the rules that apply to a mature
woman will apply to a young immature girl as
well. The difference is that these rules are
emphasised for the mature woman while they are
preferable for the young immature woman.
Five pieces of cloth are also preferable for the
girl who is very young, i.e. not even close to
maturity. Using two pieces will also be
permissible, i.e. the loincloth and sheet.
a boy passes away and you have to give him
ghusl and kafan, then bathe him in the same
way as mentioned above. The same method of kafan
will also apply. The only difference is that the
kafan for a woman consists of five pieces of
cloth while the kafan for a man consists of
three pieces: a sheet, a loincloth and a shirt.
there are only two pieces of cloth for a man,
i.e. a sheet and a loincloth, this will suffice.
It is makruh to use less than two cloths.
But if there is a necessity or there is no
alternative, it will not be makruh.
The sheet which is placed over the janaazah,
i.e. on the bed, is not included in the kafan.
Kafan only consists of the pieces which we
The kafan and burial of a person should be done
in that very city or town where he passes away.
It is not good to move him to another place.
However, there is no harm in moving him to a
place which is only one or two kilometres away.
a limb or half of the body of a person is found
without the head, it is sufficient to wrap it up
in a piece of cloth. If the head is also with
half of the body, or more than half of the body
is without the head, then the normal kafan
should be given.
a person's grave opens or his corpse is exhumed
due to some reason, it is necessary to give him
the normal kafan. This is on condition that the
body has not disintegrated. If it has
disintegrated, it will suffice to merely wrap it
in a cloth (there is no need for the normal
The Janaazah Salaat:
janaazah salaat is in reality a dua unto
Allah Ta'ala for the deceased person.
the conditions and prerequisites that have been
mentioned for salaat will also apply for the
janaazah salaat. However, there is one
additional condition for the janaazah salaat.
That is, one must have knowledge of the person's
death. The person who is not informed of this
will be excused and janaazah salaat will not be
necessary on him.
There are two types of conditions for the
validity of janaazah salaat: the first type is
that which is connected to those offering the
janaazah salaat. These conditions have been
mentioned in the chapters dealing with all the
other types of salaat. That is: purity,
concealing one's private area, facing the
qiblah, intention. However, "time" is not a
pre-requisite for this salaat. Furthermore, if
one feels that one will miss it, one can make
tayammum, e.g. the janaazah has commenced
and the person feels that if he makes wudu
he will miss the salaat. In such a case he can
make tayammum, as opposed to other
salaats, because if one fears that the time is
about to expire, it is not permissible for him
to make tayammum.
These days, some people offer the janaazah
salaat with their shoes on. For them it is
necessary that the spot on which they are
standing is pure, and that their shoes are also
pure. If they remove their shoes and stand on
them, then it is necessary that only the shoes
be pure. If people are not mindful of this,
their salaat will not be valid.
second type of conditions are those that are
connected to the deceased. There are six such
First Condition: The deceased has to be a
Muslim. Salaat over a kaafir or murtad
is not valid. Even if a Muslim is an open sinner
or a bid'ati, salaat over him will be
valid. However, there is an exception for those
who rebel against the ruler who is on truth or
those who are highway robbers. This is on the
condition that they are killed while fighting
against the ruler. If they die after the fight
or die a natural death, janaazah salaat will be
offered over them.
Similarly, the person who kills his father or
mother and he himself dies while being punished
for this, salaat will not be offered over him.
Salaat is not offered over these people as a way
of punishment. Salaat over a person who commits
suicide is valid.
the father or mother of an immature child is a
Muslim, this child will also be regarded as a
Muslim. Salaat will be offered over him.
mayyit or deceased person is he who is
born alive and then dies. If a child is born
dead, salaat over him is not valid.
Second Condition: The body and kafan
of the deceased must be pure from
najaasat-e-haqiqi and najaasat-e-hukmi.
However, if najaasat-e-haqiqi comes out
from his body after giving him the ghusl,
and his entire body becomes impure, there is no
harm in this. The salaat will be valid.
Salaat is not valid over a deceased person if he
is not pure from najaasat-e-hukmi, i.e.
ghusl was not given to him, or in the
case where ghusl was not possible he was
not given tayammum. However, if it is not
possible to purify him, e.g. he was buried
without being given ghusl or tayammum
and the grave has already been filled with sand,
then it will be permissible to offer salaat over
his grave. If salaat was offered over a person
who was not given ghusl or tayammum
and he was buried thereafter, and later it came
to be known that ghusl was not given to
him, then the salaat will have to be repeated
over his grave. This is because the first salaat
was not valid. Since it is not possible to give
him ghusl, the (second) salaat will be
a Muslim is buried without salaat being offered
over him, salaat will be offered over his grave
as long as there is no possibility of his corpse
disintegrating or decomposing. If one feels that
his body has disintegrated, salaat should not be
offered over his grave. The time that it takes
for a body to disintegrate differs from place to
place. It is therefore not possible to specify
an exact time - this is the most correct opinion
in this regard. However, there are those who
have specified 3 days, 10 days and one month.
is not necessary for the spot on which the
deceased is placed to be pure. If the deceased
is placed on a pure bed, or if the bed is
impure, or if the deceased is placed on an
impure piece of ground without being placed on a
bed, then in all these cases there is difference
of opinion. According to some ulama, it is a
prerequisite for the spot on which the deceased
is placed to be pure. If not, the salaat will
not be valid. According to others, this is not a
prerequisite. Salaat will therefore be valid.
Third Condition: Those parts of the body
which are wajib to be covered have to be
covered. If the deceased is completely naked,
salaat over him will not be permissible.
Fourth Condition: The deceased has to be
placed in front of those offering salaat over
him. If he is placed behind them, salaat will
not be valid.
Fifth Condition: The deceased or the thing
upon which he is placed, has to be placed on the
ground. If salaat is being offered over the
deceased while he is being carried by some
people, or while he is placed on a vehicle or an
animal, this salaat will not be valid.
Sixth Condition: The deceased has to be
present at that place. If he is not present,
salaat will not be valid.
things are fard in the janaazah salaat: (i)
To say Allahu Akbar four times. Here,
each takbeer takes the place of one
rakaat. (ii) To stand and offer the janaazah
salaat. Just as it is fard to stand up
and offer the fard and wajib salaats
if the person has no valid excuse, so is the
case over here. The different valid excuses have
already been mentioned in the chapters on salaat.
There is no ruku, sajdah, qa'dah, etc. in
Three things are sunnah in the janaazah
salaat: (i) To praise Allah Ta'ala. (ii) To send
salutations to Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa
sallam. (iii) To make dua for the
deceased. Jama'at is not a condition for
janaazah salaat. Even if one person offers the
janaazah salaat, this fard duty will be
fulfilled. This is irrespective of whether the
person offering the salaat is a male, a female,
a mature person or an immature person.
However, there is a greater need for a jama'at
because this is a dua for the deceased.
For a few people to get together and ask Allah
Ta'ala for a certain thing has a special
significance in attracting the mercy and
acceptance of Allah Ta'ala.
The sunnah and mustahab method of
janaazah salaat is as follows: The deceased
should be placed in the front and the imam
should stand in line with his chest. Everyone
should make the following intention:
Translation: "I intend offering the janaazah
salaat for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala and as a
dua for the deceased."
making this intention, he should raise both
hands upto the ears just as he does for the
takbeer-e-tahreemah. When doing this he
should say Allahu Akbar and thereafter
tie his hands just as he does for any other
salaat. He should then recite the thanaa'.
Thereafter, he should say Allahu Akbar
again but he should not raise his hands. He
should then recite the durood. It is
preferable to recite the same durood that
is recited in salaat. He should again say
Allahu Akbar without raising the hands.
After this takbeer, he should make dua
for the deceased. If the deceased is a mature
male or female, the following dua should
Translation: "O Allah! Forgive our living
and dead, present and absent, big and small, men
and women. O Allah! Whoever among us is kept
alive by You, keep him alive on Islam, and
whoever You give death, let him die on Imaan."
better if both these duas are recited. In fact,
Allamah Shaami rahmatullahi alayh, in his book
Radd ul-Muhtaar, has written both these
duas as one. Apart from these two, other
duas have also been related in the
Ahadith. Our jurists have also related these
duas. One could therefore choose whichever
dua one wishes.
deceased is an immature boy, the following
dua should be recited:
Translation: "O Allah! Make him a source of
happiness for us. And make him a reward and a
treasure for us. And make him an intercessor for
us and one whose intercession is accepted."
deceased is an immature girl, the same dua
should be recited with the changes in the
grammar: in three places.
this dua has been recited, Allahu
Akbar should be said once more without
raising the hands. After this takbeer,
the salaam should be made just as it is
made for any other salaat. There is no at-tahiyyaat
nor any recitation of the Quran in this salaat.
The janaazah salaat is the same for the imam
and muqtadi. The only difference is that
the imam will make the takbeers
and the salaam in a loud voice while the
muqtadi will make them softly. The
remainder of the things, i.e. the thanaa',
durood and dua, will be made softly
by the muqtadi as well as the imam.
is mustahab to make three saffs
for the janaazah salaat. So much so that if
there are seven people, one of them will be made
the imam, there will be three people in
the first saff, two in the second saff,
and one person in the last saff.
Janaazah salaat becomes invalid by the very
things which make other salaats invalid. The
only difference is that by laughing aloud, one's
wudu will not break. And if a woman
stands in line with a man, the salaat will not
is makruh-e-tahrimi to offer janaazah
salaat in a musjid which has been built for the
five daily salaats, the jumu'ah salaat or
the eid salaats. This is irrespective of
whether the janaazah is offered inside the
musjid or the janaazah is placed outside whilst
the people are standing inside the musjid.
However, janaazah salaat will not be makruh
in a musjid which has been built specifically
for this purpose.
is makruh to delay the janaazah salaat
with the purpose of attracting a larger crowd.
is not permissible to sit down or sit on any
vehicle and offer janaazah salaat if there is no
there are several janaazahs to be offered, it is
better to offer each one individually. However,
it is permissible to offer one janaazah salaat
for all the janaazahs. In such a case, a saff
for all the janaazahs should be made. A good
method of doing this is that each janaazah
should be placed next to the other in such a way
that all their feet are on one side, and their
heads the other side. This method is preferable
because all their chests will be in line with
the imam. And it is sunnah for the
imam to stand in this way.
the janaazahs are of different types, their
saff should be arranged in this way: the
janaazahs of all the men should be placed near
the imam, thereafter the boys',
thereafter the mature women's, and thereafter
a person joins the janaazah at such a time that
a few takbeers were made prior to his
arrival, he will be regarded as a masbuq
for the takbeers which he missed. Upon
reaching the janaazah salaat, he should not
immediately join in as he normally does for
other salaats. Instead, he should wait for the
takbeer of the imam. When the
imam makes the takbeer, he should
also do so. This takbeer will be regarded
as his takbeer-e-tahreemah. When the
imam makes his salaam, this person
should complete the takbeers which he
missed. There is no need for him to recite
person reaches at such a time that the imam
has already made the fourth takbeer, then
with regard to this fourth takbeer, he
will not be regarded as a masbuq. He
should immediately make the takbeer and
join the salaat before the imam can make
salaam. On the completion of the salaat,
he should repeat all the takbeers which
a person was present at the time of
takbeer-e-tahreemah or for any of the other
takbeers and was even ready to join the
salaat, but did not join due to laziness or some
other reason, then he should immediately make
the takbeer and join the salaat. He
should not wait for the next takbeer of
the imam. He will not have to repeat the
takbeer for which he was present (but did
not make) as long as he makes it before the
imam can make the next takbeer. He
must complete this takbeer even though he
did not make it simultaneously with the imam.
the masbuq begins to complete the
takbeers which he missed, and he fears that
if he will recite the dua he will get
delayed and the janaazah will be carried away
from the front, then he should not recite the
a person becomes a laahiq for a janaazah
salaat, the same rules as for the other salaats
will apply to him.
The most worthy person for the imamaat of
janaazah salaat is the ruler of the time even if
there are more pious people than him who are
present over there. If he is not present, then
his deputy, i.e. the one who is appointed by
him, will be the most worthy even if there are
others who are more pious than him. If he is not
present, then the judge of the city. If he is
not present, then his deputy. In the presence of
these people, it is not permissible to appoint
anyone else as the imam without their
permission. It is wajib to appoint these
people as the imam. If any of these
people are not present, the most worthy will be
the imam of the area. This is on the
condition that there isn't anyone more qualified
than him from among the relatives of the
deceased person. Or else, those relatives of the
deceased who have the right to succeed him, have
the right of becoming imam. Or that
person whom they give permission to. If anyone
who is not worthy of imamaat, makes
imamaat without the permission of the
relatives, then they have the right to repeat
the salaat. So much so, that if the deceased is
already buried, they could offer the salaat over
the grave until such time that the body has not
started to disintegrate or decompose.
a person who is worthy of imamaat, makes
imamaat without the permission of the
relatives, then the relatives cannot repeat the
salaat. Similarly, if the relative of the
deceased performed the salaat in the absence of
the ruler or his deputies, then the ruler does
not have the right to repeat the salaat. In
fact, even if the relatives offer the salaat in
the presence of the ruler, the ruler does not
have the choice to repeat the salaat. This is
despite the relatives getting the sin of not
appointing the ruler. Because to appoint the
ruler is wajib, as mentioned previously.
short, it is not permissible to offer one
janaazah several times. This is only permissible
for the relatives if the janaazah was offered
without their permission by a person who is not
eligible to do so.
is fard-e-kifaayah to bury the deceased
just as it is fard-e-kifaayah to give him
ghusl and offer salaat over him.
Once salaat is offered over the deceased, he
should immediately be carried to the grave which
has been dug up for him.
the deceased is a small baby or slightly bigger,
he should be carried by the hands, i.e. one
person should carry him with both his hands and
thereafter pass him over to the next person. In
this way, he should be continuously carried from
person to person. If the deceased is an elderly
person, he should be placed and carried on a cot
or something similar to it. It should be carried
by four persons, one at each corner. This cot
should be lifted and placed on the shoulders.
However, it is makruh to carry it on the
shoulders in such a way as one carries luggage
on one’s shoulders. Similarly, it is also
makruh to take the deceased by placing him
on an animal or vehicle without any valid
excuse. If there is a valid reason, it will not
be makruh to do so, e.g. the grave yard
is very far.
mustahab method of carrying the deceased
is as follows: First lift the front right leg of
the bier and place it on the right shoulder and
walk for at least ten steps. Thereafter place
the back right leg of the bier onto the right
shoulder and walk for at least ten steps.
Thereafter, place the front left leg of the bier
onto the left shoulder and thereafter the left
back leg onto the left shoulder, and walk for at
least ten steps. In this way, one would have
walked at least forty steps when all four
corners are added.
is sunnah to walk briskly when carrying
the deceased. But it should not be so fast that
the deceased begins to move about and is thereby
is makruh for those who accompany the
janaazah to sit down before the janaazah can be
placed onto the ground. However, there is no
harm in sitting down if there is some necessity.
those who have not been accompanying the
janaazah are sitting somewhere, then upon seeing
the janaazah they should not stand up.
is mustahab for those who are
accompanying the janaazah to walk behind the
janaazah. However, there is no harm in walking
ahead of the janaazah. This will become
makruh if everyone begins walking in front
of the janaazah. Similarly, it is makruh
to move in front of the janaazah while in a
is mustahab for those accompanying the
janaazah to go on foot. If they are in any
vehicle, they should move behind the janaazah.
is makruh for those accompanying the
janaazah to make any dua or zikr
in a loud voice.
The depth of the grave should be at least half
the height of the person. It should not be more
than his height. The length of the grave should
be according to his height. The incised-grave is
better than the trench-grave. However, if the
ground is very soft and there is a fear of the
grave collapsing, the incised-grave should not
the incised-grave cannot be dug, it is also
permissible to place the deceased in a box
irrespective of whether the box is of wood,
stone or steel. However, it is preferable to
spread some sand in the bottom of the box.
Once the grave is ready, the deceased should be
lowered into the grave from the direction of the
qiblah. The method of this is that the
deceased should be placed towards the qiblah,
and those who are going to lower him should
stand facing the qiblah. They should then
lift the deceased and lower him into the grave.
is not sunnah to have an odd number of
people to place the deceased into the grave.
Four people had lowered Rasulullah sallallahu
alayhi wa sallam into his grave.
After placing the deceased into the grave, it is
mustahab to turn him with his right side
facing the qiblah.
After placing the deceased into the grave, those
strings which were used to tie both ends of the
kafan should be loosened.
The deceased should then be covered with unbaked
bricks or straw. It is makruh to cover
him with baked bricks or strips of timber.
However, if the ground is very soft and there is
a fear of the grave collapsing, it will be
permissible to place baked bricks or strips of
timber, or even to place him into a box.
the time of placing a woman in the grave, it is
mustahab to cover the grave with a sheet.
If there is a fear that the body of the deceased
will get exposed, it will be wajib to
cover the grave with a sheet.
Covering the grave with a sheet should not be
done when placing a man in the grave. But if
there is an excuse, e.g. it is raining or
snowing or the sun's rays are very intense, then
it will be permissible to do so.
Once the deceased has been placed in the grave,
whatever soil that came out when digging that
grave should be replaced into it. It is
makruh to put too much of extra soil to the
extent that it is more than one span in height.
But if it is not too much, it will not be
is mustahab to start from the head side
when throwing sand over the grave. Each person
should throw the soil with both his hands.
After the burial, it is mustahab to stand
near the grave for a little while, make dua
of forgiveness for the deceased, or to recite
the Quran and send the rewards of this to the
After covering the grave with soil, it is
mustahab to sprinkle a little water over it.
The deceased should not be buried in a house
irrespective of whether he is big or small. This
is because this is a speciality of the Prophets
is makruh to make a square grave. It is
mustahab to have it in a mound, like the
shape of a camel's back. It's height should be
equal to one span or slightly higher.
is makruh-e-tahrimi to have the grave
very much higher than one span. It is makruh
to plaster or cement the grave.
is haraam to construct a dome over the
grave for the purpose of decoration. If this is
done in order to strengthen the grave, then it
will be makruh. It is permissible to
write something on the grave of the deceased as
a means of remembrance. This is on the condition
that there is some necessity, if not, it will
not be permissible. But these days, since people
have corrupted their beliefs and habits, then
due to these harms even those things that are
permissible become prohibited. Therefore, things
of this sort will not be permissible in any way.
Whatever needs or excuses they may offer are
nothing but a delusion of their desires, and
they themselves know this.
Rules Concerning the Martyr:
Although the martyr is also a deceased person
outwardly, all the rules related to a normal
deceased person do not apply to him. Apart from
this, there are many virtues of a martyr. It was
therefore considered appropriate to outline the
rules concerning him separately. Several types
of martyrs have been mentioned in the Hadith.
Some ulama have compiled entire books in
which all the different types of martyrs are
mentioned. But the martyr whose rules we wish to
outline over here are specifically for that
martyr who complies with the following
has to be a Muslim. No type of martyrdom
whatsoever can be established for those who are
has to be mature and in his senses. If a person
is killed while he is in a state of madness or
not mature as yet, the rules which we are going
to discuss later will not apply to him.
has to be pure from hadath-e-akbar. If a
person is killed while he is in a state of
hadath-e-akbar, or a woman is killed while
she is in her haid or nifaas,
these rules of a martyr will not apply to them.
has to be killed out of innocence. If a person
is not killed out of innocence, instead he is
killed because of a crime which he committed
against the Shariah, or he was not killed
but died a natural death, the rules of the
martyr will not apply to him.
he is killed by a Muslim or a Zimmi, then
an additional condition is that he must be
killed by an instrument that is used for
killing. If a Muslim or Zimmi kills him
by any other object such as a stone, the rules
of a martyr will not apply to him. Steel is
regarded as an object for killing even if it is
not sharp. If a person is killed by the
kuffaar, renegades, highway robbers, or he
is found killed in the battle field, then this
condition of being killed by an "instrument of
killing" will not apply. So much so, that if
they kill him with a stone, he will still be
regarded as a martyr. In fact, even the
prerequisite of them being the killers is not
necessary. Even if they were the cause of his
death, i.e. even if such conditions prevail
which lead to his death, the rules of a martyr
will apply to him. Examples which illustrate
this are as follows:
kaafir trampled over a Muslim with his
animal while this kaafir was riding the
Muslim was riding his animal when a kaafir
gave chase to this animal. As a result of this,
the Muslim fell off his animal and died.
A kaafir set fire to a Muslim's house or
possessions as a result of which this Muslim got
burnt and died.
a punishment of that killing, no monetary
compensation must be stipulated by the Shariah
from the beginning. Instead, qisaas must
be made wajib. If any monetary
compensation has been stipulated, the rules of a
martyr will not apply to that person who has
been killed. This is even if he has been killed
wrongfully. Examples which illustrate this are
Muslim kills another Muslim with an instrument
that is not normally used for killing.
Muslim kills another Muslim with an instrument
of killing, but kills him mistakenly, e.g. he
was pointing at an animal or some other target
but the bullet hits some Muslim.
A person is found murdered in any place other
than the battle field and his killer is not
monetary compensation becomes wajib in
all these cases and qisaas does not
become wajib, therefore the rules of a
martyr will not apply over here. The condition
of monetary compensation being stipulated from
the very beginning has been attached because: if
qisaas had been stipulated in the
beginning and due to some reason it was forgiven
and in place of it some monetary compensation
was stipulated later, then in such a case the
rules of a martyr will apply. Examples of this
are as follows:
person was killed intentionally and wrongfully
with an instrument of killing. However, a
monetary compromise was made between the killer
and the inheritors of the person killed. In such
a case the rules of a martyr will apply because
from the beginning qisaas was wajib
and not any monetary compensation. This monetary
compensation only became wajib after a
compromise was reached.
father kills his son with a weapon. In such a
case, qisaas became wajib from the
beginning and not any monetary compensation.
However, out of respect for the father, he was
excused from qisaas and instead, a
monetary compensation became wajib. The
rules of a martyr will apply in this context.
After being injured, the person must not conduct
any affair of this world which shows ease and
comfort such as eating, drinking, sleeping,
taking medication, buying and selling, etc. Nor
should he live to the extent of one salaat time
while he is conscious and in his senses. Nor
should he be carried from the battle field while
he is in a state of consciousness. However, if
he is carried out of fear of being trampled upon
by animals, there is no harm in this. If a
person talks considerably after being injured,
he will not be regarded as a martyr because to
talk a lot is an attribute of those who are
living. Similarly, if a person makes a bequest,
he will be out of the category of a martyr if
this bequest is connected to a worldly matter.
But if this bequest is made for a Deeni
matter, he will be regarded as a martyr.
person is martyred in the battle field and he
does any of the above acts, he will be excluded
from the category of a martyr. If not, he will
not be excluded from this category. However, if
he commits any of the above acts while the
battle is still carrying on, he will be regarded
as a martyr.
martyr who fulfils all the above conditions will
not be given ghusl nor will any blood be
cleansed from his body. He will be buried as he
second rule is that the clothes which he was
wearing will not be removed from his body.
However, if his clothes are less than the
stipulated number for the kafan, more
clothes could be added in order to complete the
stipulated number. In the same way, if he is
wearing more than the stipulated number, the
extra pieces of clothing should be removed. If
he is wearing clothing which is not good enough
to serve as kafan, such as leather or
fur, these should also be removed. But if he is
not wearing anything else, these should not be
hat, shoes, weapons will have to be removed
under all conditions.
the other rules that are applicable to the
normal deceased person, such as salaat, etc.
will also apply to the martyr.
any of the above conditions are not met with in
a martyr, he will be given ghusl and will
also be made to wear a new kafan.
General Rules of Janaazah:
one forgets to place the deceased towards the
qiblah when burying him and only remembers
this after burying him and filling the grave
with sand, then it is not permissible to dig up
the grave. However, if only the wooden strips
have been placed and no soil has been thrown as
yet, it will be permissible to remove the timber
and place him towards the qiblah.
is makruh-e-tahrimi for women to
accompany the janaazah.
is prohibited for wailing women and those women
who give lectures to accompany the janaazah.
is a bid'ah to give the adhaan
while lowering the deceased into the grave.
the imam makes more than four takbeers
in the janaazah salaat, it is not permissible
for the muqtadis of the Hanafi mazhab
to follow him. Instead, they should remain
standing silently. When the imam makes
the salaam, they should also make
salaam. However, if they do not hear the
extra takbeers from the imam, but
from the mukabbir, then the muqtadis
should follow him and regard each takbeer
as the takbeer-e-tahreemah. They should
think that the four takbeers before this
which the mukabbir had made were wrong
and that the imam only made the
a person passes away in a ship and the coast is
so far away that there is a fear that the corpse
will begin to decompose, then in such a case
ghusl and kafan should be given to
him and thereafter he should be lowered into the
sea. But if the coast is not so far and there is
hope of reaching land soon, the corpse should be
left aside and upon reaching land, it should be
buried in the ground.
a person does not know the dua that is
recited in the janaazah salaat, it is sufficient
for him to recite the following dua:
does not even remember this and only suffices
with the four takbeers, his salaat will
be valid. This is because the dua is not
fard but sunnah. In the same way,
the durood is also sunnah.
Once sand has been thrown over the grave, it is
not permissible to remove the deceased from the
grave. However, if in burying him, the right of
someone has been transgressed, then it will be
permissible to dig up the grave. Examples:
(i) the land on which he is buried belongs to
someone else and the owner is not happy about
the burial taking place on his land, (ii)
someone's wealth has been left behind in the
a woman passes away and there is a living child
in her womb, then her womb will have to be cut
and the child removed. Similarly, if a person
passes away after swallowing someone else's
money, and the person asks for the money, his
stomach will be cut and the money removed.
However, if the deceased has left behind some
wealth, this money will have to be given from
his wealth and his stomach will not be cut.
is not good to move the corpse from one place to
another for the purpose of burial. This is if
the place is less than 2-3 kilometres. If it is
more than 2-3 kilometres, it is not permissible
to do so. Digging up the grave and moving the
corpse from one place to another is not
permissible under any circumstances.
is permissbible to praise the deceased person
irrespective of whether it is in the form of a
poem or in prose. This is on condition that
there is no exaggeration in praising him, and he
is not praised for characteristics that were not
found in him.
is permissible to do the following: sympathize
and comfort the relatives of the deceased, to
mention the virtues of patience and thereby
create an inclination towards patience, to make
dua for them and the deceased. All this
is known as ta'ziyat. It is
makruh-e-tanzihi to make ta'ziyat for
more than three days. However, if the person
making the ta'ziyat, or a relative of the
deceased, was away on a journey and returned
after the stipulated three days, then this
ta'ziyat will not be makruh. It is
makruh for a person to make ta'ziyat
for a second time when he has already made it
is not makruh to keep the kafan
ready for oneself. However, it is makruh
to keep the grave ready for oneself.
is permissible to write a dua on the
kafan, or Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem
on his chest, or the kalimah on his
forehead. This will only be permissible if it is
done by moving the fingers and without using a
pen. However, this practice has not been
established from any Sahih Hadith. Therefore,
this practice should not be regarded as
sunnah or mustahab.
is mustahab to place a green twig on the
grave. If a plant or tree begins to grow near
it, it will be makruh to chop it off.
More than one corpse should not be buried in one
grave. However, this will be permissible if
there is an absolute necessity for it. If all
the corpses are males, the most virtuous among
them should be placed in the front. Thereafter,
all the rest should be placed behind him in
order of their position. However, if there are a
few males and a few females, the males should be
placed in front and the females behind them.
is mustahab for men to go and visit the
graves. It is preferable to visit the graves at
least once a week. It is preferable that this
day be Friday. It is also permissible to
undertake journeys in order to visit the graves
of the pious. This is permissible as long as no
belief or action contrary to the Shariah
takes place. Like the evils that take place in
the present day "birth-anniversary" (meelad,
The Shar'ee Procedure at the Time of Death:
Surah Yaseen at the time of death and
make the person lie on his right hand side
facing the qiblah if this will not cause
any pain to him. If not, leave him as he is. It
is also permissible to make him lie flat on his
back with his feet pointing towards the
qiblah and his head slightly elevated. The
person sitting nearby should recite the
kalimah in an audible voice. He should not
ask the person to recite the kalimah
because it is possible that he will refuse.
passing away, take a broad strip of cloth or
band and tie it from below his chin and above
his head. Thereafter, close his eyes. Place the
large toes of each foot together and tie them
with a strip of cloth. Place his hands at his
sides and not on his chest. Thereafter, inform
the people of his death. Hasten towards his
burial. First of all, make the arrangements for
the grave and thereafter request for the
following items for the kafan:
water-pots. (if there are utensils in the house,
there is no need for this)
can to pour the water.
wooden bed or platform which is generally kept
in the musjid.
Lobaan (a kind of incense).
Gilly flower (or any other fragrant flower).
Strips of timber or sticks for the grave, the
length of which will be according to the
measurements of the grave.
mat made of palm leaves according to the
measurements of the grave.
Kafan. The kafan should be made in
the following manner: for men, take a stick that
is equal in length of the deceased person. Make
a mark on the stick in line with his shoulders.
Place a piece of cotton in line with his chest
and take it around his body until one end of the
cotton goes round and meets the other end of the
cotton. Cut off the cotton and keep that piece
aside. Thereafter, take a cloth that is as wide
as or more or less the same as the length of
that piece of cotton. If the width of the
material is less than the cotton, complete it by
joining another piece of material. Take some
sheeting and cut out a piece of cloth that is
the same length as that of the stick. This is
called the loincloth. Take another sheet that is
the same width as the previous one and cut out
another piece of cloth that is about a quarter
metre longer than the loin cloth. This is called
the lifafah or sheet. Take another piece
of cloth that is as wide as the width of the
deceased. Place one end of it on the mark on the
stick till the end of the stick and cut double
this length. Hold both the ends of this cloth
together and cut out a circle at the opposite
end which will be large enough for the head of
the person to go through. This is known as the
shirt. This is not used for a woman. Apart from
this, there are two other pieces of cloth (for a
woman), one is the chest band and the other, the
head band. The chest band extends from below the
arm-pits till the knees. It will be as wide as
the piece of cotton that was originally used for
measuring. The head band will be about one and
three quarter metres in length and about three
quarters of a metre in width. These are the
masnun measurements for the kafan.
There are certain things which are connected to
the kafan. They are as follows:
The tahband should be about 18
centimetres longer than the width of the body.
For a large person, one and quarter metre in
length will be sufficient. And for the width
from the navel to the calf, about 80 centimetres
will be sufficient. There has to be two pieces
The gloves should be approximately 33
centimetres by 16 centimetres. There should be
two of these as well.
The upper semi-circular covering of the bier of
a woman who is big in body should be about three
and half metres by two metres.
Preparations for the kafan and other
items should be made together with the
preparations for ghusl.
Note: For the kafan of a man,
approximately 10 metres of material is required.
For the woman, together with the upper covering
of the bier, approximately 21 metres is
required. The tahband and gloves are not
included in this. The kafan for a child
should be calculated as explained previously.
The Method of Ghusl and Kafan:
two handfuls of berry leaves in a water-pot and
heat the water. Thereafter pour this water into
two water-pots. Dig two holes on either side
lengthwise where the deceased will be placed.
(This will not be necessary if there is a drain
through which all the water will flow away. The
wooden platform could be placed near this
drain.) Place the wooden platform in the
direction where the two holes were dug and smoke
it three times with incense. Thereafter, place
the deceased onto this platform and remove his
clothing. Place the tahband over his
private area and remove his clothing from
underneath the tahband.
the stomach gently and cleanse his private parts
with three to five lumps of sand irrespective of
whether any impurities come out or not.
Thereafter wash his private parts with water.
However, you should wear gloves when doing this.
It is not permissible to wash the private parts
without wearing these. Take a piece of cotton
wool, moisten it and cleanse his lips and teeth
with it and thereafter throw it away. Repeat
this three times. Do the same for the nose and
ears. Thereafter, seal the mouth, nose and ears
with cotton wool so that no water may go inside.
Thereafter wash the head and beard with soap.
Make wudu for the deceased: wash the
face, the hands upto the elbows, make masah
of the head, and then wash the feet. Thereafter
pour water over the entire body. Make him lie on
his left-hand side and pour water over him. Do
the same after making him lie on his right-hand
side. Thereafter wear another pair of gloves and
cleanse his body. Replace the tahband as
Thereafter neaten the bed and place the sheet
(lifafah) over it. Spread the loin cloth
over it and then spread the bottom section of
the shirt onto the loin cloth and gather the
remainder of the shirt and place it near the
head-section. Thereafter, lift the deceased from
the platform gently and place him onto the bed.
Take the remaining portion of the shirt and pass
it through the head and extend it till his feet.
Remove the tahband. Apply camphor to his
head, beard and those parts of his body which
touch the ground when in sajdah (i.e. the
forehead, nose, the palms, the knees and the
forepart of the feet).
Thereafter take the left side of the loin cloth
and wrap it onto the right side, and take the
right side of the sheet and wrap it onto the
left side. Do the same with the sheet. Take two
strips of cloth and use each one to tie the head
side and the feet side of the kafan. Use
the chest band to wrap the chest of the woman.
The head band has been mentioned in the table.
An upper covering is placed on the bier of a
woman. This has already been mentioned
Note: There are certain items which people
have regarded as necessary in the kafan.
These are not included in the masnun
kafan. It is not permissible to purchase
these items from the money of the deceased.
These items are:
musallah - about one and quarter metres
by 80 centimetres.
girdle - about one and half metres by 80
centimetres. This is used to lower the deceased
into the grave.
A mat - two and half metres by one and half
metres. This is normally placed onto the bed on
which the deceased is placed.
scarf - two metres by one and quarter metres.
According to one's financial position, four to
seven of these are given to the poor. This is
specifically for women.
sheet which is generally placed over the
janaazah of the man - three metres by two
and quarter metres. It is used to cover the bed
on which the deceased is carried. It is
necessary to have such a sheet for a woman.
However, it is not included in her kafan.
It is therefore not necessary for this sheet to
be the same colour as the kafan. Any
cloth will suffice as a cover.
Note: If one feels there is a need for a
musallah, then any cloth from the house
could be used. It is not necessary to obtain it
from the possessions of the deceased. Any
relative could also purchase it with his own
any of the items which will be required for the
ghusl and kafan are found at home
and they are clean and pure, there is no harm in
material of the kafan should be of the
same quality that the deceased used to wear most
of the time while he was alive. It is a waste of
money to go into unnecessary expenses.
a child is born with some indications of life
and thereafter dies, it will be named, ghusl
will be given and salaat will also be offered
over it. However, if no signs of life are found,
it will be given ghusl, wrapped in a
cloth and buried without any salaat being
offered over it.
deceased should be placed in the grave in such a
way that his entire body is made to lie on its
side facing towards the qiblah. The knots
of the kafan on either side should be
loosened. Isaal-e-thawaab should be made
for the deceased as shown to us by our pious
predecessors. This should be done without
subjecting oneself to any custom or specifying
any particular day. One should secretly help the
poor according to one's ability and from one's
halaal earnings. One should also recite
the Quran according to one's ability and send
the rewards to the deceased. Prior to the
burial, in which a lot of time is wasted in
futile conversations, one should recite the
kalimah and send the reward to the deceased.
Explanation of Islamic Terms
Literally means performance, execution or
discharge of a duty. "Adaa salaat" refers to a
salaat which is offered at its specified time. "Adaa"
is the opposite of "qada".
The call to salaat. For further details, refer
to the chapter on "Adhaan".
ul-Kitaab: Literally means "People of the Book".
Generally, it refers to the Jews and the
The throne of Allah Ta'ala.
Literally means "afternoon". Generally, it
refers to the afternoon prayer which is the
third of the five daily salaats. It is also
referred to as asr salaat or salaatul asr.
Literally means "genitals". In Islamic
terminology it refers to that area of the body
which has to be covered. For men, the aurah is
from the navel to below the knees. As for women,
their entire bodies are regarded as an aurah.
Barakah: Literally means "blessings". It refers
to the experiencing of abundance in things which
are apparently insignificant or little, both in
value and amount.
Literally means "innovation". In Islam it refers
to introducing new things into religion which
have no basis in the Quran or Sunnah, and in
addition to this, to regard these new things as
acts of ibaadah. A bid'ah is a major sin in
Invocation to Allah, supplication, prayer,
Dua-e-qunoot: A special dua that is recited in
witr salaat. For further details, refer to the
chapter on "Witr Salaat".
The sending of salutations upon Rasulullah
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
Literally means "feast, festival". In Islam, it
refers to the first day of the month of Shawwaal
and the tenth day of the month of Zil Hijjah.
Both these days are days of celebration and
devotion to Allah Ta'ala.
Eid-gah: The place where the eid salaat is
offered. In Arabic it is referred to as the "musalla".
salaat: The salaat that is offered on the days
ul-Ad'haa: The tenth of Zil Hijjah. Literally
means "the festival of sacrifice". It is
referred to as ad'haa because it is on this day
that animals are sacrificed in the name of Allah
and for His pleasure alone.
ul-Fitr: The first of Shawwaal. Literally means
"feast of breaking the Ramadaan fast". It is
referred to as fitr because it is on this day
that the month-long Ramadaan fast comes to an
Literally means "evening". Generally, it refers
to the evening prayer which is the fifth of the
five daily prayers. It is also referred to as
esha salaat or salaatul esha.
Literally means "godless, sinful, offender,
sinner, adulterer". In Islamic law it refers to
the person who does not meet the legal
requirements of righteousness.
Literally means "dawn". Generally, it refers to
the dawn prayer which is the first of the five
daily prayers. It is also referred to as fajr
salaat or salaatul fajr.
Fara'id: Plural of fard. Fard literally means
"compulsory". In Islam it refers to those acts
and things which are compulsory on a Muslim.
Abandoning or abstaining from a fard act is a
major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.
Fard-e-ayn: Refers to an act or duty which is
incumbent and compulsory on each and every
Fard-e-kifaayah: Refers to an act or duty which
is incumbent and compulsory on the community as
a whole. If a few members of the community or
locality fulfil that act, the entire community
will be absolved of that responsibility or duty.
And if no one from that community or locality
fulfils that responsibility or duty, the entire
community will be sinful.
A formal legal opinion or verdict in Islamic
Literally means "ransom". In Islamic law it
refers to redemption from the omission of
certain religious duties by a material donation
or a ritual act.
Literally means "the unseen". In Islam it refers
to all those things that are unseen by man and
at the same time believing in them is essential.
Examples of the unseen are: hell, heaven,
angels, etc. A Muslim has to believe that no one
has the knowledge of the unseen except Allah.
Mahram: Refers to all those people with whom
marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is
also incumbent to observe purdah with all ghayr
Literally means "bath, wash". In Islam it refers
to the washing of the entire body from head to
toe without leaving a single place dry.
Literally means "impurity". Hadath is of two
types; hadath-e-akbar and hadath-e-asghar.
Hadath-e-akbar is that impurity which
necessitates ghusl. Hadath-e-asghar is that
impurity which necessitates wudu.
Hadith literally means "speech". In Islam it
refers to the sayings and actions of Rasulullah
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Those sayings and
actions which have been endorsed or approved by
him also fall under the purview of Hadith.
Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a
Literally means "pilgrimage". In Islam it refers
to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah. Hajj is the
fifth pillar of Islam.
Ibaadah: Literally means "worship". In Islam it
refers to all those acts of worship with which
one renders worship to Allah Ta'ala.
Literally means "leader". In kitaabus salaat it
refers to the leader of the congregation for
Imaamat: Refers to the act of being an imam or
the entire institution of imaamate which deals
with the appointment, rules, regulations, etc.
which are related to the imam.
Iqaamah: Refers to the second call to salaat in
a musjid indicating the imminent beginning of
the salaat with congregation. For further
details, refer to the chapter on adhaan and
Iqtidaa: Refers to the act of following the imam
Ishaarah: Literally means "gesture". In kitaabus
salaat it refers to the offering of salaat
through gestures and signals for the person who
is unable to offer his salaat in the normal
stipulated manner due to sickness or physical
Istighfaar: The seeking of forgiveness from
Istikhaarah: The seeking of good from Allah
Ta'ala. For further details, refer to the
chapter on salaatul istikhaarah.
Istinja: Cleansing of one's private parts after
having relieved oneself. This is irrespective of
whether this cleansing is done with water or
lumps of sand.
I'tikaaf: Literally means "to live in
seclusion". In Islam, it generally refers to the
act of secluding oneself in the musjid in the
month of Ramadaan.
Literally means "an ignorant person". Here it
refers to one who is ignorant of the knowledge
of Islam. This is irrespective of whether it is
general knowledge of Islam or knowledge of the
rules and regulations of Islam.
musjid: Refers to a musjid in which the jumu'ah
salaat is offered. It is generally the main
musjid in a town or city.
Jahannam: Hell. A dweller of hell is called a
Jama'at: Literally means "congregation or
group". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the act
of offering salaat with congregation.
Janaazah salaat: Salaat that is offered over the
deceased person. For further details refer to
the chapter on janaazah salaat.
Heaven or paradise. A dweller of heaven is
called a jannati.
Literally means "fight or battle". In Islam, it
generally refers to the act of waging a war
against the disbelievers as a religious duty.
Jumu'ah salaat: Refers to the mid-day salaat
that is offered on Fridays. For further details,
refer to the chapter on jumu'ah salaat.
Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it
refers to one who rejects Allah and who does not
believe in Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam
as the final messenger of Allah.
A shroud or winding sheet. It refers to the
sheet or shroud that is used to cover the
deceased. For further details, refer to the
chapter on kafan.
Kaffarah: Literally means "penance, atonement,
expiation". In Islamic law it refers to
redemption from the omission of certain
religious duties by a material donation or a
Khutbah: Literally means "a lecture". In
kitaabus salaat it refers to the lecture or
sermon that is delivered on Fridays prior to the
jumu'ah salaat or the sermon that is delivered
on the days of eid after the eid salaat. These
khutbahs have to be delivered in the Arabic
Kuffaar: Plural of kaafir.
Kuniyyat: Surname or agnomen consisting of abu
or umm followed by the name of the son.
An Urdu word meaning "shirt". However, due to
constant usage, it refers to the long flowing
robe worn by Muslim men and which has come to be
regarded as an Islamic dress.
A laahiq is a muqtadi who misses a few or all
his rakaats after having joined the congregation
irrespective of whether he has some excuse or
not. For further details refer to the chapter "Masa'il
connected to the imam and muqtadi" mas'ala no.
Lailatul Qadr: Literally means "the night of
power". It refers to the night in which the
Quran was revealed. This night generally falls
in the last ten odd nights of the month of
Literally means "a little piece or morsel". In
kitaabus salaat it refers to correcting the imam
when he commits any mistake while leading the
congregation in salaat.
Maghrib: Literally means "evening or sunset". In
kitaabus salaat it refers to the time of sunset
and the salaat that is offered thereafter. This
salaat is known as maghrib salaat or salaatul
Refers to the person with whom marriage is not
permissible and with whom strict purdah is not
That which is disliked or detestable. Makruh is
of two types: makruh-e-tahrimi and
makruh-e-tanzihi. Makruh-e-tahrimi is that which
has been established by a proof that is not
absolute. The one who rejects it is regarded as
a faasiq (open sinner). A person who does
something that falls under this category without
any valid reason will be committing a sin and
will deserve punishment. Makruh-e-tanzihi is
that which if left out, will be worthy of reward
and if carried out, will not entail any
Literally means "a stopping place". In kitaabus
salaat it refers to the distance travelled by a
The act of passing of wet hands over a
particular part of the body.
Mas'ala: Literally means "an issue, problem or
question". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to
a rule or regulation. The plural of mas'ala is
A person who joins the jama'at after having
missed one or more rakaats. For further details
refer to the chapter "Masa'il connected to the
imam and muqtadi" mas'ala no. 24.
Literally means "one who is excused". In Islamic
jurisprudence it refers to a person who has
certain sickness due to which he is excused or
exempted from certain acts. For further details
refer to the chapter concerning the ma'zur in
Part One of Bahishti Zewar.
Mihraab: Refers to the small oval-shaped area in
the front of a musjid which is specially
designated for the imam when he leads the
congregation in salaat.
Refers to the pulpit on which the imam stands
and delivers the khutbah on Fridays and the days
Mu'azzin: One who calls out the adhaan.
One who joins the congregation without missing
Muhaddith: A scholar of Hadith who has attained
high ranks in the different sciences of Hadith.
Mujtahideen: Plural of mujtahid. A mujtahid is
one who has the qualities of making ijtihaad
(deriving rules and regulations through
Mukabbir: A person who conveys the takbirs of
the imam when the congregation is generally very
large and there is no mike system.
Munfarid: A person who offers his salaat alone,
i.e. not in congregation.
A person who is not a traveller. He is either at
his own home or, if he has travelled, then he
has made the intention of staying over at that
place for more than fifteen days. For further
details refer to the chapter "Salaat on a
Muqtadi: A person who follows the imam in salaat.
Literally means "a renegade". In Islamic
terminology it refers to a person who rejects
Islam after having been a Muslim.
Musafir: A traveller. For further details refer
to the chapter "Salaat on a Journey".
Musalla: Refers to a piece of cloth or carpet on
which a person offers his salaat. Musalla is
also used in Arabic to refer to a place where
the eid salaat is offered.
Musalli: One who is offering salaat.
Mustahab: Literally means "preferable or
desirable". Refers to that an which was carried
out by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam or
the Sahabah occasionally. Carrying out these
actions entails reward and leaving them out does
not entail any punishment.
Muzdalifah: Name of a place outside Makkah.
Staying over in Muzdalifah is included among the
rites of Hajj.
Literally means "optional". According to the
jurists it has a similar ruling to that of
ghaleezah: Heavy impurity.
Najaasat-e-haqiqi: Visible impurity.
Najaasat-e-hukmi: Ceremonial impurity. In other
words, it refers to the state of impurity in
which a person may be, e.g. in need of wudu or
A vow or solemn pledge.
Refers to the flowing of blood after
An Urdu word meaning "seclusion". It is an
equivalent of the Arabic word "hijaab". Refers
to the seclusion of women from strangers. There
are different stages of purdah, the highest of
which is that the woman should not emerge from
her home except for a valid Islamic reason.
Literally means "one who recites". In Islamic
terminology it refers to the person who recites
the Quran bearing in mind all the necessary
rules of recitation.
Literally means "carrying out or fulfilling". In
Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or
completing those duties that one may have missed
due to some reason or the other.
Refers to the sitting posture in salaat.
salaat: Refers to fulfilling or completing a
salaat which one may have missed for some reason
or the other. For further details, refer to the
chapter on qada salaat.
The direction in which one faces when offering
Qira'at: Literally means "recitation". In
kitaabus salaat it refers to the recitation of
the Quran in salaat.
Literally means "reprisal or retaliation". In
Islamic law it refers to the payment of money in
lieu of willful or unintentional murder.
Qiyaamah: The day of resurrection.
Refers to the dua that is generally read in the
witr salaat, and in the fajr salaat at times of
danger and calamities. For further details refer
to the chapter on witr salaat.
Qurbaani: Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam
it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely
for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of
eid ul-ad'haa and the two days following it.
Literally means "bending of the torso from an
upright position". In kitaabus salaat it refers
to one unit of salaat which comprises of the
standing, bowing and prostrating postures.
Ramadaan: Refers to the ninth month of the
Islamic calendar. It is in this month that the
fast is observed. This is the most sacred month
of the Islamic calendar.
Literally means "basis or basic element". In
Islamic jurisprudence it refers to the basic
element or elements of any act of ibaadah
without which that act will be incomplete.
Saahib-e-tarteeb: Refers to a person who, from
the time of maturity, did not miss any salaat,
or, if he missed, he made qada of all of them.
For further details, refer to the chapter on
Qada salaat, mas'ala no.6.
Sadaqah-e-fitr: Refers to the charity that is
given on or prior to the day of eid ul-fitr.
This sadaqah is wajib on those upon whom zakaat
Literally means "line". In kitaabus salaat it
refers to the lines in which the musallis stand
when offering their salaat with congregation.
Literally means "negligence or forgetfulness".
In kitaabus salaat it refers to omitting or
forgetting a particular act in salaat.
The act of prostrating. Prostrating to anyone
other than Allah Ta'ala is absolutely haraam in
Sajdah-e-sahw: Refers to the prostration which
becomes incumbent upon forgetting or omitting an
act in salaat. For further details refer to the
chapter on sajdah-e-sahw.
Sajdah-e-tilaawat: Refers to the prostration
which becomes incumbent upon reciting or hearing
the verses of prostration of the Quran. For
further details refer to the chapter on
Salaam: Literally means "peace". In kitaabus
salaat it refers to the saying of "as salaamu
alaykum wa rahmatullah" which denotes the end of
Salaat-e-kusuf: Refers to the salaat that is
offered at the time of solar eclipse. For
further details refer to the chapter on
Shawwaal: The tenth month of the Islamic
Sunnah is that action which Rasulullah
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did or sanctioned.
Sunnah is of two types: sunnah-e-mu'akkadah and
sunnah-e-ghayr mu'akkadah. Sunnah-e-mu'akkadah
is that which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa
sallam continuously carried out. To leave out
such a type of sunnah is a sin and one is
punished for this. However, there is no harm if
one leaves it out because of some valid excuse.
Sunnah-e-ghayr mu'akkadah is that which
Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam carried
out, but also left out at times without any
reason. To follow such a type of sunnah entails
reward and to leave it out does not necessitate
Refers to a chapter of the Quran. There are 114
surahs in the Quran.
Faatihah: This is the first or opening chapter
of the Quran.
Antimony. A black powdery substance that is
applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to apply this
Literally means "a cover or guard". In kitaabus
salaat it refers to an object that a musalli
places in front of him so that no one will walk
in front of him while he is offering his salaat.
Taabi'ee: A taabi'ee is a Muslim who has met a
sahabi and who died in a state of Imaan.
Ta'awwudh: Literally means "seeking protection".
In kitaabus salaat it refers to reciting
a'udhu billahi minash shaytaanir rajeem
before commencing with the qira'at in salaat.
Tahaarat: Purity or the state of purity.
Tahajjud salaat: An optional salaat that is
offered in the dark of the night. There is great
merit in offering this salaat.
Takbeer: To say "Allahu Akbar" which
means Allah is the Greatest.
tahreemah: The first takbeer that one says when
commencing with salaat.
tashreeq: The takbeer that is recited during the
days of eid ul-ad'haa. For further details refer
to the chapter on eid salaat.
Piety, righteousness, God-consciousness.
Tasbeeh: Saying "Sub'haanallah" which
means Glory be to Allah. A rosary that is used
to glorify Allah Ta'ala is also called a tasbeeh.
Tauheed: The Oneness of Allah Ta'ala. The
concept of tauheed is the corner stone of
Tawakkul: Having trust in Allah Ta'ala, i.e. He
alone has full contol over all the affairs of
this world and the hereafter.
Tayammum: The act of purifying oneself with pure
sand in the absence of water.
Literally means "praise". In kitaabus salaat it
refers to a special dua that is recited after
Plural of aalim. An aalim is a scholar who has
attained a considerable amount of Islamic
Literally means "community or nation". Here it
refers to the Muslim community or nation.
Commonly referred to as the "lesser pilgrimage".
It is similar to Hajj with the exception that
many of the rites of Hajj are left out and that
it could be performed throughout the year.
Literally means "obligatory". In Islamic
jurisprudence it refers to that act which has
not been established by an absolute proof.
Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason
makes one a faasiq and entails punishment.
Wajibaat: Plural of wajib.
Endowment. In Islamic law it refers to endowing
a place or thing in the name of Allah.
Watan-e-iqaamat: Refers to a place where a
musafir intends to stop over for fifteen days or
salaat: Refers to the salaat that is offered
after the esha salaat. This salaat is wajib. For
further details refer to the chapter on witr
Literally means "purity or cleanliness". In
Islamic terminology it refers to the act of
washing oneself before offering salaat.
Hijjah: The last month of the Islamic calendar.
It is in this month that the Hajj is performed.
A non-Muslim person living in an Islamic state
under the protection of the Islamic state.
Literally means "mid-day". In kitaabus salaat it
refers to the mid-day prayer. It is referred to
as zuhr salaat or salaatuz zuhr.