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Sunnah Method & Description of Salah of a Muslim Man

Hanafi Madhab Fiqh Manual with Evidence from Qur'aan, Sunnah, Ijmah & Qiyas

Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) the postures during Salah for men and women differ, the general evidence for this difference is as follows and the specific evidence will be discussed later with a separate post detailing the Salah for women.

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/menwmdiff.htm

Please note that there is a difference of opinion amongst scholars about various postures during Salah and may Allah (SWT) reward them all.


1. There is no Salah before its time, and it must be ensured that the time for Salah has actually started.

[4:103] Once you have finished your Salāh, then, remember Allah while standing, sitting and reclining. As soon as you are secure, perform Salāh as due. Surely, Salāh is an obligation on the believers that is tied up with time.

2. There is no Salah without being in the state of Wudhu.

[5:6] O you who believe, when you rise for Salāh, (prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and make MasH (wiping by hands) of your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of major impurity, cleanse yourselves well (by taking bath). If you are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had sexual contact with women, and you find no water, then, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah does not like to impose a problem on you; He, rather likes to cleanse you and to complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful.

Hammam b. Munabbih (RA) who is the brother of Wahb b. Munabbih. (RA) said: This is what has been transmitted to us by Abu Huraira (RA) from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and then narrated a hadith out of them and observed that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: The prayer of none amongst you would be accepted in a state of impurity till he performs ablution. [Muslim]

3. Body, clothes and location of prayer must be Taahir (free from impurities).

[74:4] and purify your clothes,

Jabir Ibn Samra (RA) narrates that a man asked Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), “Should I pray in the same clothes in which I went (cohabited) to my wife in?” He (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “Yes unless you find some impurity on it which should clean and purify”. [Ahmed]


4. Awrah of a man must be covered and the Awrah of a man is from the belly-button to the knees. It is Sunnah for men to cover their head while praying Salah.

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas (RA), Jarhad (RA) and Muhammad ibn Jahsh (RA) from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam),"The thigh is one of the private parts." Anas (RA) said, "The Prophet(Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) , uncovered his thigh." The hadith of Anas (RA) is stronger, but the hadith of Jarhad is more complete in order to resolve the disagreement of the scholars .Abu Musa (RA) said, "The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) covered his knees when 'Uthman (RA) entered." Zayd ibn Thabit (RA) said, "Allah sent down revelation on His Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) while his thigh was resting on my thigh and it became so heavy that I was afraid that it would bruise my thigh." [Bukhari]

Note: It is AGAINST the Sunnah for men to pray bareheaded and the evidence is discussed in detail here:

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/bareheadagsunnah.htm


5. A person must face the Qiblah (direction of Kaba’h) during Salah.

[2:144] We have been seeing you turning your face to the heavens. So, We will certainly assign to you a Qiblah that you would like. Now, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid-ul-Harām), and (O Muslims), wherever you are, turn your faces in its direction. Even those who have been given the Book know well that it is the truth from their Lord, and Allah is not unaware of what they do.

6. It is Sunnah to perform Salah in congregation and an act of great reward.

[2:144] We have been seeing you turning your face to the heavens. So, We will certainly assign to you a Qiblah that you would like. Now, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid-ul-Harām), and (O Muslims), wherever you are, turn your faces in its direction. Even those who have been given the Book know well that it is the truth from their Lord, and Allah is not unaware of what they do.

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said "The heaviest salat for the hypocrite is that of Isha'a and Fajr and if they knew what was in them they would have attended them even if it meant crawling, and I have a strong desire to order the salat to be established, then order a man to lead the people in salat then I would go with some men carrying bundles of wood to a people not attending the salat and burn their houses on them." [Muslim]

7. Men should straighten their rows and make sure that there are no gaps in between them but joining ankle to ankle is extremism.

Nu’maan ibn Bashir (radhiallaahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would straighten our Saffs with such care that even arrow shafts could be straightened with them (by using them as a guide) until he saw that we understood (the importance of straightening the Saffs). Once he came out and stood (on his Musalla) and just before making Takbeer he noticed a person’s chest sticking out of the Saff. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘O Servants of Allah! Straighten your Saffs or else Allah will cause division amongst your hearts.’ [Muslim]

Note: Joining ankle to ankle is not the aim but a means of achieving the aims and to insist on this during Salah is extremism as discussed here:

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/anklshyuth.htm

8. It is recommended to place a Sutrah (a barrier or partition) in front when praying.

Sahl Ibn Hathmah (RA) reported that Rasul-ullah () said, “When one of you prays, he should pray towards his Sutrah and he should be close to it”.[Abu Dawud]

9. The minimum height of Sutrah should be length of an arm, and its width at least a finger.

Sabrah Ibn Ma’bad (RA) reported that Messenger of Allah () said, “When one of you prays, he should make a barrier for his Salah, even it is an arrow”.[Ahmad]

Talha (RA) said that we used to pray and animals would pass in front of us. We mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (SWT) and he said, “If anything the size of saddle is in front of you, nothing that passes beyond it will harm you”.[Muslim]

Note: The size of saddle has been interpreted by Nafi (RA), Ata (RA), Sufyan Thawri (RA) as the length of an arm. [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq]

10. It is forbidden to cross between the Sutrah and the one who is praying.

Narrated Busr bin Said (RA) narrates that Zaid bin Khalid (RA) sent him to Abi Juhaim (RA) to ask him what he had heard from Allah's Apostle () about a person passing in front of another person who was praying. Abu Juhaim (RA) replied, "Allah's Apostle () said, 'If the person who passes in front of another person in prayer knew the magnitude of his sin he would prefer to wait for 40 (days, months or years) rather than to pass in front of him." Abu An-Nadr (RA) said, "I do not remember exactly whether he said 40 days, months or years."[Bukhari]

11. Make the intention for Salah before starting, “I am performing Salah [name of Salah] for Allah (SWT)” adding “behind the Imam if it is being done in congregation.

Rasul-ullah () has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. [Bukhari]

Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart.

12. If praying in congregation then after the Imam, both hands should be raised till the fingers are level with the earlobes while uttering the Takbeer, “Allahu-Akbar”

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw the Apostle of Allah() raising his thumbs in prayer up to the lobes of his ears. [Abu Dawud]

Rasul-ullah (
) said, “No one’s Salah is complete unless he does Wudhu and utters the Takbeer”. [Tabarani]

13. Eyes should be focused at the place of prostration.

Rasul-ulah () used to incline his head slightly and fix his eyes towards the ground. [Baihiqi & Hakim]

14. Person praying should not look upwards or sideways.

Aisha (RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah () prayed in a cloak which had some designs in it. He () said, “These designs have distracted me. Take this cloak to Abu Jahm and bring me a plain one”. [Muslim]

Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasul-ulah (
) said, “Those who raise their gaze to the sky during Salah should stop doing so or their sight may be taken away”. [Bukhari]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) did not like one to gaze beyond the place of Sajdah (prostration). [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

15. Closing eyes is disliked in Salah.

Ibn Abbas(RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah () said, “When one of you stands up in Salah, he should not close his eyes”. [Tabarani]

16. Right palm should be placed over the back of the left and both hands should then be placed below the Navel.

Ali (radhiallahu anhu) relates that the sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place one hand over the other below the navel. [Abu Dawud]

Note: Scholars have differed about the positioning of hands during Salah and for detailed discussion and evidence, please visit the link below:

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/handsslh.htm

17. Then Thana should be recited which is as follows.

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك تبارك اسمك وتعالى ‏ ‏جدك ‏ ‏ولا إله غيرك
Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee



'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim]

Note: Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “We say this in the opening of Salah, but we do not say that Imam or follower should say it loudly; Umar (RA) said it loudly in order to teach others what they had asked him [Kitabul Athar].

18. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now say Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi Minash-Shaytaanir Rajeem) and Bismillah quietly.

[16:98] So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed.

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam:

i) Thana
ii) Ta’awudh
iii) Bismillah
iv) Amin

[Kitabul Athar]

19. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite Al-Fatiha.

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari]

20. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite Al-Fatiha.

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari]

21. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah:

i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r
ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r
iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah
iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r
v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib
vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha
vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers
viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers


Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari]

Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read Al-Fatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar]

Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah.

22. The recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah.

[7:204] When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed.

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient.

For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm

23. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and grasp the knees, without raising the hands. It is Sunnah to keep the height of the head equal to the hips.

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari]

Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: "Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salaah". [Muslim]

Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: "Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salaah?" Thereafter he performed the salaah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salaah). [Tirmidhi] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (RA) has also declared it as sahih.

Abu Humaid (radhiallahu anhu) reported that when the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) bowed, he would be straight, his head neither up nor down (with respect to his hips), and he would place his hands on his knees as if he was holding them." [Nasai]

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning.


For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm


24. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times.

سبحان ربی العظیم
Glory be to my Mighty Lord



Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.


25. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following:

سمع اللھ لمن حمدہ
Allah listens to the one who praises Him



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

26. While standing upright the following should be recited:


ربنا و لک الحمد
Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise

OR
ربنا لک الحمد
Our Lord, to You be all Praise



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

27. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration).

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

28. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) arms should be kept away from the body, parallel to the shoulders while the elbows should be raised and fingers should be kept together.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

Abu Humayd (RA) reported, When the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated, he would place his nose and forehead upon the floor, keep his arms away from his sides, and place his hands parallel to the shoulders. [Abu Dawud]

Wail Ibn Hajar (RA) reported: When Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated he would keep his fingers together. [Tirmidhi]

Narrated Muhammad bin 'Amr bin 'Ata (RA)': I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Abu Humaid As-Saidi (RA) said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) better than any one of you. I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir; and on bowing he placed his hands on both knees and bent his back straight, then he stood up straight from bowing till all the vertebrate took their normal positions. In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla. On sitting In the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks "

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the whether the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place the knees first or the hands first on the ground while going into Sujood (prostration). In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), the order should be as follows:

i) Knees first
ii) Then the hands
iii) Then the Nose
iv) Then the forehead

This disagreement is discussed in detail by Imam Nawawi (RA) in Majmu

29. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

سبحان ربی الاعلی
Glory be to my Exalted Lord




Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

30. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations.

اللھم اغفر لی و ارحمنی و اھدنی و اجبرنی و ارزقنی
O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me


Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud]

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

Note: Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations.

31 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into the second Sujood (prostration) and the following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

سبحان ربی الاعلی
Glory be to my Exalted Lord



Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

32 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while standing for the second Rakaat and standing should be done in one continuous motion i.e. one should not sit and rest and then get up for the second Rakaat.

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): Once the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) entered the mosque, a man came in, offered the prayer and greeted the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) .The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) returned his greeting and said to him, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man offered the prayer again, came back and greeted the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) . He said to him thrice, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man said, "By Him Who has sent you with the truth! I do not know a better way of praying. Kindly teach Me how to pray." He said, "When you stand for the prayer, say Takbir and then recite from the Qur'an what you know and then bow with calmness till you feel at ease, then rise from bowing till you stand straight. Afterwards prostrate calmly till you feel at ease and then raise (your head) and sit with Calmness till you feel at ease and then prostrate with calmness till you feel at ease in prostration and do the same in the whole of your prayer." [Bukhari]

Ibn Sahl (radhiallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said the takbeer and simultaneously went into sajdah. Then he said the takbeer and simultaneously stood up erect without sitting. [Abu Daud]

Note: There is a disagreement in this matter with some scholars stating that the Sunnah is to rest before standing upright. The Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) is quoted.

33. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now say Bismillah quietly.

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam:

i) Thana
ii) Ta’awudh
iii) Bismillah
iv) Amin
[Kitabul Athar]

Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi Minash-Shaytaanir Rajeem) is only recited in the first Rakaah because as per the evidence from the Qur’aan (below) the recitation of the Qur’aan was started in the first Rakaat.

[16:98] So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed.

34. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite Al-Fatiha in the second Rakaat.

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari]

35. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah :

i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r
ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r
iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah
iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r
v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib
vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha
vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers
viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers


Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari]

Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read Al-Fatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar]

Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah.

36. The recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah.

[7:204] When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed.

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient.

For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm

37. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and grasp the knees, without raising the hands. It is Sunnah to keep the height of the head equal to the hips.

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari]

Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: "Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salaah". [Muslim]

Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: "Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salaah?" Thereafter he performed the salaah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salaah). [Tirmidhi] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (RA) has also declared it as sahih.

Abu Humaid (radhiallahu anhu) reported that when the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) bowed, he would be straight, his head neither up nor down (with respect to his hips), and he would place his hands on his knees as if he was holding them." [Nasai]


Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning.

For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm


38. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times.

سبحان ربی العظیم
Glory be to my Mighty Lord



Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.


39. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following:

سمع اللھ لمن حمدہ
Allah listens to the one who praises Him



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

40. While standing upright the following should be recited:


ربنا و لک الحمد
Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise

OR
ربنا لک الحمد
Our Lord, to You be all Praise



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

41. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration).

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

42. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) arms should be kept away from the body, parallel to the shoulders while the elbows should be raised and fingers should be kept together.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

Abu Humayd (RA) reported, When the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated, he would place his nose and forehead upon the floor, keep his arms away from his sides, and place his hands parallel to the shoulders. [Abu Dawud]

Wail Ibn Hajar (RA) reported: When Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated he would keep his fingers together. [Tirmidhi]

Narrated Muhammad bin 'Amr bin 'Ata (RA)': I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Abu Humaid As-Saidi (RA) said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) better than any one of you. I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir; and on bowing he placed his hands on both knees and bent his back straight, then he stood up straight from bowing till all the vertebrate took their normal positions. In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla. On sitting In the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks "

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the whether the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place the knees first or the hands first on the ground while going into Sujood (prostration). In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), the order should be as follows:

i) Knees first
ii) Then the hands
iii) Then the Nose
iv) Then the forehead

This disagreement is discussed in detail by Imam Nawawi (RA) in Majmu

43. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

سبحان ربی الاعلی
Glory be to my Exalted Lord




Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

44. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations.

اللھم اغفر لی و ارحمنی و اھدنی و اجبرنی و ارزقنی
O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me




Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud]
Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

Note: Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations.

45 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into the second Sujood (prostration) and the following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

سبحان ربی الاعلی
Glory be to my Exalted Lord



Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

46 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while siting down for Tashahudd and the manner of sitting should be that the left foot should be flat on the ground while sitting on it and the right foot should be upright with the toes pointing to the Qiblah.

'A'isha (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to begin prayer with takbir (saying Allih-o-Akbar) and the recitation:" Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe." When he bowed he neither kept his head up nor bent it down, but kept it between these extremes; when he raised his bead after bow- ing he did not prostrate himself till he had stood erect; when he raised his head after prostration he did not prostrate himself again till he satup. At the end of every two rak'ahs he recited the tahiyya; and he used to place his left foot flat (on the ground) and raise up the right; he prohibited the devil's way of sitting on the heels, and he forbade people to spread out their arms like a wild beast. And he used to finish the prayer with the taslim.[Bukhari]

47 . Attahiyaat should be read as follows:


التحیات للھ والصلوات والطیبات
السلام علیک ایھا النبی و رحمة اللھ و برکاتھ
اسلام علینا وعلی عباداللھ الصالحین
اشھد ان لا الھ الا اللھ و اشھد ان محمد عبدہ و رسولھ
All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger



'Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) said: While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said to us: Verily Allah is Himself Peace. When any one of you sits during the prayer. he should say: All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in heaven and earth (and say further): I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it. [Bukhari]

48 . When the following is reached during Attahiyaat the index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and dropped on the right index finger should be put down during the affirmation part of Shahada (testimony) while the other three fingers should be closed (as in a fist) thus making a ring between the thumb and the index finger.


اشھد ان لا الھ الا اللھ و اشھد ان محمد عبدہ و رسولھ
I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger



Ibn 'Umar (RA) reported that when the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sat for tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee. and his right hand on his right knee. and he raised his right finger, which is next to the thumb, making supplication in this way, and he stretched his left hand on his left knee. Another version on the authority of Ibn Umar (RA) says: When the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sat for tashahhud, he placed his left hand on his left knee and placed his right hand on his right knee, and he formed a ring like (fifty-three) and pointed with his finger of attestation.[Muslim]

Note: There is disagreement amongst the scholars as to how the pointing during Tashahudd should be done with some Hanafi Scholars preferring the opinion that index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and kept raised till the end of the Salah.

49. If this is a 4 Rakaat Salah then the person should stand and complete the 3rd and the 4th Rakaat as described above.

50. In the last sitting (i.e. the 1st sitting of a 2 Rakaat Salah or the 2nd sitting of a 4 Rakaat Salah), the Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef) should be recited, which is as follows.



اللھم صلی علی محمد و علی آل محمد کما صلیت علی ابراھیم و علی آل ابراھیم انک حمید مجید
اللھم بارک علی محمد و علی آل محمد کما بارکت علی ابراھیم و علی آل ابراھیم انک حمید مجید

0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious



Abdullah b. Zaid (RA) -he who was shown the call (for prayer in a dream) narrated it on the authority of Mas'ad al-Ansiri (RA) who said: We were sitting in the company of Sa'id b. 'Ubida (RA) when the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came to us. Bashir b. S'ad (RA) said: Allah has commanded us to bless you. Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)! But how should we bless you? He (the narrator) said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) kept quiet (and we were so much perturbed over his silence) that we wished we had not asked him. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) then said: (For blessing me) say:" 0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious" ; and salutation as you know.

51. It is Sunnah to supplicate (make dua) for whatever one wishes after Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef). The following is one of the duas mentioned in Hadeeth:



اللھم انی ظلمت نفسی ظلما کثیرا ولا یغفر الذنوب الا انت فاغفر لی مغفرة من عندک وارحمنی انک انت الغفور الرحیم
O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed All-Forgiving and All-Merciful.


Abdullah Ibn Amr (RA) reported that Abu Bakr (RA) said to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), “Teach me a supplication that I may use in my Salahs, He(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied, Say, “O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed All-Forgiving and All-Merciful.

52. Salah should now be finished by saying Salam to the right side and then the left side while saying “Asslamo Allaikum Wa Rahmatullah”.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I offered prayer along with the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). He would give the salutation to his right side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah; and to his left side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah.[Abu Dawud]

53. There are many Adhkar related in the Sunnah e.g. uttering Subhanullah (33 times), Alhumdolillah (33 times) and Allahu Akbar (34 times).

Ka'b b. 'Ujra (RA) reported Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as saying: There are certain utterances, the repeaters of which or the performers of which after every prescribed prayer will never be caused disappointment:" Glory be to Allah" thirty-three times." Praise be to Allah" thirty-three times, and" Allah is most Great" thirty-four times. [Muslim]

54. There are many supplications related in the Sunnah and some of them are listed below after reading Astaghfirullah (3 times)

Mu`adh (bin Jabal) (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) held my hand and said, "O Mu`adh, By Allah, I love you and advise you not to miss supplicating after every Salat (prayer) saying: `Allahumma a`inni `ala dhikrika wa shukrika, wa husni `ibadatika,' (O Allah, help me remember You, expressing gratitude to You and worship You in the best manner)".[Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i].

اللھم اعنی علی ذکرک و شکرک وحسن عبادتک

Thauban (RA) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) finished his prayer. he begged forgiveness three times and said: O Allah! Thou art Peace, and peace comes from Thee; Blessed art Thou, O Possessor of Glory and Honour. Walid reported: I said to Auza'i: How Is the seeking of forgiveness? He replied: You should say:, I beg forgiveness from Allah, 1 beg forgiveness from Allah."

اللھم انت السلام و منک السلام تبارکت یا ذا الجلال و اللاکرام

Compulsory actions of Salah (Faraidh):

If any of these are missed then the prayer will need to be repeated

1.     To say Takbeer-e-Tahreema i.e. اللھ اکبر

2.     Qiyam i.e. Standing

3.     Recitation of the Qur’aan of at least three short or one long verse

4.     Ruku i.e. bowing

5.     To perform both Sajdahs

6.     Qa’dah Akheerah i.e. to sit for so long at the end of the Salah that one can read Tashahud

Necessary actions of Salah (Waajibat):

If any of these are missed unknowingly then Sajda Sah’w will need to be performed to correct the prayer; however if it is missed knowingly or no Sajda Sah’w is performed then the prayer will need to be repeated

1.     Fixing the first two Rakaat of Fardh Salah for recitation

2.     It is Waajib to recite Al-Fatiha in all Rakaats of all prayers except 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh in which it is Sunnah

3.     To recite at least three short or one long verse after Al-Fatiha in the first two Rakaats of Fardh and in all Rakaats of all other prayers

4.     To recite Al-Fatiha before any other Surah

5.     To maintain order between Qiyaam, Ruku, Sajdah & Rakaats

6.     Qaumah i.e. standing after Ruku

7.     Jalsah i.e. sitting between the two Sajdahs

8.     Ta’deele Arkaan i.e. performing Ruku, Sajdah with contentment and in a good manner

9.     Qa’dah oola i.e. to sit after the first two Rakaat in 4 Rakaat prayer to the extent of reciting Tashahud

10.            To read Tashahud in the two Qa’dahs

11.            Imam to recite loudly during the first two Rakaat of Maghrib and Esha and in all Rakaats of Faj’r Jummah, Taraweeh, Eid & Wit’r (in Ramadhan)

12.            To complete the prayers after saying Salam

13.            To say Takbeer after Qunoot in Wit’r

14.            To say six additional takbeers in Eidain

Sajda Sah’w:

If any of the Waajib is missed unknowingly then at the end of the Salah after Attihiyaat Salam should be done on the right side only and then two additional Sajdahs performed and finally Salah should then be finished as normal

Sunnah actions of Salah:

1.     To raise the hands up to the ears before saying Takbeer-e-Tahreema

2.     While raising the hands for Takbeer, keeping the fingers together and palms facing the Qiblah

3.     Not to bend the head while saying the Takbeer

4.     Saying of Takbeers (Takbeer-e-Takreema) and others aloud by the Imam

5.     To fold the right hand over the left hand below the navel

6.     Saying Thana

7.     To recite Ta’awwuz

8.     To recite the complete Bismillah

9.     To only recite Al-Fatiha in the 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh Salah

10.            To say Ameen (softly)

11.            To recite Thana, Ta’awwuz, Bismillah and Ameen softly

12.            To recite as much of the Qur’aan is Sunnah:

a.     Faj’r: From Surah Hujarat (26th Part) up to Surah Inshiqaaq (30th part)

b.     Zoh’r, Asar & Esha: From Surah Al-Burooj (30th part) till Surah Al-Qad’r (30th Part)

c.      Maghrib: From Surah Al-Bayyinah (30th part) till Surah An-Naas (30th part)

13.            To say Tasbeeh at least three times in Ruku and Sajdah

14.            To keep the back and the head at the same level during Ruku while holding both knees with fingers of both hands

15.            For the Imam to say “Sami-Allahu Liman Hamida” and the Muqtadi (followers) to read “Rabbana Wa Lakal Hamd” and the individual to recite both

16.            While going into Sajdah to place the knees, palms, then the nose and then the forehead

17.            In Qa’dah (or Jalsa) to place the left foot on the ground horizontally and sitting on it and keep the right foot vertically with the toes pointing towards the Qiblah

18.            To raise the index finger when one recite the Kalima in Tashahud

19.            To recite Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud

20.            To read dua after  Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud

21.            To turn the face to the right during Salam first

Desirable actions of Salah (Mustahabbat):

1.     To pull the palms out of the sleeves while saying the Takbeer-e- Takreema

2.     To say the Tasbeeh more then three times during Ruku and Sajdah

3.     To fix the gaze towards the place of Sajdah in Qiyaam, towards the feet in Ruku and on the lap during Qa’dah and on the shoulders during Salam

4.     To try not to cough

5.     To try not to yawn and if the mouth is opened to cover it with the back of the right hand in Qiyaam and with the back of the left hand in all other postures

Undesirable actions of Salah (Makroohat):

1.     To pray bareheaded due to laziness or to pray while arms are exposed above the elbows

2.     To play with the clothes or the body during Prayers

3.     Praying in clothes in which people ordinarily do not go out

4.     To dust the floor with one’s hand to prevent the soiling of clothes

5.     Praying when one has the urge to urinate or pass stool

6.     To crack fingers or putting the fingers of one hand into the other

7.     Turning the face away from Qiblah and looking around

8.     For men to rest both arms and wrists on the ground during Sajdah

9.     Praying one someone else in sitting in front facing you

10.            Yawning intentionally and not trying to prevent it

11.            Closing the eyes but if it is done to enhance concentration then it is permissible

12.            Standing alone in a row when there is space in the front row for a mature (baaligh) person

13.            Praying in clothes with pictures of living things on them

14.            Praying in a place where this is a picture in front, above, right or left or at the place of Sajdah

15.            To count Ayahs, Surahs, Tasbeehs on the fingers while praying

16.            Praying while sheets or clothes wrapped around in such a way which will make it difficult to free the hands quickly

17.            To yawn or stretch arms to remove laziness

Doing something against Sunnah while praying
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