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Sunnah Method & Description of Salah of a Muslim Woman

Hanafi Madhab Fiqh Manual with Evidence from Qur'aan, Sunnah, Ijmah & Qiyas

Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) the postures during Salah for men and women differ, the general evidence for this difference is as follows and the specific evidence will be discussed later with a separate post detailing the Salah for women.

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/menwmdiff.htm

The sunnah posture of a female in any position of salah is that which is the most concealing for her.

Imam Baihaqi says,”All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her.”[Baihaqi 2/314]

In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) due to the principle of satr (concealment) there are five fundamental differences in posture during Salah:

a) At the beginning of Salah women should raise their hands upto the shoulders or close to bosom

b) During Qiyaam (standing) women should place their hands on their bosom and in doing so they can adopt “Akdh (grasping)” or “wadh (placing)” according to personal preference

c) During Ruku they should tuck their arms into the body and bend enough for the hands to reach the knees and hands should be placed on the knees (as opposed to grasping the knees)

d) In prostration they should cling to the ground

e) During Tashahhud women should take out both legs to the right and sit on their posterior without raising the right foot

1. There is no Salah before its time, and it must be ensured that the time for Salah has actually started.

[4:103] Once you have finished your Salāh, then, remember Allah while standing, sitting and reclining. As soon as you are secure, perform Salāh as due. Surely, Salāh is an obligation on the believers that is tied up with time.

2. There is no Salah without being in the state of Wudhu.

[5:6] O you who believe, when you rise for Salāh, (prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and make MasH (wiping by hands) of your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of major impurity, cleanse yourselves well (by taking bath). If you are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had sexual contact with women, and you find no water, then, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah does not like to impose a problem on you; He, rather likes to cleanse you and to complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful.

Hammam b. Munabbih (RA) who is the brother of Wahb b. Munabbih. (RA) said: This is what has been transmitted to us by Abu Huraira (RA) from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (
) and then narrated a hadith out of them and observed that the Messenger of Allah () said: The prayer of none amongst you would be accepted in a state of impurity till he performs ablution. [Muslim]

3. Body, clothes and location of prayer must be Taahir (free from impurities).

[74:4] and purify your clothes,

Jabir Ibn Samra (RA) narrates that a man asked Rasul-ullah (
), “Should I pray in the same clothes in which I went (cohabited) to my wife in?” He () replied, “Yes unless you find some impurity on it which should clean and purify”. [Ahmed]

4. Awrah of a woman must be covered and her Awrah is all her body except the face, palms and feet.

[24:31] And tell the believing women that they must lower their gazes and guard their private parts, and must not expose their adornment, except that which appears thereof, and must wrap their bosoms with their shawls, and must not expose their adornment, except to their husbands or their fathers or the fathers of their husbands, or to their sons or the sons of their husbands, or to their brothers or the sons of their brothers or the sons of their sisters, or to their women, or to those owned by their right hands, or male attendants having no (sexual) urge, or to the children who are not yet conscious of the shames of women. And let them not stamp their feet in a way that the adornment they conceal is known. And repent to Allah O believers, all of you, so that you may achieve success.
Aisha (RA) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Allah (SWT) does not accept the Salah of an adult woman unless she is wearing a Khimar (head covering).” [Abu Dawud]

It is related from Umm Salamah (RA) that she asked Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), “Can a woman pray in a long shirt and head covering without a loincloth?” He (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “If the shirt is long and flowing and covers the top of her feet.” [Abu Dawud]

Note: There is a difference of opinion amongst scholars about the feet being covered in Salah and it is preferable and more precautionary for them to be covered, however the one who chooses to follow the other opinion (i.e. the feet not being covered) should not be criticized & the matter is discussed in detail here:

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/hanwofeet.htm


5. A person must face the Qiblah (direction of Kaba’h) during Salah.

[2:144] We have been seeing you turning your face to the heavens. So, We will certainly assign to you a Qiblah that you would like. Now, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid-ul-Harām), and (O Muslims), wherever you are, turn your faces in its direction. Even those who have been given the Book know well that it is the truth from their Lord, and Allah is not unaware of what they do.

6. The best place to pray for a woman is her home, rather a corner of her room.

[2:144] Narrated Umm Humaid As-Sa’diyah (RA) who once said to the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam): Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)! I love to pray with you (i.e. in the mosque)! Upon hearing this, Allah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "I know that you love to say your prayer with me. However, the prayer you offer in your residence is more excellent than that you offer in your people’s mosque. And your prayer in your people’s mosque is better for you than you prayer in the (lager) congregational mosque." [Abu Dawud;, Musnad of Imaam Ahmad; & At-Tabarani]

Note: There is no obligation on women to visit the Mosque & perform regular congregational Salah (at the Mosque) and no evidence to suggest that praying in the Mosque with congregation carries greater reward or can be classed as Sunnah, rather the promise of greater reward is with praying at home, however they shouldn’t be prevented from attending the Mosque.

7. During congregational Salah; similar to men, woman should also straighten their rows and make sure that there are no gaps in between them but joining ankle to ankle is extremism.

Nu’maan ibn Bashir (radhiallaahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would straighten our Saffs with such care that even arrow shafts could be straightened with them (by using them as a guide) until he saw that we understood (the importance of straightening the Saffs). Once he came out and stood (on his Musalla) and just before making Takbeer he noticed a person’s chest sticking out of the Saff. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘O Servants of Allah! Straighten your Saffs or else Allah will cause division amongst your hearts.’ [Muslim]

Note: Joining ankle to ankle is not the aim but a means of achieving the aims and to insist on this during Salah is extremism as discussed here:

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/anklshyuth.htm


8. It is recommended to place a Sutrah (a barrier or partition) in front when praying.

Sahl Ibn Hathmah (RA) reported that Rasul-ullah () said, “When one of you prays, he should pray towards his Sutrah and he should be close to it”.[Abu Dawud]

9. The minimum height of Sutrah should be length of an arm, and its width at least a finger.

Sabrah Ibn Ma’bad (RA) reported that Messenger of Allah () said, “When one of you prays, he should make a barrier for his Salah, even it is an arrow”.[Ahmad]

Talha (RA) said that we used to pray and animals would pass in front of us. We mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (SWT) and he said, “If anything the size of saddle is in front of you, nothing that passes beyond it will harm you”.[Muslim]

Note: The size of saddle has been interpreted by Nafi (RA), Ata (RA), Sufyan Thawri (RA) as the length of an arm. [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq]

10. It is forbidden to cross between the Sutrah and the one who is praying.

Narrated Busr bin Said (RA) narrates that Zaid bin Khalid (RA) sent him to Abi Juhaim (RA) to ask him what he had heard from Allah's Apostle () about a person passing in front of another person who was praying. Abu Juhaim (RA) replied, "Allah's Apostle () said, 'If the person who passes in front of another person in prayer knew the magnitude of his sin he would prefer to wait for 40 (days, months or years) rather than to pass in front of him." Abu An-Nadr (RA) said, "I do not remember exactly whether he said 40 days, months or years."[Bukhari]

11. Make the intention for Salah before starting, “I am performing Salah [name of Salah] for Allah (SWT)” adding “behind the Imam if it is being done in congregation.

Rasul-ullah () has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. [Bukhari]

Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart.

12. Both feet should be kept together as it is more concealment for her & then both hands should be raised while uttering the Takbeer, “Allahu-Akbar”, however women should not raise their hands higher than the shoulders.

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr (RA) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “O Ibn Hujr (RA) ! When you pray make your hands level with your ears. And the woman shall raise her hands close to her bosom”. [Tabarani]

The great Tabiyyah scholar Umm Al-Darda (RA) used to raise her hands up to the level of the shoulders when she started Salah. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ata Ibn Abi Rabah (RA) was asked how a woman should raise her hands in Salah and he (RA) replied, “Opposite to her breasts”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Imam Zuhri (RA) said that a woman should raise her hands up to her shoulders. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

13. Eyes should now be focused at the place of prostration.

Rasul-ulah () used to incline his head slightly and fix his eyes towards the ground. [Baihiqi & Hakim]

14. Person praying should not look upwards or sideways.

Aisha (RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah () prayed in a cloak which had some designs in it. He () said, “These designs have distracted me. Take this cloak to Abu Jahm and bring me a plain one”. [Muslim]

Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasul-ulah (
) said, “Those who raise their gaze to the sky during Salah should stop doing so or their sight may be taken away”. [Bukhari]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) did not like one to gaze beyond the place of Sajdah (prostration). [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

15. Closing eyes is disliked in Salah.

Ibn Abbas(RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah () said, “When one of you stands up in Salah, he should not close his eyes”. [Tabarani]

16. A woman should place her hands over her chest because this provides more concealment for her. [Al-Mawsili]

17. Then Thana should be recited which is as follows.

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك تبارك اسمك وتعالى ‏ ‏جدك ‏ ‏ولا إله غيرك

Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee



'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah () and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim]

Note: Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “We say this in the opening of Salah, but we do not say that Imam or follower should say it loudly; Umar (RA) said it loudly in order to teach others what they had asked him [Kitabul Athar].

18. Person should now recite Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi Minash-Shaytaanir Rajeem) and Bismillah quietly.

[16:98] So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed.

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (
) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam:

i) Thana
ii) Ta’awudh
iii) Bismillah
iv) Amin

[Kitabul Athar]

19. Person should now recite Al-Fatiha.

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle () said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari]

20. Person praying alone should now recite Al-Fatiha.

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle () said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari]

21. Person praying alone should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah:

i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r
ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r
iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah
iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r
v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib
vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha
vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers
viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers


Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet () in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari]

Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read Al-Fatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar]

Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (
) recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah.

22. If praying in congregational Salah then the recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah.

[7:204] When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed.

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (
) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient.
For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm


23. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and the most concealing posture for a woman should be adopted i.e. :

a) A woman should only bend enough for the hands to reach the knees
b) The hands should be placed (rather than grasping) on the knees with the fingers kept together
c) Elbows should touch the side of the body


Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (
)) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari]

Ataa (RA) says, “A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk'u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.” [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq]

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (
) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning.
For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm


24. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times.

سبحان ربی العظیم
Glory be to my Mighty Lord



Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah () one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.


25. Person now rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following:

سمع اللھ لمن حمدہ
Allah listens to the one who praises Him



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet () said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

26. While standing upright the following should be recited:


ربنا و لک الحمد
Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise

OR
ربنا لک الحمد
Our Lord, to You be all Praise



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet () said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

27. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration).

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad () forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (
) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah () ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He () said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

28. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet () placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

29. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

سبحان ربی الاعلی
Glory be to my Exalted Lord


Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah () one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

30. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration) and while sitting both legs should be drawn to the right side and the right foot should not be kept standing. It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations.

اللھم اغفر لی و ارحمنی و اھدنی و اجبرنی و ارزقنی

O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me



Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet () used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud]

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (
) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

Khalid bin al Lajlaaj (RA) reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb'u (.e., to draw out one's right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg) when sitting in salah.[Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Nafi' (RA) narrates that Safiyyah (
رضئ الله عنها ) would pray and do tarabb'u. [Ibn Abi Shaybah & Musannaf Abdur Razzaq]

Nafi' (RA) also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar's (
رضئ الله عنه ) family would do tarabb'u.[Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (
رضئ الله عنه ) was once asked, 'How did women pray their salah during the time of the Prophet () ' He replied, 'They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz [Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah's ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl].

Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations.

31 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into second Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet () placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah]


Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

32 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while standing for the second Rakaat.

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): Once the Prophet () entered the mosque, a man came in, offered the prayer and greeted the Prophet () .The Prophet () returned his greeting and said to him, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man offered the prayer again, came back and greeted the Prophet() . He said to him thrice, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man said, "By Him Who has sent you with the truth! I do not know a better way of praying. Kindly teach Me how to pray." He said, "When you stand for the prayer, say Takbir and then recite from the Qur'an what you know and then bow with calmness till you feel at ease, then rise from bowing till you stand straight. Afterwards prostrate calmly till you feel at ease and then raise (your head) and sit with Calmness till you feel at ease and then prostrate with calmness till you feel at ease in prostration and do the same in the whole of your prayer." [Bukhari]

Note: There is a disagreement in this matter with some scholars stating that the Sunnah is to rest before standing upright. The Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) is quoted.

33. The one praying alone should now say Bismillah quietly.

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah () and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam:

i) Thana
ii) Ta’awudh
iii) Bismillah
iv) Amin[Kitabul Athar]

Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi Minash-Shaytaanir Rajeem) is only recited in the first Rakaah because as per the evidence from the Qur’aan (below) the recitation of the Qur’aan was started in the first Rakaat.

[16:98] So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed.

34. The one praying alone should now recite Al-Fatiha in the second Rakaat.

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle () said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari]

35. The one praying alone should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah :

i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r
ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r
iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah
iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r
v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib
vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha
vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers
viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers


Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet () in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari]

Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read Al-Fatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar]

Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (
) recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah.

36. The recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah.

[7:204] When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed.

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (
) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient.

For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm


37. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and the most concealing posture for a woman should be adopted i.e. :

a) A woman should only bend enough for the hands to reach the knees
b) The hands should be placed (rather than grasping) on the knees with the fingers kept together
c) Elbows should touch the side of the body


Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (
)) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari]

Ataa (RA) says, “A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk'u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.” [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq]

Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (
) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning.

For detailed discussion, please see :

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm

38. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times.

سبحان ربی العظیم
Glory be to my Mighty Lord



Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah () one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

39. The one praying alone rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following:

سمع اللھ لمن حمدہ
Allah listens to the one who praises Him



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet () said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

40. While standing upright the following should be recited:


ربنا و لک الحمد
Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise

OR
ربنا لک الحمد
Our Lord, to You be all Praise



Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet () said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari]

41. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration).

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad () forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (
) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah () ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He () said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim

42. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet () placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

43. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

سبحان ربی الاعلی
Glory be to my Exalted Lord




Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah () one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

44. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations.

اللھم اغفر لی و ارحمنی و اھدنی و اجبرنی و ارزقنی
O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me




Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet () used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud]

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (
) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed]

The Messenger of Allah (
) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah () ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He () said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations.

45 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into second Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet () placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah]
Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi]

There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

46 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while siting down for Tashahudd while sitting both legs should be drawn to the right side and the right foot should not be kept standing.

'A'isha (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah () used to begin prayer with takbir (saying Allih-o-Akbar) and the recitation:" Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe." When he bowed he neither kept his head up nor bent it down, but kept it between these extremes; when he raised his bead after bow- ing he did not prostrate himself till he had stood erect; when he raised his head after prostration he did not prostrate himself again till he satup. At the end of every two rak'ahs he recited the tahiyya; and he used to place his left foot flat (on the ground) and raise up the right; he prohibited the devil's way of sitting on the heels, and he forbade people to spread out their arms like a wild beast. And he used to finish the prayer with the taslim.[Bukhari]

Khalid bin al Lajlaaj (RA) reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb'u (.e., to draw out one's right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg) when sitting in salah.[Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Nafi' (RA) narrates that Safiyyah (
رضئ الله عنها ) would pray and do tarabb'u. [Ibn Abi Shaybah & Musannaf Abdur Razzaq]

Nafi' (RA) also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar's (
رضئ الله عنه ) family would do tarabb'u.[Ibn Abi Shaybah]

Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (
رضئ الله عنه ) was once asked, 'How did women pray their salah during the time of the Prophet () ' He replied, 'They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz [Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah's ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl]

47 . Attahiyaat should be read as follows:


التحیات للھ والصلوات والطیبات
السلام علیک ایھا النبی و رحمة اللھ و برکاتھ
اسلام علینا وعلی عباداللھ الصالحین
اشھد ان لا الھ الا اللھ و اشھد ان محمد عبدہ و رسولھ

All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger



'Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) said: While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah () we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah () said to us: Verily Allah is Himself Peace. When any one of you sits during the prayer. he should say: All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in heaven and earth (and say further): I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it. [Bukhari]

48 . When the following is reached during Attahiyaat the index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and dropped on the right index finger should be put down during the affirmation part of Shahada (testimony) while the other three fingers should be closed (as in a fist) thus making a ring between the thumb and the index finger.


اشھد ان لا الھ الا اللھ و اشھد ان محمد عبدہ و رسولھ

I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger



Ibn 'Umar (RA) reported that when the Messenger of Allah () sat for tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee. and his right hand on his right knee. and he raised his right finger, which is next to the thumb, making supplication in this way, and he stretched his left hand on his left knee. Another version on the authority of Ibn Umar (RA) says: When the Messenger of Allah () sat for tashahhud, he placed his left hand on his left knee and placed his right hand on his right knee, and he formed a ring like (fifty-three) and pointed with his finger of attestation.[Muslim]

There is disagreement amongst the scholars as to how the pointing during Tashahudd should be done with some Hanafi Scholars preferring the opinion that index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and kept raised till the end of the Salah.

49. If this is a 4 Rakaat Salah then the person should stand and complete the 3rd and the 4th Rakaat as described above.

50. In the last sitting (i.e. the 1st sitting of a 2 Rakaat Salah or the 2nd sitting of a 4 Rakaat Salah), the Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef) should be recited, which is as follows.




اللھم صلی علی محمد و علی آل محمد کما صلیت علی ابراھیم و علی آل ابراھیم انک حمید مجید
اللھم بارک علی محمد و علی آل محمد کما بارکت علی ابراھیم و علی آل ابراھیم انک حمید مجید

0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious



Abdullah b. Zaid (RA) -he who was shown the call (for prayer in a dream) narrated it on the authority of Mas'ad al-Ansiri (RA) who said: We were sitting in the company of Sa'id b. 'Ubida (RA) when the Messenger of Allah () came to us. Bashir b. S'ad (RA) said: Allah has commanded us to bless you. Messenger of Allah ()! But how should we bless you? He (the narrator) said: The Messenger of Allah () kept quiet (and we were so much perturbed over his silence) that we wished we had not asked him. The Messenger of Allah () then said: (For blessing me) say:" 0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious" ; and salutation as you know.

51. It is Sunnah to supplicate (make dua) for whatever one wishes after Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef). The following is one of the duas mentioned in Hadeeth:



اللھم انی ظلمت نفسی ظلما کثیرا ولا یغفر الذنوب الا انت فاغفر لی مغفرة من عندک وارحمنی انک انت الغفور الرحیم
O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed All-Forgiving and All-Merciful.


Abdullah Ibn Amr (RA) reported that Abu Bakr (RA) said to the Messenger of Allah (), “Teach me a supplication that I may use in my Salahs, He() replied, Say, “O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed All-Forgiving and All-Merciful.

52. Salah should now be finished by saying Salam to the right side and then the left side while saying “Asslamo Allaikum Wa Rahmatullah”.

Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I offered prayer along with the Prophet (). He would give the salutation to his right side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah; and to his left side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah.[Abu Dawud]

53. There are many Adhkar related in the Sunnah e.g. uttering Subhanullah (33 times), Alhumdolillah (33 times) and Allahu Akbar (34 times).

Ka'b b. 'Ujra (RA) reported Allah's Messenger () as saying: There are certain utterances, the repeaters of which or the performers of which after every prescribed prayer will never be caused disappointment:" Glory be to Allah" thirty-three times." Praise be to Allah" thirty-three times, and" Allah is most Great" thirty-four times. [Muslim]

54. There are many supplications related in the Sunnah and some of them are listed below after reading Astaghfirullah (3 times)

Mu`adh (bin Jabal) (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah () held my hand and said, "O Mu`adh, By Allah, I love you and advise you not to miss supplicating after every Salat (prayer) saying: `Allahumma a`inni `ala dhikrika wa shukrika, wa husni `ibadatika,' (O Allah, help me remember You, expressing gratitude to You and worship You in the best manner)".[Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i].

اللھم اعنی علی ذکرک و شکرک وحسن عبادتک

Thauban (RA) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) finished his prayer. he begged forgiveness three times and said: O Allah! Thou art Peace, and peace comes from Thee; Blessed art Thou, O Possessor of Glory and Honour. Walid reported: I said to Auza'i: How Is the seeking of forgiveness? He replied: You should say:, I beg forgiveness from Allah, 1 beg forgiveness from Allah."

اللھم انت السلام و منک السلام تبارکت یا ذا الجلال و اللاکرام

Compulsory actions of Salah (Faraidh):

If any of these are missed then the prayer will need to be repeated

1.     To say Takbeer-e-Tahreema i.e. اللھ اکبر

2.     Qiyam i.e. Standing

3.     Recitation of the Qur’aan of at least three short or one long verse

4.     Ruku i.e. bowing

5.     To perform both Sajdahs

6.     Qa’dah Akheerah i.e. to sit for so long at the end of the Salah that one can read Tashahud

Necessary actions of Salah (Waajibat):

If any of these are missed unknowingly then Sajda Sah’w will need to be performed to correct the prayer; however if it is missed knowingly or no Sajda Sah’w is performed then the prayer will need to be repeated

1.     Fixing the first two Rakaat of Fardh Salah for recitation

2.     It is Waajib to recite Al-Fatiha in all Rakaats of all prayers except 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh in which it is Sunnah

3.     To recite at least three short or one long verse after Al-Fatiha in the first two Rakaats of Fardh and in all Rakaats of all other prayers

4.     To recite Al-Fatiha before any other Surah

5.     To maintain order between Qiyaam, Ruku, Sajdah & Rakaats

6.     Qaumah i.e. standing after Ruku

7.     Jalsah i.e. sitting between the two Sajdahs

8.     Ta’deele Arkaan i.e. performing Ruku, Sajdah with contentment and in a good manner

9.     Qa’dah oola i.e. to sit after the first two Rakaat in 4 Rakaat prayer to the extent of reciting Tashahud

10.           To read Tashahud in the two Qa’dahs

11.           Imam to recite loudly during the first two Rakaat of Maghrib and Esha and in all Rakaats of Faj’r Jummah, Taraweeh, Eid & Wit’r (in Ramadhan)

12.           To complete the prayers after saying Salam

13.           To say Takbeer after Qunoot in Wit’r

14.           To say six additional takbeers in Eidain

Sajda Sah’w:

If any of the Waajib is missed unknowingly then at the end of the Salah after Attihiyaat Salam should be done on the right side only and then two additional Sajdahs performed and finally Salah should then be finished as normal

Sunnah actions of Salah:

1.     To raise the hands up to the ears before saying Takbeer-e-Tahreema

2.     While raising the hands for Takbeer, keeping the fingers together and palms facing the Qiblah

3.     Not to bend the head while saying the Takbeer

4.     Saying of Takbeers (Takbeer-e-Takreema) and others aloud by the Imam

5.     To fold the right hand over the left hand below the navel

6.     Saying Thana

7.     To recite Ta’awwuz

8.     To recite the complete Bismillah

9.     To only recite Al-Fatiha in the 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh Salah

10.           To say Ameen (softly)

11.           To recite Thana, Ta’awwuz, Bismillah and Ameen softly

12.           To recite as much of the Qur’aan is Sunnah:

a.      Faj’r: From Surah Hujarat (26th Part) up to Surah Inshiqaaq (30th part)

b.     Zoh’r, Asar & Esha: From Surah Al-Burooj (30th part) till Surah Al-Qad’r (30th Part)

c.      Maghrib: From Surah Al-Bayyinah (30th part) till Surah An-Naas (30th part)

13.           To say Tasbeeh at least three times in Ruku and Sajdah

14.           To keep the back and the head at the same level during Ruku while holding both knees with fingers of both hands

15.           For the Imam to say “Sami-Allahu Liman Hamida” and the Muqtadi (followers) to read “Rabbana Wa Lakal Hamd” and the individual to recite both

16.           While going into Sajdah to place the knees, palms, then the nose and then the forehead

17.           In Qa’dah (or Jalsa) to place the left foot on the ground horizontally and sitting on it and keep the right foot vertically with the toes pointing towards the Qiblah

18.           To raise the index finger when one recite the Kalima in Tashahud

19.           To recite Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud

20.           To read dua after  Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud

21.           To turn the face to the right during Salam first

Desirable actions of Salah (Mustahabbat):

1.     To pull the palms out of the sleeves while saying the Takbeer-e- Takreema

2.     To say the Tasbeeh more then three times during Ruku and Sajdah

3.     To fix the gaze towards the place of Sajdah in Qiyaam, towards the feet in Ruku and on the lap during Qa’dah and on the shoulders during Salam

4.     To try not to cough

5.     To try not to yawn and if the mouth is opened to cover it with the back of the right hand in Qiyaam and with the back of the left hand in all other postures

Undesirable actions of Salah (Makroohat):

1.     To pray bareheaded due to laziness or to pray while arms are exposed above the elbows

2.     To play with the clothes or the body during Prayers

3.     Praying in clothes in which people ordinarily do not go out

4.     To dust the floor with one’s hand to prevent the soiling of clothes

5.     Praying when one has the urge to urinate or pass stool

6.     To crack fingers or putting the fingers of one hand into the other

7.     Turning the face away from Qiblah and looking around

8.     For men to rest both arms and wrists on the ground during Sajdah

9.     Praying one someone else in sitting in front facing you

10.           Yawning intentionally and not trying to prevent it

11.           Closing the eyes but if it is done to enhance concentration then it is permissible

12.           Standing alone in a row when there is space in the front row for a mature (baaligh) person

13.           Praying in clothes with pictures of living things on them

14.           Praying in a place where this is a picture in front, above, right or left or at the place of Sajdah

15.           To count Ayahs, Surahs, Tasbeehs on the fingers while praying

16.           Praying while sheets or clothes wrapped around in such a way which will make it difficult to free the hands quickly

17.           To yawn or stretch arms to remove laziness

18.      Doing something against Sunnah while praying

 

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