Dua: Individual , collective, after prayers and wiping the face

 

dua

[40:60] Your Lord has said, .Call Me, I will respond to you. Definitely those who show arrogance against worshipping Me shall enter Jahannam (Hell) with disgrace.


Introduction:

Making dua, supplicating to Allah (SWT), humiliating and beseeching our Creator (SWT) is the ultimate objective of a servant to his Master (SWT). It is regrettable that in our times, due to rampant materialism and preoccupation with futile activities, debates and discussions what should been the pinnacle of servitude for a believer has turned into an issue of dispute. Where and how the hands should be raised? Should they be wiped on the face or merely dropped after making dua? Should the dua be done individually or collectively? When should the dua be made and when should it not be made?

It is of paramount importance that as a Muslim we should seek to match every aspect, every action of Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam). Thre is no pathway, no route, and no gateway to Allah (SWT) except through the noble Sunnah of Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam). There is no proof of love of Allah (SWT) except for the love, devotion, obedience and following of Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam). It is declared emphatically in the Qur’aan:

قُلۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُحِبُّونَ ٱللَّهَ فَٱتَّبِعُونِى يُحۡبِبۡكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَيَغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ ذُنُوبَكُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

[3:31] Say (O Prophet): If you really love Allah, then follow me, and Allah shall love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful.

If it isn’t the Sunnah, ditch it!

Dua should be made to whom?

Islam demands and requires total rejection of all deities and total submission to Allah (SWT). None has the power to grant (anything) except Allah (SWT). To call upon anyone except Allah (SWT), to prostrate or to seek aid from anyone other than Allah (SWT) is clearly forbidden and impermissible.

إِنَّمَا تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡثَـٰنً۬ا وَتَخۡلُقُونَ إِفۡكًا‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ لَا يَمۡلِكُونَ لَكُمۡ رِزۡقً۬ا فَٱبۡتَغُواْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرِّزۡقَ وَٱعۡبُدُوهُ وَٱشۡكُرُواْ لَهُ ۥۤ‌ۖ إِلَيۡهِ تُرۡجَعُونَ

[29:17] You only worship idols beside Allah, and you invent a lie. In fact those whom you worship beside Allah do not have power to give you provision. So seek provision with Allah and worship Him and be grateful to Him. To Him you are to be returned.

What is Tawassul?

Tawassul and Waseelah literally means to make a request or supplicate through a means. It is permissible for one to request Allah Ta'ala to accept his du'aa through the medium of some deeds or the rank of certain individuals as this may be closer to acceptance. There are various forms of Tawassul and Waseela:

1 To make Tawassul to Almighty Allah that He accepts the Du'aa due to one having performed a certain good deed is permissible and unanimously accepted. It is supported by the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari in which three people were trapped in a cave. Each of them made Du'aa to Allah Ta'ala to move the obstructing rock and they requested Allah Ta'ala to accept their du'aas due to some good deed that each of them had done.

 

2 To make Tawassul with the names and attributes of Almighty Allah: This is also permissible and is supported by the following verse, 'And Allah has beautiful names, so call unto Him through them.' (Surah A'araaf v.180). Example: If someone says, 'Oh Allah, I ask you through your attributes and beautiful names to grant my specific wish.'

 

3To make Tawassul to Allah Ta'ala through the rank and position of certain individuals, alive or deceased, in the sight of Almighty Allah This includes the Prophets [alayhimus salaam], the martyrs and any other pious servant of Allah. Example: If one says, 'Oh Allah, I beseech you to accept my du'aa due to the status of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) in Your eyes.' This form of Tawassul is also permissible according to the vast majority of the Ulama (scholars) and it has in fact remained part of their practise.

 

4 Some scholars even mention a fourth type of Tawassul, where a person requests some living pious servant of Allah to make du'aa for him: This is also unanimously accepted.

Status and power of Dua?

We are reminded in the Qur’aan by Allah (SWT) that He (SWT) is near to us and ready to respond to our duas.

وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِى عَنِّى فَإِنِّى قَرِيبٌ‌ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعۡوَةَ ٱلدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ‌ۖ فَلۡيَسۡتَجِيبُواْ لِى وَلۡيُؤۡمِنُواْ بِى لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَرۡشُدُونَ

[2:186] When My servants ask you about Me, then (tell them that) I am near. I respond to the call of one when he prays to Me; so they should respond to Me, and have faith in Me, so that they may be on the right path.

Abstaining from dua is not a sign of the believers but a manifestation of pride and a source of inviting Allah (SWT)’s anger and wrath. Allah (SWT) doesn’t like haughty, arrogant souls who turn away from him but loves those who submit to him in a state of complete humility, destitute and helplessness.

وَقَالَ رَبُّڪُمُ ٱدۡعُونِىٓ أَسۡتَجِبۡ لَكُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِى سَيَدۡخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

[40:60] Your Lord has said, .Call Me, I will respond to you. Definitely those who show arrogance against worshipping Me shall enter Jahannam (Hell) with disgrace.

Making dua is an act of worship (in its right) as emphatically declared by Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam):

وقال الإمام أحمد : حدثنا أبو معاوية ، حدثنا الأعمش ، عن ذر ، عن يسيع الكندي ، عن النعمان بن بشير - رضي الله عنه - قال : قال رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - : " إن الدعاء هو العبادة " ثم قرأ : ( ادعوني أستجب لكم إن الذين يستكبرون عن عبادتي سيدخلون جهنم داخرين

Sayyidina An-Nu’man ibn Basheer (RA) reported: I heard the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) saying, “Supplication is worship.” Then he recited the verse, “Your Lord says: [40:60] Your Lord has said, Call Me, I will respond to you. Definitely those who show arrogance against worshipping Me shall enter Jahannam (Hell) with disgrace. [Ahmed]

Dua has the power to change certain predetermined acts (in destiny), avert difficulties (before they befall) and deliver from hardships when they afflict. There is explicit text in the Sunnah which proves that dua can avert certain acts (predetermined) and there are numerous examples from the stories of Prophets (AS) in the Qur’aan where hardships were eased due to supplications.

حدثنا محمد بن حميد الرازي وسعيد بن يعقوب قالا حدثنا يحيى بن الضريس عن أبي مودود عن سليمان التيمي عن أبي عثمان النهدي عن سلمان قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يرد القضاء إلا الدعاء ولا يزيد في العمر إلا البر قال أبو عيسى وفي الباب عن أبي أسيد وهذا حديث حسن غريب من حديث سلمان لا نعرفه إلا من حديث يحيى بن الضريس وأبو مودود اثنان أحدهما يقال له فضة وهو الذي روى هذا الحديث اسمه فضة بصري والآخر عبد العزيز بن أبي سليمان أحدهما بصري والآخر مدني وكانا في عصر واحد

Sayyidina Salman (RA) reported: I heard the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) saying, “Nothing can change the Divine Decree except dua.” [Tirmidhi]

وَذَا ٱلنُّونِ إِذ ذَّهَبَ مُغَـٰضِبً۬ا فَظَنَّ أَن لَّن نَّقۡدِرَ عَلَيۡهِ فَنَادَىٰ فِى ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ أَن لَّآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنتَ سُبۡحَـٰنَكَ إِنِّى ڪُنتُ مِنَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ (٨٧) فَٱسۡتَجَبۡنَا لَهُ ۥ وَنَجَّيۡنَـٰهُ مِنَ ٱلۡغَمِّ‌ۚ وَكَذَٲلِكَ نُـۨجِى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ (٨٨) وَزَڪَرِيَّآ إِذۡ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ ۥ رَبِّ لَا تَذَرۡنِى فَرۡدً۬ا وَأَنتَ خَيۡرُ ٱلۡوَٲرِثِينَ (٨٩) فَٱسۡتَجَبۡنَا لَهُ ۥ وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُ ۥ يَحۡيَىٰ وَأَصۡلَحۡنَا لَهُ ۥ زَوۡجَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ إِنَّهُمۡ ڪَانُواْ يُسَـٰرِعُونَ فِى ٱلۡخَيۡرَٲتِ وَيَدۡعُونَنَا رَغَبً۬ا وَرَهَبً۬ا‌ۖ وَڪَانُواْ لَنَا خَـٰشِعِينَ

[21:87] And (remember) Dhunnun (the man of the fish, namely Yunus X), when he walked away in anger and thought that We would never put him to trouble. Then, he called (Us) in depths of darkness saying, .There is no god but You. Pure are You. Indeed I was among the wrongdoers.[21:88] So We responded to him and rescued him from the distress. And this is how We rescue the believers. [21:89] And (remember) Zakariyya when he called his Lord, .My Lord, do not leave me alone and You are the best of inheritors.[21:90] So, We responded to him and gave him YaHya and made his wife good for him. They used to race towards the good deeds and call Us with hope and fear; and they were humble to Us.

وَٱذۡكُرۡ عَبۡدَنَآ أَيُّوبَ إِذۡ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ ۥۤ أَنِّى مَسَّنِىَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ بِنُصۡبٍ۬ وَعَذَابٍ (٤١) ٱرۡكُضۡ بِرِجۡلِكَ‌ۖ هَـٰذَا مُغۡتَسَلُۢ بَارِدٌ۬ وَشَرَابٌ۬ (٤٢) وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُ ۥۤ أَهۡلَهُ ۥ وَمِثۡلَهُم مَّعَهُمۡ رَحۡمَةً۬ مِّنَّا وَذِكۡرَىٰ لِأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ

[38:41] And remember Our servant, Ayyub–when he called his Lord saying, .The Shaitan (Satan) has inflicted weariness and pain upon me. [38:42] (Allah said to him,) .Strike (the ground) with your foot: Here is a cool water to bathe, and a drink!.[38:43] And We let him have his family and the like of them besides, as a mercy from Us, and a reminder for the people of understanding.

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim (RA) beautifully summarised the power of dua, its prerequisites and its status:

والأدعية والتعوذات بمنزلة السلاح ، والسلاح بضاربه ، لا بحده فقط ، فمتى كان السلاح سلاحا تاما لا آفة به ، والساعد ساعد قوي ، والمانع مفقود ، حصلت به النكاية في العدو . ومتى تخلف واحد من هذه الثلاثة تخلف التأثير

Du’aa’s and ta’awwudhaat [prayers seeking refuge with Allaah] are like a weapon, and a weapon is only as good as the person who is using it; it is not merely the matter of how sharp it is. If the weapon is perfect and free of faults, and the arm of the person using it is strong, and there is nothing stopping him, then he can lay waste the enemy. But if any of these three features is lacking, then the effect will be lacking accordingly.

Hands should be raised in dua:

Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (RA) declared that as of Prophet Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) raising his hands in dua, then this has been narrated in so many Ahadeeth which cannot be counted.

وقال ‏ ‏أبو موسى الأشعري ‏ ‏دعا النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ثم رفع يديه ورأيت بياض إبطيه

Sayyidina Abu Musa Ashari (RA) reported that the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) made a dua, and I saw him raise his hands, until I could see the whitness of his armpits. [Bukhari]


وقال ‏ ‏ابن عمر ‏ ‏رفع النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏يديه وقال اللهم إني أبرأ إليك مما صنع ‏ ‏خالد


Sayyidina Ibn Umar (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) raised his hands and said, "O Allah! I ask your protection for what Khalid has done". [Bukhari]



قال أبو عبد الله ‏ ‏وقال ‏ ‏الأويسي ‏ ‏حدثني ‏ ‏محمد بن جعفر ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏يحيى بن سعيد ‏ ‏وشريك ‏ ‏سمعا ‏ ‏أنسا ‏ ‏عن النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏رفع يديه حتى رأيت بياض إبطيه ‏


Sayyidina Anas (RA) also narrated that the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) raised his hands until I saw the whiteness of his armpits. [Bukhari]

 

Praising Allah (SWT) and salutations upon the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) before and after the dua:

 وعن فضالة بن عبيد رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ سمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رجلا يدعو في صلاته لم يمجد الله تعالى، ولم يصلِ على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏عجل هذا‏"‏ ثم دعاه فقال له -أو لغيره‏:‏ إذا صلى أحدكم فليبدأ بتحميد ربه سبحانه، والثناء عليه، ثم يصلي على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثم يدعو بعد ما شاء‏"‏

Sayyidina Fadala ibn 'Ubayd (RA) said, "The Messenger of Allah (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) heard a man making supplication in his prayer without glorifying Allah Almighty or praying for blessing on the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'This one was in a hurry.' Then he called him and said to him - or to someone else - "When one of you prays, he should begin by glorifying his Lord, glory be to Him! and praising Him, and then pray for blessing on the Prophet. Then he should ask for anything else he wants afterwards.'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

العلامة ابن القيم رحمه الله فقال : إحداها : أن يصلي عليه قبل الدعاء وبعد حمد الله تعالى .     والمرتبة الثانية : أن يصلي عليه في أول الدعاء وأوسطه وآخره .    والثالثة : أن يصلي عليه في أوله وآخره ويجعل حاجته متوسطة بينهما

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim (RA) beautifully summarised the method and structure of dua, as follows:

 

1 Blessings should be sent upon him before supplication and after praising Allaah.

2 The second place is to send blessings upon him at the beginning of the du’aa’, in the middle and at the end.

3 The third place is to send blessings upon him at the beginning and at the end, and to mention one’s need in the middle.”

 

Wipe the hands on the face after the dua:

It is permissible, Sunnah, authentically proven and the practise of the Salaf to wipe the hands on the face after concluding the Dua.

حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو مُوسَى مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى ‏ ‏وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ ‏ ‏وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ ‏ ‏قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏حَمَّادُ بْنُ عِيسَى الْجُهَنِيُّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏حَنْظَلَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ الْجُمَحِيِّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏أَبِيهِ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏إِذَا رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ فِي الدُّعَاءِ لَمْ يَحُطَّهُمَا حَتَّى يَمْسَحَ بِهِمَا وَجْهَهُ ‏

{jb_bluebox}Musaa Muhammad ibn Al-Muthannaa and Ibraahim ibn Ya'qub and more than one stating that Hammaad ibn 'Eesaa Al-Juhani narrated to us from Hanthalah ibn Abi Sufyaan Al-Jumahiy from Saalim ibn Abdullah from his father (Abdullah ibn Umar) from Umar ibn Al-Khattab (RA) who said that Rasulullah (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) when raising his hands in du'aa, would not put them down until he had wiped his face with them. [Tirmidhi]

Imam Tirmidhi (RA) gives a verdict on this narration:

قَالَ ‏ ‏مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى ‏ ‏فِي حَدِيثِهِ ‏ ‏لَمْ يَرُدَّهُمَا حَتَّى يَمْسَحَ بِهِمَا وَجْهَهُ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏أَبُو عِيسَى ‏ ‏هَذَا ‏ ‏حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏ ‏لَا نَعْرِفُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ حَدِيثِ ‏ ‏حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى ‏ ‏وَقَدْ تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ وَهُوَ قَلِيلُ الْحَدِيثِ وَقَدْ حَدَّثَ عَنْهُ النَّاسُ ‏ ‏وَحَنْظَلَةُ بْنُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ الْجُمَحِيُّ ‏ ‏ثِقَةٌ وَثَّقَهُ ‏ ‏يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الْقَطَّانُ

 

At-Tirmithi continues, "This hadith is Sahih ghareeb (narrated by one person-as is the nomenclature of the scholars of hadith) , we do not know it save from the hadith of Hammad ibn 'Eesaa, and he alone narrates this [from Hanthala]. He has few hadith and the people reported from him. And Hanthalah ibn Abi Sufyaan al-Jumahiy is thiqah (highly trustworthy), and he was declared thiqah by Yahyaa ibn Sa'id Al-Qattaan."

Al-Hafidh Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani (RA), Author of the one of the most trusted commentaries of Saheeh Bukhari narrates this Hadeeth in Bulughul Maram and then writes:

وَلَهُ شَوَاهِدُ مِنْهَا:

There are other traditions which support this narration, of which are:

حَدِيثُ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: عَنْ أَبِي دَاوُدَ . وَمَجْمُوعُهَا يَقْتَضِي أَنَّهُ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ .


The Hadeeth narrated by Ibn Abbas (RA) related by Abi Dawud and others. Put together, they confirm that it (this Hadeeth) is Hasan.

Imam Shawkani (RA) accepts this narration as Hasan in Mawlul Awtaar.

Muhammad bin Ismail Al-Sanani (RA) wrote a commentary of Bulughul Maram (printed by Darus-Salam publications, Riyadh KSA) in which he writes:

وفيه دليل على مشروعية مسح الوجه باليدين بعد الفراغ من الدعاء

 

...And it (this Hadeeth) contains a proof for the legitimacy of wiping one's face with the hands after making du'a.

Shaykh Nawab Sideeq Hasan Khan (RA) accepts this narration as Hasan in commentary of Bulughul Maram.

Shaykh Abdullah Al-Bassam mentions in Taudeehul Ahkaam (his commentary of Bulooghul Maraam) that this Hadeeth has supporting Narrations which strengthen each other, thus the Hadeeth gains strength from these routes and a number of scholars have chosen this position that it is Hasan (Authentic) and from them is Ishaq Ibn Rahwaiyya (RA) (an early scholar of Hadeeth) and Imam Nawawi (in one of the positions which he has adopted), Imam Ibnul Hajr Asqalani (RA), Al-Munawi (RA) in Faidul-Qadeer Fi Sharhil Jami As-Sagheer (commentary of Jami As-Sagheer of Imam Jalul-ud-deen Suyuti (RA), Imam Shawkani (RA) and others.

Shaykh Bin-Baaz (RA) in his Ta'leeqat of Bulughul Maram comments that in the chain of this Hadeeth is Hammaad ibn 'Eesaa Al-Juhani whom scholars have declared weak and Shaykh Ibnul Hajr Asqalani (RA) has also followed them and declared him weak in "Tahdhib al-Tahdhib" to the 9th degree; yet he has declared this Hadeeth Hasan and this must be due to Shawahid (supporting Narrations).

Narration of Ibn Abbas (RA) in Abi Dawud:

حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَيْمَنَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ إِسْحَقَ ‏ ‏عَمَّنْ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ ‏ ‏مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ الْقُرَظِيِّ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنِي ‏ ‏عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ ‏ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏لَا تَسْتُرُوا الْجُدُرَ مَنْ نَظَرَ فِي كِتَابِ أَخِيهِ بِغَيْرِ إِذْنِهِ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْظُرُ فِي النَّارِ سَلُوا اللَّهَ بِبُطُونِ أَكُفِّكُمْ وَلَا تَسْأَلُوهُ بِظُهُورِهَا فَإِذَا فَرَغْتُمْ فَامْسَحُوا بِهَا وُجُوهَكُمْ ‏  قَالَ ‏ ‏أَبُو دَاوُد ‏ ‏رُوِيَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ عَنْ ‏ ‏مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ ‏ ‏كُلُّهَا وَاهِيَةٌ وَهَذَا الطَّرِيقُ أَمْثَلُهَا ‏ ‏وَهُوَ ضَعِيفٌ ‏ ‏أَيْضًا

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA) :The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "Do not cover the walls. He who sees the letter of his brother without his permission, sees Hell-fire. Supplicate Allah with the palms of your hands; do not supplicate Him with their backs upwards. When you finish supplication, wipe your faces with them." Abu Daawud says, "This hadith is is reported from other directions (of narration) from Muhammad ibn Ka'ab, all of them containing weakness (waahiyah), and this path (tareeq) is an example of that. It is Dha'if (weak) as well."

This is a weak Hadeeth but previously stated it has been used by many including Imam Ibnul Hajr Asqalani (RA) to strengthen the overall status of Ahadeeth on this subject.

Mursal of Imam Zuhri (RA) and action of Taba'een:

وفي مصنف عبد الرزاق 2/247 : عن معمر عن الزهري قال : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرفع يديه عند صدره في الدعاء ثم يمسح بهما وجهه

Narrated by Abdur-Razzaq (RA) in his Musnaf [2/247] that Mumar (RA) narrated from Zuhri (RA) that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was raising his hands upto his chest for dua and then wiping them on his Chest.

قال عبد الرزاق : وربما رأيت معمرا يفعله وأنا أفعله

Abdur-Razzaq (RA) then says that indeed I saw Mumar (RA) doing this (wiping hands on the face after dua) and I also do it.

وهذا مرسل صحيح والمرسل حجة عند الجمهور وغير حجة عند الشافعي

This is a Mursal Saheeh and acceptable according to Jamhoor (majority) except for Imam Shaf'ae (RA).

The great Muhadith Faqeeh Ishaq ibn Rahawayah approved action on these Ahadith as quoted by Muhammad ibn Nasr Al-Marwazi : "I saw Ishaq liking action on these Ahadith" (Qyam Al-Layl p 232)

Imam Muhammad ibn Nasr Al-Marwazi narrates from Mu'tamar that he saw Abu Ka'b Abd Rabihi ibn Ubayd Al-Azdi, the author of Tahrir, invoking raising his hands and then he was wiping them on his face after finishing. I asked him why he was doing and he answered that Hassan Al-Basri was doing this. (Qyam Al-Layl p 236)

Imam Ahmad was asked about wiping hands on face in Witr and he answered : "It is narrated from Al-Hassan that he was wiping them on his face in his invocation" (Masail Imam Ahmad from narration of ibn Abdillah v 2 p 300)

Collective dua after a lecture of Islamic talk or a gathering is permissable:

There is nothing wrong with making a collective dua after a lecture, Islamic talk, Islamic gathering where someone supplicated loudly and the people respond with Ameen.

 

(حديث مرفوع) حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ ، أَخْبَرَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ زَحْرٍ ، عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ أَبِي عِمْرَانَ ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ قَالَ : " قَلَّمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُومُ مِنْ مَجْلِسٍ حَتَّى يَدْعُوَ بِهَؤُلَاءِ الدَّعَوَاتِ لِأَصْحَابِهِ : اللَّهُمَّ اقْسِمْ لَنَا مِنْ خَشْيَتِكَ مَا يَحُولُ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ مَعَاصِيكَ ، وَمِنْ طَاعَتِكَ مَا تُبَلِّغُنَا بِهِ جَنَّتَكَ ، وَمِنَ الْيَقِينِ مَا تُهَوِّنُ بِهِ عَلَيْنَا مُصِيبَاتِ الدُّنْيَا ، وَمَتِّعْنَا بِأَسْمَاعِنَا وَأَبْصَارِنَا وَقُوَّتِنَا مَا أَحْيَيْتَنَا وَاجْعَلْهُ الْوَارِثَ مِنَّا ، وَاجْعَلْ ثَأْرَنَا عَلَى مَنْ ظَلَمَنَا ، وَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى مَنْ عَادَانَا ، وَلَا تَجْعَلْ مُصِيبَتَنَا فِي دِينِنَا ، وَلَا تَجْعَلِ الدُّنْيَا أَكْبَرَ هَمِّنَا وَلَا مَبْلَغَ عِلْمِنَا ، وَلَا تُسَلِّطْ عَلَيْنَا مَنْ لَا يَرْحَمُنَا " . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى : هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ ، وَقَدْ رَوَى بَعْضُهُمْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ أَبِي عِمْرَانَ ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ .

It was narrated that Sayydina Ibn ‘Umar (RA) said: The Messenger of Allah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) rarely left a gathering without offering these supplications for his companions: “O Allah, give us a share of fear of You that will prevent us from disobeying You, (a share) of obedience to You that will help us to reach Paradise, and (a share) of certainty that will enable us to withstand the calamities of this world; cause us to enjoy our hearing, sight and strength so long as we are alive, until we die; avenge us against those who wrong us; support us against those who wrong us; do not make our calamity in our religious commitment; do not make this world our main concern and all that we know about; do not send against us those who will show no mercy to us.” [Tirmidhi]

Collective dua after prayer is neither Sunnah nor practise of the Salaf!

Question: Many Mosques are used to make du'a after prayer which is bid'at according to your fatwa because it replace the sunnat and that's not good however the Mosque I go we pray fard salaat after that everybody recites silent for their own Ayatul kursi, 33x Subhan Allah etc. if everybody is done and there are sunnat prayers that is going to be prayed then everybody does that first if it's like Asr after fard there is no sunnat then we again make collective du'a which is AFTER the sunnat du'a which everybody does after fard prayers so is this still bid'at ? Because we make the sunnat by saying the du'a silent everybody for their own but after we make again collective du'a.

Answer:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

In the recent past the issue regarding dua after salah has been the subject of many discussions. Below is a brief explanation on this issue.  This issue could be divided in four parts:

1 Dua after salah.

 

2 Raising the hands in dua.

 

3 Adhkaar and dua’s to be recited after salah.

 

4 Collective dua.

The subject of debate relates more to the fourth topic. Therefore, hereunder we shall discuss the first three topics very briefly and then elaborate on the fourth point.

Dua after salah:

Our illustrious Fuqaha have clearly mentioned that it is mustahab to make dua after salah. There are many narrations that support this. Below we shall just mention one such narration:

تتمة في الأمور المتعلقة بالفراغ من الصلاة فمنها الدعاء قال الشرنبلالي في نور الإيضاح ثم يدعون لأنفسهم و للمسلمين رافعي أيديهم ثم يمسحون بها وجوههم السعاية 2/257 سهيل اكيدمي لاهور

Maulana Abdul Hayy Lucknowi (RA) mentions: “From amongst those actions that should be done after salah is to make dua. Allama Shurunbulali (RA) mentions in Nurul Idah: then (after salah) they (the musali’s) whilst lifting their hands should make dua for themselves and for the general Muslim public. After dua they should wipe their hands over their faces.” (al Si’aya 2/257 Suhail academy)



عن أبي أمامة قال : قيل لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أي الدعاء أسمع ؟ قال جوف الليل الآخر ودبر الصلوات المكتوبات  قال هذا حديث حسن ترمذي 2/187 سعيد

“Abu Umamah (RA) narrates that Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was asked: Which dua is most heard? Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) replied: The dua made in the last third of the night and the dua after Fardh salah.” (Tirmidhi 2/187 H.M Saeed)



Raising hand in dua:

Maulana Abdur Raheem Rewari (RA) mentions that there is consensus (ijma sukooti) that whilst making dua one should raise his hands. (al Nafais al Margouba 44)

قال الشيخ محمد أنور كشميري إنما الرفع كمال في السنة تحصل السنة به و بغيره فلا سبيل إلى تبديع من رفع و لا إلى تجهيل من ترك (النفائس المرغوبة 31) مير محمد كتب خانـ

“Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA) mentioned: Raising the hand in dua is perfection in following the sunnah, the sunnah (of dua) could also be attained without raising the hands. Therefore there is no reason to call the one who raises his hands an innovator. Likewise there is no reason to call the one who does not raise his hands an ignorant person.” (al Nafais al Margouba 31)


Adhkaar and dua’s to be recited after salah:

 

و بهذه الاخبار اجمع العلماء على استحباب الذكر بعد الصلوة

“Maulana Abdul Hayy Lucknowi (RA) mentions that there is consensus amongst the Ulama that it is mustahab to make zikr after salah.” (al Si’aya 2/260 Suhail academy)



1 )   عن ثوبان مولى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان إذا انصرف من صلاته استغفر ثلاثا وقال اللهم أنت السلام ومنك السلام تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام مسلم 1/218مكتبة تهانوي

Thawban (RA)  narrates that when Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  used to finish salah He صلى الله عليه و سلم used to recite Istighfaar thrice and then recite:



« اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ »

“O Allah You are peace and from You is peace. Blessed are You o the being of Majesty and Honour”



 2)  قال حدثني أبو الزبير قال سمعت عبد الله بن الزبير يحدث على هذا المنبر وهو يقول كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا سلم يقول لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له له الملك وله الحمد وهو على كل شيء قدير لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله لا إله إلا الله لا نعبد إلا إياه أهل النعمة والفضل والثناء الحسن لا إله إلا الله مخلصين له الدين ولو كره الكافرون مسلم 1/218


Abdullah bin Zubayr (RA) reports that Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)   after making salam would recite:



لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَا نَعْبُدُ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ أَهْلَ النِّعْمَةِ وَالْفَضْلِ وَالثَّنَاءِ الْحَسَنِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ


“There is no deity but Allah, He has no partner, for Him is the kingdom, for Him is all praise and He has power over all things. We do not worship except Him, the Being of bounty, virtue and praise. There is no deity but Allah with sincere devotion to Him even though the disbelievers detest it.”



 3 ) قال سمعته من عبدة بن أبي لبابة وسمعته من عبد الملك بن أعين كلاهما سمعه من وراد كاتب المغيرة بن شعبة قال

 



كتب معاوية إلى المغيرة بن شعبة أخبرني بشيء سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا قضى الصلاة قال لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له له الملك وله الحمد وهو على كل شيء قدير اللهم لا مانع لما أعطيت ولا معطي لما منعت ولا ينفع ذا الجد منك الجد مسلم 1/218



Mughira (RA) narrates that Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)   used to recite after Salah:



»لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ اللَّهُمَّ لاَ مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلاَ مُعْطِىَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَلاَ يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَدُّ «

“There is no deity but Allah, He has no partner, for Him is the kingdom, for Him is all praise and He has power over all things. O Allah none can prevent what You give and none can give what You prevent and no wealthy persons wealth can benefit from You.”



4) عن عائشة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان إذا جلس مجلسا أو صلى تكلم بكلمات فسألته عائشة عن الكلمات فقال إن تكلم بخير كان طابعا عليهن إلى يوم القيامة وإن تكلم بغير ذلك كان كفارة له سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك أستغفرك وأتوب إليك سنن النسائي - (ج 1 / ص 196)


Aisha (RA) narrates the after every salah or gathering Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) used to recite some dua. So I asked Him (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) as to what He صلى الله عليه (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) recites? Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) replied if the gathering was of good this dua seals it and if the gathering was other than good it is a means of atonement.



سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ

“Glory O Allah and all praise, I seek Your pardon and return to You.”



 5 ) عن عقبة بن عامر قال أمرني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن أقرأ المعوذات دبر كل صلاة سنن النسائي   (ج 1 / ص 196) قديمي

Uqba (RA)  reports that Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) ordered me to recite Surah Ikhlas, Surah Falaq and Surah Nas after every salah.



There are many other dua’s and tasbeehat to be recited after salah, for example Ayat al Kursi, Tasbeeh Fatimi etc but we shall suffice on the above mentioned narrations.

Congregational dua:

At the outset it should be understood that congregational dua in itself is not prohibited. Due to external factors, as will be mentioned scholars have decreed that it should not be done regularly. It is the responsibility of the Ulama and learned scholars to educate the general public regarding the view point of our pious predecessors regarding this masla.  

قال الشيخ انور كشميري رحمه الله تعالى و اما الامور المحدثة من عقد صورة الجماعة للدعاء كجماعة الصلوة و الانكار على تاركها و نصب امام ثم ائتمام به فيه و غير ذلك فكل ذلك من قلة العلم و كثرة الجهل و الجاهل اما مفرط او مفرط و الله الموفق للصواب (النفائس المرغوبة 31(

Maulana Anwar Shah Kasmiri (RA) mentions: “As for the innovation of making congregational dua like the congregation of salah, condemning the one who leaves it out, appointing an imam then following him etc is all this is due to lack of knowledge and extreme ignorance.”



Maulana Anwar Shah Kasmiri (RA) mentions:
 

و اعلم ان السنة الاكثرية بعد الصلاة الانصراف الى البيوت بدون مكث الا بقدر خروج النساء و كان في الاذكار كل امير نفسه و لم يثبت شاكلة الجماعة فيها كما هو معروف الان (دعاء بعد الفرائض 13

“Every person could make his Adhkar after salah as he wish. Doing it in congregation, as is common nowadays is not an established practice.”



At another place he also mentions:

ولیعلم انّ الھیۃ الاجتماعیۃ برفع الایدی المتعارفۃ فی العصر بعد المکتوبۃ نادرۃ فی زمانہ علیھ السلام 95 دعا بعد الفرائض 22 العرف الشذی 

Know very well that congregating and raising the hands as is a common practice was unknown in the time of Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam).



نعم الادعیۃ بعد الفریضۃ ثابتۃ کثیراً بلا رفع الیدین وبدون الاجتماع دعا بعد الفرائض 22 العرف الشذی     

Yes, Dua after Fardh is established but individually, not in congregation.



غیر انّھ یظھر بعد البحث والتحقیق انّھ وان وقع ذلک احیاناً عند حاجات خاصۃ لم تکن سنّۃ مستمرۃ لھ صلی اللھ علیھ وسلم ولا لصحابۃ رضی اللھ عنھم والاکان ان ینتقل متواتراً البتۃ۔ فان ما یعمل بھ علی روسِ الاشھاد کل یوم خمس مرّات کیف یحمل ذکرہ فلا یکفی العموم فی مثل ھذہ المواقع الخاصّۃ 124/3 دعا بعد الفرائض 22 معارف السنن

Maulana Yusuf Binori (RA) mentions: “Even though at times congregational dua took place but this was not the common regular practise of Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) nor of the Sahaba (RA). It only took place on special occasions (like when in war, Istasqaa etc.). Had it been practised (regularly) it would have been narrated by many narrators. An action carried out five times a day in public, how is it possible that no one mentions it? General Ahadeeth cannot be used to prove something at a specific times.



مولانا فیض اللھ مفتی اعظم بنگلہ دیش cچھارم یہ کہ بعد فرائض ھمیشہ سب لوگ اکھٹے لگ کر جماعت کی شکل میں ھاتھ اٹھا کر دعا کرے شریعت غراء میں ایسی دعاء کا اصلاً و قطعاً کوئی ثبوت نھیں ہے نہ تعامل سلف سے نہ احادیث سے خواہ وہ صحیح ہوں یا ضعیف یا موضوع اور نہ کسی فقہ کی عبارت سے یہ دعا یقیناً بدعت ہے۔ )دعا بعد الفرائض ص 14بحوالہ احکام الدعوات المروجہ12(

Mufti Faydhullah (RA) mentions: "The fourth method of making dua is that after the fardh salah everybody makes dua in congregation whilst lifting their hands. This has totally no basis in the Shariah. It is not established from the practices of our pious predecessors, neither is it established from any Hadeeth, be it Saheeh, Da'eef or even Maudhoo' nor is it established from the writing of any Jurist. Most definitely this is an innovation."



مفتی محمد ابراھیم صادق آبادی باقی رھا کسی فرض نماز کے امام و مقتدیوں کا مل کر اجتماعی دعاء کرنا یہ بھت بعد کی ایجاد ہے پورے ذخیرہ احادیث میں کوئ ایک روایت بھی اسکی تائید میں نھیں ملتی نہ حضرات صحابہ و تابعین یا ائمہ مجتھدین رضی اللہ اجمعین سے اسکا کوئ ثبوت ملتا ہے۔ اسکے برعکس صحیح احادیث مذاھب اربعہ کا اجماع اور عقلِ سلیم  دعاء انفرادی کا فضیلت پر شاھد ناطق ہیں۔ )دعا بعد الفرائض ص 15(

Mufti Muhammed Ebrahim Sadiqabadi (RA) mentions: "The Imam and muqtadi's making congregational dua is an innovation which took its roots longer after the time of Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam). From the whole treasure of Ahadeeth, there is not even one narration to support this. Neither is there any reference of this from the Sahaba (RA), Tabiee (RA) or A'immah Mujatahieen (RA). To the contrary sound narrations, consensus of the scholars of all four madhabs and sound reasons gives preference to individual dua.



مروجہ مفاسد پر نظر کی جائے تو کسی مذھب و مشرب میں اسکی اجازت نھیں ہو سکتی ہے ، بعض مفاسد یہ ہیں : (الف) صرف امام دعا کرے اور مقتدی اسپر آمین کہتے رہیں تو ایسی صورت بنتی ہے کہ گویا امام صاحب اللہ اور بندوں کے درمیان واسطہ ہیں (ب) پھر عادت عام اماموں کی یہ ہے کہ قرآن و حدیث کے عربی جملوں سے دعا مانگتے ہیں اور عام حا لت یہ ہے کہ اکثر تو خود امام بھی نییں سمجھتے کہ ان جملوں میں ہم اللہ سے کیا مانگ رہے ہیں (ج) ایک مفسدہ یہ ہے کہ مشترک حاجات و ضروریات کے علاوہ ہر شخص کی کچھ خاص ضروریات ہوتی ہیں۔ ۔ ۔ اور امام صاحب اپنے رٹے ہوے بول بول رہیں ہیں وہ بیچارا جھراً قھراً اس پر آمین کہ رہا ہے ۔ اس لئیے مناسب صورت یہ ہے کہ ہر شخص اپنی ضروریات کیلئے جس زبان کو سمجھتا ہو اس میں دعا کرے (ر) سب سے بڑا مفسدہ یہ ہے کہ امام بآواز بلند دعائیہ کلمات پڑھتا ہے اور عام طور پر بہت سے لوگ مسبوق ہوتے ہیں ، ان کی نماز میں خلل آتا ہے یہی وجہ ہے کہ رسول اللہ ﷺ اور صحابہ و تابیعن ائمہ دین رضوان اللہ علیھم میں کسی سے یہ صورت منقول نہیں کہ وہ دعا کریں اور مقتدی صرف آمین کہے۔ خلاصہ یہ کہ طریقہ مروجہ قرآن کے بتلائے ہوے طریقہ دعا کے خلاف ہے اور رسول اللہ ﷺ اور صحابہ کرام کی سنت کے بھی خلاف ہے۔ اس لئیے عام حالات میں اس سے اجتناب کرکے امام و مقتدی سب آہستہ دعا مانگیں، ہاں کسی خاص موقعہ پر جہاں مذکورہ مفاسد نہ ہوں کوئی ایک شخص جھراً دعا کرے اور دوسرے آمین کہیں تو کوئ مضاہقہ نہیں۔ (احکام الدعا ص ۱۰ ۔  ۱۳)

Mufti Shafi (RA) said: "Looking at the negative effects of congregational dua, no madhab or school of thought can possibly give permission for it. Some of its negative effects are:

 

1 When the imam makes dua and the followers say ameen it appears as though the imam is the linking rope between Allah Ta'ala and his servants.

 

2 The habit of many imams is to read the dua in arabic, and in most cases the imam himself does not understand what he is asking from Allah Ta'ala.

 

3 One of the wrongs that are found is that besides the common needs of the people, each person has his own individual needs. The imam is singing his previously memorized words and the crowd is saying "ameen'', that is why the most preferable way is that each person makes his own individual dua, and ask for his needs in the language that he understands.

 

4The greatest wrong is that the imam reads the words of dua loudly while most of the time there are late comers still completing their salah and they are distracted in their salaat. That is why it is not narrated from Rasulullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) nor from the sahabah (RA)  nor from the tabieen that collective dua after salah was made."

 

"The conclusion is that the habitual way of dua is against the manner of dua taught to us by the Quran and Sunnah, and is contrary to the lifestyle of Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and his companions (RA). Therefore, in normal cases it should be abstained from. The imam and the congregation should make their own silent individual duas. Yes, if a special occasion comes about and these harms are not found then there is no harm to make loud collective dua.

مولانا عبد الحق لکھنوی: یہ طریقہ جو زمانے میں رائج ہے کہ سلام کے بعد امام ہاتھ اٹھا کر دعا کرتا ہے اور مقتدی اس پر آمین آمین کہتے ہیں آنحضرت  ﷺ کے مبارک زماے میں نہ تھا جیسا کہ امام ابن القیم رحمه الله تعالى نے زادالمعاد میں تصریح کی ہے۔

Maulana Abdul Hai Lucknawi (RA): As for congregational dua, as is common nowadays where after salam the imam raises his hands and makes duas and the muqtadi's says Ameen, this practice was not found in the time of Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) like how Ibn Qayyim (RA) has mentioned.



احسن الفتاوی: دعا مروجہ کا تجزیہ: 0)  عوام اسے سنن صلوۃ میں سے سمجھنے لگے ہیں 1)  اس قدر التزام ہونے لگا ہے کہ تارک کو حدف ِ ملامت بنایا جاتا ہے۔ اگر کوئ امام اس طریقہ پر دعا نہ کرائے تو اسے علیحدہ کر دیا جاتا ہے۔ 2)  اخفاء کی افضلیت پر اجماع کے باوجود جھراً پر اصرار کیا جاتا ہے ۔ ان وجوہ کی بنا پر نمازوں کے بعد عام مساجد میں دعا کا مروجہ طریقہ ختم کرنا چاہئے اور علماء کو اس طرف زیادہ توجہ مبذول کرنا چاہیئے۔ ۔ ۔ ۔ اس لئیے اءمہ مساجد پر لازم ہے کہ جھر کی رسم کو تو بالکل ختم کر دیں اور اجتماعاً سری دعا سے متعلق بھی مقتدیوں کو یہ تبلیغ کرتے ہیں کہ یہ طریقہ سنت سے ثابت نہیں اس لیئے اس کا زیادہ اہتمام نہیں کرنا چاہئے۔ ۔ ۔ رسول اکرمﷺ روزانہ پانچ بار علانیہ باجماعت نماز ادا فرماتے تھے اگر آپ نے نماز کے بعد اجتماعی دعا فرمائی ہوتی تو اسکو کوئی متنفس تو نقل کرتا مگر ذخیرہ حدیث میں اسکا کہیں نشان نہیں ملتا اگر اسکا استحباب تسلیم کر بھی لیا جائے تو التزام بھر صورت بدعت ہے۔ (احسن الفتاوی ج ۳ ص ۶۵ ۔  ۶۶)


Mufti Rasheed Ahmed Ludhyanwi (RA) says that the experiences regarding the habitual dua:

 

1 People began regarding it as sunnat of salah.


2 The common people began holding so firm onto it, that they regard the person who omits it worthy of being rebuked. If an imam does not do it in this way he is discharged from his leadership.

3 Despite the consensus of opinion regarding silent dua being the best , still too loud dua is insisted upon.

 

Based on these reasons the habit of loud dua after the salaat should be banned from the masajid, and the ulama should give more attention to this. It is incumbent upon the imams of the masajid to eradicate the custom of loud dua and to propagate to the congregation that collective dua is not a sunnat. It should therefore not be given so much importance. Rasulullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  performed the five daily salaat with the congregation in front of all. If he ever did the dua with the congregation someone would definitely have narrated it. But that is not the case. In the treasures of ahadith there is not the slightest sign of it. Even if it is accepted to be a mustahab, to make it permanently is a bidat. "

On been questioned regarding the congregational supplication after the Fardh Salaah in a loud tone Mufti Taqi Uthmani Saheb (DB) answers as follows:

"Congregational supplication; is never reported to be performed by the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  in the manner explained in your question. It appears from the relevant ahadeeth that in the days of the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  he used to pray on his own; even after salah. But at the same time there is no clear injunction in the Holy Quraan or in the Sunnah which prohibits such congregational supplications. In view of both these aspects, the correct position is that the congregational supplications are neither a sunnah nor something prohibited. It is only one of the several permissible ways of performing supplication.



However, if somebody takes this congregational method as obligatory or as a sunnah of the Holy Prophet e: then this wrong concept will render this practice a n bidah " (innovation), hence impermissible, because a practice which was not obligatory or a sunnah at the time of the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  cannot be held as such after him. It will be a self-coined addition to the prescribed ways of worship, which is termed as bid'ah in the words of the Holy Prophet t!!t and is strictly prohibited.

"In the light of this principle, if the congregational way of supplication is adopted only for the convenience for the audience, without taking this particular manner as an obligatory method or a sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  it is quite in order in the Shariah. But if this method is observed with a belief of its being obligatory or a sunnah, it is not allowed" "It is noticed that where congregational supplications are permanently observed, it sometimes creates an impression that such collective supplications is a necessary part of the salah, since this impression is not correct, as discussed earlier, it is advisable to avoid congregational form of supplication at frequent occassion s, and to educate the people about the correct position as mentioned above. " (Contemporary Fatawa Pg 32 - 33 )



قال الشیخ عبدالحق دھلوی رحمه الله تعالى : ما معناہ ۔ واما ھذا الذی تعورف فی بلاد العرب والعجم (ای فی عصرہ) من ان ائمۃ المساجد والموتمین یدعون بعد السلام مجتمعین ، یدعو ائمۃ والموتمین ، فلم یکن ذلک من من ھدن النبی ﷺ ولم یرد فی ذلک ۱ی حدیث ووانما ھی بدعۃ استحسنت ۔ (عماد الدین ۳۹۷)


Sheikh Abdul Haq Delhwi (RA) said: "This habit which is common in both the Arab and non Arab world that the imams of the masajid and the congregation make collective dua, the imam recites the dua and the congregation says ameen, this is not from the practice of Nabi ﷺ and is not substantiated by any hadith. It has been regarded as a bidat hasana.



قال الشیخ العلامۃ المحدث المحقق مولانا خلیل احمد سھارنپوری رحمه الله تعالى : واما ما یفعلھ بعص العوام من رفع الیدین فی الدعاء عند دعا الجماعۃ من اءمۃ الشافعیۃ والحنفیۃ بعد الصلوۃ فلا وجھ لھ ولا عبرۃ بما جوزہ ابن الحجر المکی (عماد الدین ۳۹۸ بحوالہ بذل المجحود ج ۳ ص ۱۳۸ )

Sheikh AlIamah al Muhaddith al Muhqqiq Maulana Khaleel Ahmed Sahanpury (RA) said: "There is no reasonable proof for lifting the hands when the shaft or hanafi imaams make dua after salah. And there is no regard of the permissibility given by Ibn Hajar al Makki (RA).



اعلاء االسنن: ولا حجۃ لھم ایضاً فیما ورد من الترغیب العام فی الدعا بعد کل صلوۃ فرضا او نافلۃ ، فانھ لیس فیہ ان یکون ھذا الدعاءباالجتماع والنتظار ، ولا فیما قالھ الشربنلالی فی نور الایضاح و شرحھ بعد قولھ: القیام الی ادا ء السنۃ التی تلی الفرض متصل بالفرض مسنون ما نصھ : و یستحب للامام بعد سلامھ ان یتحولھ الی جھۃ یسارہ لتطوع بعض الفرض ، و یستحب ان یستقبل بعدہ و یستغفرون اللہ ثلاث ، ویقروون المعوذات و آیۃ الکرسی و یسبحون اللہ و یحمدونھ و یکبرونھ ثلاث و ثلاثین ثم یدعون لانفسھم و للمسلمین رافعی ایدیھم ، الاخ ۔ ۔ ۔ فانھ لا دلالۃ فیھ علی قراءتھ کل ذلک والدعا ء بعدھا مجتمعین ، وان یفعل ذلک کلھ فی المسجد ، فان الصیغہ الجمع لا تستدعی الاجتماع والاصطحاب اصلا ، نص علی ذلک الاصولیون ، فمعنی کلامھ ان المسلمین ینبغی لھم قراءۃ الاوراد الماثورۃ بعد المکتوبات بان یاتی کل واحد بھا علی حلۃ ، و یدعوا کل احد بعدھا لنفسھ للمسلمین ، لان شربنلالی نفسھ قد نص قبل ذلک علی ان الافضل بالسنن اداوھا  فیما ھو ا بعد من الریاء ، واجمع للخصوص ، سوائفی بیتھ او غیرہ۔ (اعلاء االسنن ج ۳ ص ۲۰۲ ۔ ۲۰۷ )

Maulana Zafar Ahmed Thanwi (RA) mentions: "And there is no proof for them (those who permit congregational dua) in those narrations which are narrated with regards to the general encouragement of dua after salah, be it fardh or nafl salah, because there is no mention that this dua should be with the congregation and that one should wait for it. There is no proof for them also in what Allamah Shurunbulali (RA)  has said and explained in Noor-ul-Idhaah that to stand immediately after the fardh salah for the respective sunnah salah is sunnah. He said it is mustahab for the imam after making salaam to turn towards his left for the nafl salah after fardh. It is mustahab that he faces the people after that whilst they all read istighfaar 3 times, muawazaat (surah al-falaq and surah an-naas), ayatul kursie, subhaananallah, alhamdulillal and allah-u-akbar 33 times each, thereafter they will make dua for themselves and for all Muslims at large with their hands raised up…there is no proof in this that they should all read this, make dua collectively and do it in the masjid because the plural tense does not denote upon congregation at all, as the jurists have clarified. Therefore the meaning of his words would be that all Muslims should carry out this prescription after the faradh salah individually thereafter each one should individually make dua for himself and all muslims at large. Shurunbulali (RA) has himself clarified that it is best to perform the sunnah salah in a manner which keeps one far away from pride, which is more conducive to sincerity, be it at home or elsewhere.



قد راج فی کثیر من البلاد الدعا بھیءۃ الجتماءیۃ رافعین ایدیھم بعد الصلوۃ المکتوبۃ ولم یثبت ذلک فی عھدہ ﷺ و بالاخصّ بالمواظبۃ ۔ نعم! ثبتت ادعیۃ کثیرۃ بالتواتر بعد المکتوبۃ ولکنّھا من غیر رفع الایدی ومن غیر ھیءۃ الجتماءیۃ  ( دعا بعد الفرا ئض  ۲۳ معارف االسنن ۳ ۔ ۴۰۹)

At another place he mentions: "In many places congregational duo after the fardh salah whilst raising the hands has become common. This was not found in the time of Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  especially when it is done persistently. Yes, many duas have been established, but it is without lifting of the hands and without being in congregation."



یہ جو رواج ہے کہ سلام پھیرنے کے بعد دعاء میں بھی مقتدی نماز ہی کی طرح امام کے پابند رہتے ہیں ۔ حتّی کہ کسی کو جلدی جانے کی ضرورت ہو تو بھی امام سے پہلے اسکا اٹھنا برا مسجھا جاتا ہے۔ یہ بالکل بے اصل ہے بلکہ قابل ِ اصلاح ہے ۔ امام اور اقتداء کا رابطہ سلام پھیرنے پر ختم ہو جاتا ہے اسلئے دعاء میں امام کی اقتداء اور پابندی ضروری نہیں۔ چاہے تو مختصر دعاء کرکے اما م سے پہلے اٹھ جائے اور چاہے تو اپنے ذوق کے مطابق دیر تک دعاء کرتا رہے۔ ( دعا بعد الفرا ئض  ۲۵ معارف االحدیث ۳ ۔ ۳۱۸)

Maulana Manzoor Numani (RA) mentions: "The practice whereby after salam the muqatdi follows the imam like in salah to such an extent that even if a person is in a hurry and he still considers it unacceptable to leave before the imam; has no basis and needs to be rectified. The link between the imam and muqtadi ends with salam therefore it is not necessary to follow the imam in dua. If he wishes he could make a short dua and leave before the imam and if he wishes he could make a long duo as he wishes."



رسول اللہ ﷺ اور صحابہ و تابیعن ائمہ دین رضوان اللہ علیھم میں کسی سے یہ صورت منقول نہیں کہ وہ دعا کریں اور مقتدی صرف آمین کہے۔ خلاصہ یہ کہ طریقہ مروجہ قرآن کے بتلائے ہوے طریقہ دعا کے خلاف ہے اور رسول اللہ ﷺ اور صحابہ کرام کی سنت کے بھی خلاف ہے۔ اس لئیے عام حالات میں اس سے اجتناب کرکے امام و مقتدی سب آہستہ دعا مانگیں، ہاں کسی خاص موقعہ پر جہاں مذکورہ مفاسد نہ ہوں کوئی ایک شخص جھراً دعا کرے اور دوسرے آمین کہیں تو کوئ مضاہقہ نہیں۔ (احکام الدعا ص ۱۰ ۔  ۱۳)

Mufti Shafi (RA) mentions: "The muqtadi only saying ameen has not been narrated from Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) nor the Sahaba (RA), tabieen or uama. In short this method goes against the teachings of the Quraan, the sunnah of Rasuullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and the sahaba (RA).  In such conditions the imam and muqtadi should make silent dua."



اب رہی یہ بات کہ دعاء میں امام جھر کا التزام کرے اس طرح سے کہ اس کے خلاف کرنے والے کو مطعون کیا جائے اور اس کی مخالفت کی جائے تو ایسی صورت میں ان کی موافقت کی جائے یا مخالفت؟ عرض ہے کہ قواعد فقیہھ میں غور کرنے سے معلوم ہوتا ہے کہ جو کام مستحب ہو اور لوگ اسکو سنت مقصودہ یا واجب سمجھنے لگیں ، تو اسکو منع کیا جاے ، فقھ میں اسکی چند نظیریں ملتی ہیں ، پہلی نظیر سجدہ شکر کی ہے کہ کسی نعمت کے حاصل ہونے پر  سجدہ شکر بجا لانا حدیث سے ثابت ہے مگر پھر بھی امام ابو حنیفہ نماز کے بعد اس کو مکروہ فرماتے ہیں اور اسکی وجہ بقول علامہ شامی صرف یھی ہے کہ  اس میں احتمال ہے کہ عوام اس کو سنت مقصودہ یا واجب نہ سمجھیں۔ چناچہ درمختار علی ھامش للشامیۃ میں ہے لکنّھا (ای سجدۃ الشکر) تکرہ بعد الصلوۃ لان الجھلۃ یعتقدونھا سنۃ او واجبۃ وکل مباح یودی الیھ فمکروۃ قال الشامی وما یفعل عقیب الصلوۃ فمکروہ لان الجھال یعتقدونھا سنۃ او واجبۃ وکل مباح یودی الیہ مکروہ (شامی جلد اول ص ۵۲۴ بحث سجدہ شکر) اس سے صاف معلوم ہوتا یے کہ جو کام واجب یا سنت نہ ہو بلکہ مستحب یا مباح ہو اگر یہ احتمال ہو کہ عوام اسکو واجب سمجھ لیں گے تو اس سے منع کیا جائے گا وہ مکروہ ہو جاتا ہے ۔ اسی طرح دعاء جھری بھی زیادہ سے زیادہ جاءز ہو سکتی ہے پھر اسکا التزام اس قدر کہ خلاف ہی نہ ہو بلکہ مزید برآں یہ کہ خلاف کرنے والے پر نکیر اور اعتراض کیا جاے یہ علامت اس کی ہے کہ اس کو اعتقاداً یا عملاً واجب خیال کرتے ہیں اسکا ترک ضروری ہے۔ (ملفاظات ص ۱۵۳ ۔ ۱۵۴)

Maulana Moseehullah Khan (RA) mentions: "As for a situation where people persist on loud dua and condemn those who leave it out, then should one follow this practice or not? By pondering over the rules of shariah, if we find any action being mustahab and people consider it to be sunnah or wajib then such actions should be prevented. Many examples of this are found in the books of fiqh. The first example is sajda shukr i.e. making sajda upon receiving any bounty from Allah Ta'ala. Although this has been established in the hadeeth then too Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) mentions that it is makrooh. According to Allamah Shami  (RA) the only reason for this is the possibility of people considering it to be wajib. . .. It is clear from this that if the possibility of considering any permissible or mustahab act as wajib then such acts should be prohibited. In a similar manner loud dua at most could be permissible. Holding on to it in such a manner that the opposite does not take place at all and condemning the one who leaves it out are signs to show that it has been taken as wajib. Therefore it is necessary to leave it out."



اس مضمون کو مکمل کرنے کے بعد تفسیر روح المعانی میں مندرجہ ذیل عبارت ملی جس میں تصریح ہے کہ مساجد میں بالخصوص بلند آواز سے دعاء کرنا بدعت ہے (یعنی دین میں ایسی بات پیدا کرنا جو شرع سے ثابت نہیں ۔ کل بدعۃ ضلالۃ و کل ضلالۃ فی النار ۔ یعنی ہر بدعت گمراہی ھے اور ہر گمراہی دوزخ میں لے جانے والی ہے )  وہ عبارت یہ ہے: وتری کثیراً من اھل زمانک یعتمدون الصراخ فی الدعا خصوصاً فی الجوامع ولا یدرون انھم جمعوا بدعتین رفع الصوت فی الدعاء و کون ذلک فی المساجد

"After compiling the above I found the same thing mentioned in Tafseer Roohul Ma'ani, namely that loud dua especially in the masjid, is an innovation. It is mentioned in a Hadeeth "Every innovation is means of misguidance and every misguidance leads to hell." The text of Ruhul Ma'ani is: You will find many people in your era making loud dua especially in the big masjids not realising that they have combined two innovations the first of raising the voice and the second it being in the masjid."



سوال: نماز کے بعد جو دعاء امام کے ساتھ مانگتے ہیں اس میں آمین کہنا چاہئے یا جو مرضی ہو دعاء مانگے؟ جواب: جو دعاء چاہے مانگے یہ ضروری نہیں کہ امام کی دعا پرآمین کہے۔ (فتاوی دارلعلوم ج ۲ ص ۲۰۱ بحوالہ ردالمحتار باب صفۃ الصلوۃ ج ا ص ۳۸۹)

Question: Should one say amen to the dua made by the imam after salah or can one make his own dua? Answer: One can make whatever dua he wishes. It is not necessary to follow the imam.



الفروق مع ھوامشۃ ۔ (ج ۴ ۔ ص ۴۹۱) دارالکتب العلمیۃ کرۃ مالک و جماعۃ من العلماء رحمھم اللہ لاءمۃ المساجد والجماعات الدعاء عقیب الصلوات المکتوبات جھرا للحاضرین فیجتمع لھذا الامام التقدم فی الصلاۃ وشرف کونھ نصب نفسھ واسطۃ بین اللہ تعالی و عبادہ فی تحصیل مصالحھم علی یدہ بالدعاء و یوشک ان تعظم نفسھ عندہ فیفسد قلبھ و یعصی ربھ فی ھذہ الحالۃ اکثر مما یطیعھ

"Imam Malik (RA) and a group of other ulama opine that it is makrooh for the imam to make loud dua for those present as this will lead to the imam being the leader of the salah and he will also become the link between Allah Ta 'ala and his bondsmen in them attaining their needs."


الام ۔ (ج ۱ ص ۱۲۷) دارالمعرفۃ واختار للامام والماموم ان یذکرا اللہ بعد الانصراف من الصلاۃ ویخفیان الذکر

Imam Shafi (RA) mentions: "I prefer for the imam and muqtadi to make zikr after salah and they should make it silently."



فرض نماز کے بعد دعا کی کیفیت کیا ہونی چاہیئے؟ س: بعض امام صاحب ہر نماز کے بعد دعاء عربی میں مانگتے ہیں۔ کیا اردو میں مانگ سکتے ہیں یا نہیں؟ نیز یہ بھی بتائیں کہ دعاء مختصر ہونی چاہیئے یا لمبی؟  ج: فرض نماز کے بعد دعاء مختصر ہونی چاہیئے اور آہستہ کی جانی چاہیئے اپنے اپنے طور پر جس شخص کی جو حاجت ہو اس کیلئے دعاء کرے عربی الفاط ہمیشہ بلند آواز سے نہ کہے جائیں۔ (Aap Kay Masail 2/272)

Maulana Yusuf Ludhwani (RA) upon being asked the method of making duo after salah replied as follows: "After fardh salah the dua should be short, carried out individually and softly. Every person should ask for his own needs. The Arabic dua's should not be always read out loud."



یستجب فی الدعاء اخفا ء و رفع الصوت بدعۃ (دعا بعد الفرائض ۳۱ فتاوی سراجیۃ ۷۲)

Allamah Sirajud Deen (RA) mentions: "Loud dua is an innovation."



واضح رہے کہ آجکل فرض نمازوں کے بعد یہ دعاومناجات جو مشھور ہے جس میں امام و مقتدی سب مل کر ہاتھ اٹھاتے ہیں۔ امام دعاء کرتا ہے اور مقتدی آمین آمین کہتے ہیں شروع اور بیچ بیچ میں بلند آواز سے اللھم آمین کہتے ہیں اور ختم ہونے پر اللھم آمین یا ارحم الراحمین وغیرہ کہتے ہیں اور اسکو نماز کی مناجات کہتے ہیں یہ آنحضرت  ﷺ ، خلفاے راشدین اور اءمۃ مجتھدین سے قطعاً ثابت نہیں۔ اس بارے میں کوئ بھی کسی قسم کی حدیث ثابت نہیں نہ صحیح نہ ضعیف نہ موضوع ۔ چناچہ تتبع و تلاش کرنے والے حضرات پر پوشیدہ نہیں۔ (دعا بعد الفرائض ۳۳ احکام الدعوات المروجۃ ۱۴ )

"It should be noted that the common practice after fardh salah whereby the imam and muqtadi congregate and lift their hands and the imam makes dua and the muqtadi says ameen has definitely not been established from Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  nor the Sahaba (RA). No hadeeth has been established in this regard."



ھمارے زمانے کے اءمۃ مساجد کو اللہ تعالی ھدایت فرما دیں کہ قرآن و سنت کی اس تلقین اور اسک ھدایت کو یکسر چھوڑ بیٹھے۔ ہر نماز کے بعد دعاء کی ایک مصنوعی سی کاروائی ہوتی ہے۔ بلند آواز سے کچھ کلمات کہے جاتے ہیں جو آداب دعاء کے خلاف ہونے کے ساتھ ان نمازیوں کی نماز میں بھی خلل انداز ہوتے ہیں جو مسبوق ہونے کی وجہ سے امام کے فارغ ہونے کے بعد اپنی باقی ماندہ نماز پوری کر رہے ہیں۔ غلبہ رسوم نے اس کی برائی اور مفاسد کو ان کی نظروں سے اوجھل کر دیا ہے۔ (معارف القرآن ۔ ج ۳ ص ۵۷۸)

It is mentioned in Ma'ariful Quran: "May Allah guide the imams of our masajid. They left the teachings of the Quran, sunnah and practices of our pious predecessors. After every salah superficial dua takes place, in raised voices which besides going against the etiquettes of dua it also causes disturbance in the salah of the late comers."



دوام کو منع نہیں کیا جاتا التزام اعتقادی یا عملی کو منع کیا جاتا ہے۔  التزام اعتقادی یہ ہے کہ اس کو ضروری سمجھے اور التزام عملی یہ ہے کہ اس کے ترک پر ملامت کریں۔ (امداد الفتاوی ۔ ج ۵ ص ۳۰۸)

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) mentions: "Continual practice on something is not prohibited. However, dogmatically obligating something on oneself or pragmatically is prohibited. Dogmatic obligation is considering something necessary and pragmatic obligation is when one condemns those who leave it out."



و روی ابن جریر عن ابن جریح ان رفع الصوت بالدعاء من الاعتداء المشار الیھ بقولھ تعالی انھ لا یحب المعتدین۔ (روح المعانی ج ۸ ص ۱۳۹ )


Ibn Jarir (RA) narrates from Ibn Jurayj (RA) "Raising the voice in dua is a form of transgressing the limits as indicated to by the verse verily Allah does not love those who transgress the bounds."



عبد الفتاح ابو غدۃ نعم اذا قال احد بسنیۃ خصوص ھذہ الھیئۃ الترکیبۃ والتزامھا مع انکار علی من ترکھا فذاک خطا لا یقر علیھ (ثلاث رسائل فی استحباب الدعاء ۳۷)

Sheikh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah (RA) mentions: "Yes if anybody considers this (congregational dua whilst raising the hands) as a sunnah and persists on it and condemns the one who leaves it out, then this is incorrect and unacceptable."



And Allah knows best Wassalam

M. Ishaq E. Moosa, Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darullftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

The ulama should first educate their congregation on the sunnah method of Adhkar after salah and gradually inform them that the congregational dua is not compulsory and was not practised at the time of Rasulullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam).

Get the congregation to first understand that congregational dua is mubah and not compulsory. Do not condemn the practice without educating the congregation. This will lead to fitna.

Salutations upon the Prophet (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam) before and after the dua: