Qunut Nazilah: Special Collective Supplication at the time of extreme need

 calamity

The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) offered supplication (du’aa’) at times of calamity on a number of occasions.



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Qunut Nazilah:

What it is not!

Qunut Nazilah is different to Dua (Qunut) which is recited in Wit'r Salah daily.

Why?

In his noble lifetime Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) offered supplication (du’aa’) at times of calamity on a number of occasions in the time of extreme distress and need thus beseeching Allah (SWT) for His Mercy and benevolence.  Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) made the following Qunut Nazilah for the salvation of the weak and oppressed in Makkah:

 حدثنا قتيبة حدثنا مغيرة بن عبد الرحمن عن أبي الزناد عن الأعرج عن أبي هريرة أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان إذا رفع رأسه من الركعة الآخرة يقول اللهم أنج عياش بن أبي ربيعة اللهم أنج سلمة بن هشام اللهم أنج الوليد بن الوليد اللهم أنج المستضعفين من المؤمنين اللهم اشدد وطأتك على مضر اللهم اجعلها سنين كسني يوسف وأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: غفار غفر الله لها وأسلم سالمها الله قال ابن أبي الزناد عن أبيه هذا كله في الصبح

Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (RA) narrated that Whenever the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) lifted his head from the bowing in the last Raka he used to say: "O Allah! Save 'Aiyash bin Abi Rabi'a. O Allah! Save Salama bin Hisham. O Allah! Save Walid bin Walid. O Allah! Save the weak faithful believers. O Allah! Be hard on the tribes of Mudar and send (famine) years on them like the famine years of (Prophet) Joseph ." The Prophet further said, "Allah forgive the tribes of Ghifar and save the tribes of Aslam." Abu Az-Zinad (a sub-narrator) said, "The Qunut used to be recited by the Prophet in the Fajr prayer." [Bukhari]

Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) also made curses in Qunoot:

حدثنا أحمد بن محمد أخبرنا عبد الله أخبرنا معمر عن الزهري عن سالم عن ابن عمر أنه سمع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول في صلاة الفجر ورفع رأسه من الركوع قال اللهم ربنا ولك الحمد في الأخيرة ثم قال اللهم العن فلانا وفلانا فأنزل الله عز وجل ليس لك من الأمر شيء أو يتوب عليهم أو يعذبهم فإنهم ظالمون

Sayyiduna Ibn 'Umar (RA) narrated that he heard the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam), after raising his head from the bowing in morning prayer, saying, "O Allah, our Lord! All the praises are for you." And in the last (Rak'a) he said, "O Allah! Curse so-and-so and so--and-so." And then Allah revealed: [3:128] You have no authority in the matter, unless Allah forgives them or punishes them, as they are unjust. [Bukhari]


When?

In the Hanafi Madhab, Qunoot is only recited after Fajar Salah after the second Ruku as indicated in the Ahadeeth, above.

What to recite?

Any duas which are applicable to the needs of the Muslims can be recited although the duas mentioned in the Sunnah are obviously considered superior such as:

qunut1

Transliteration: Allahummahdini fi man hadayta, wa Afini fi man Afayta, wa tawallani fi man tawallayta, wa barik li fi man A'a tait, wa qini sharra ma qadayta, fa innaka taqdi wala yuqda alayka, wa innahu la yadhillu man wa layta, tabarakta rabbana wata alayt.

Translation: O Allah! Guide me along with those who have been guided aright and grant me safety along with those who have been granted safety and patronise me along with those who have been patronised and add your blessing to what You have given me and save me from the injurious effects to what you have ordained. You alone dispose and no other can dispose against you. One who is under Your Protection cannot be lowered. You are full of blessing and Most High.

qunut2

Transliteration: Allâhummaghfir lilmu’minina wal mu’minât, wal muslimina wal muslimât, wa allif bayna qulübihim, wa aslih dhâta baynihim, wansurhum alâ aduwwika wa ala aduwwihim Allâhummal an kafarata ahlil kitâbil-ladhina yukadh-dhibüna rusulak, wa yuqâtiluna awliyâ-’ak. Allâhumma khâlif bayna kalimati-him, wazaizil aqdãmahum wa anzil bihim ba’sakal ladhi lâ tarudduhu anil qawmil mujrimin.

Translation: O Allah forgive all the Mu ‘min men and women and all Muslim men and women. Unite their hearts with mutual love and set aright their mutual affairs and help them against Your and their enemies. 0 Allah let Your curse be on those disbelievers from among the people of the book who belie the Prophets and who fight Your chosen ones. 0 Allah disunite them and shake their feet and send upon them your punishment, which you do not turn away from sinning people.

How to recite?

1 Since there is no explicit evidence of raising his hands in the Sunnah during Qunut so in the Hanafi Madhab the Imam and the Muqatadi is supposed to keep their hands on their side during Qunut.

 

2 Since there is no explicit evidence of the followers uttering Ameen loudly behind Sayyiduna Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) in the Hanafi Madhab Ameen is uttered silently.

 


 

Detailed Account of Qunut Nazilah:

Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

Q.) We in Long Island, NY, USA are a multiethnic Muslim community who runs a mosque. It is one of the largest mosque in Long Island (Alhamdolillah). Our Imam has started adding Qanoot-e-Naazilah in every salat including Zuhr and Asr prayers where recitation is not done loudly but he makes du'a in the last rak'at loudly, and he does the same thing in other three prayers too. He is also reciting many other du'as in addition to Qanoot-e Naazilah. Majority of the people behind him are Hanafi although Shafii and Maliki are also there. My question is what is the fiqh position of this act according to all school of thoughts? Is it allowed in the Sunnah of Muhammed, peace be upon him? How much and what is allowed to make dua during this act?

A.) According to the Hanafi Madhab, Qunoot-e-Naazila will only be recited at times of hardship, difficulties and when the Ummah has been affected by calamities. This Qunoot Naazila can only be recited by the Imaam in the Fajr Salat after Ruku before going down for Sajdah in the second Rakaat. It cannot be recited in any other Salat besides Fajr Salat.

1 According to the Shaafi'ee Madhab, the general Qunoot has to be recited in the daily Fajr Salat. When in times of difficulty and need, then the Qunoot-e-Naazila may be recited in all prayers. The Imaam and also one who is performing Salat individually both may recite it audibly even though it is Dhuhr or Asr Salat

2 According to the Maaliki Madhab, the general Qunoot can be recited in Fajr Salat only. However, there is no obligation to recite it (as in the Shaafi'ee Madhab). It may be recited softly in the Fajr Salat only and not in any of the other prayers, even though the need arises because of difficult and severe conditions

3 According to the Hanbali Madhab, Qunoot Naazila can be recited during difficult situations with the exception of plague. If people are affected by plague, then Qunoot-e-Naazila cannot be recited for them. The Qunoot-e-Naazila may be recited in all prayers besides Jummu'ah. The Imaam will recite it after the Ruku and it is Sunnat for the followers to follow by stretching out their hands in front of their chest (as in du'a). When the Qunoot is over, they should wipe their hands over their faces.

As for the actual du'a, then according to all the schools of thought, it is preferable to recite the du'as that have been narrated in the Ahaadith. However, other du'as are permitted. The du'as must be in Arabic and must not resemble Kalaamun-Naas (talk of people).

We are not fully aware of the situation, however, outwardly it seems as though the Imaam in your Masjid is a follower of the Shaafii Madhab.

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best