Search us

Bookmark us

FacebookMySpaceTwitterDiggDeliciousStumbleuponGoogle BookmarksRedditNewsvineTechnoratiLinkedinMixxRSS Feed
Print Friendly and PDF

Gateway to Arabic verbs

 

 FCA

This chapter introduces the student to the world of Arabic verbs.


Gateway to Arabic verbs

Introduction to Simple Past Tense:

In this chapter we introduce the student to Arabic verbs, Insha’Allah.
The first thing a student needs to know that the basic pattern of simple Arabic past tense used in majority of grammar books is فَعَلَ which consists of 3 letters as follows. The student needs to understand the following rules with regard to simple past tense which consists of 3 letters:

 

1 The first letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ف letter and this will always have a Fatha on it like فَ

 

2 The second letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ 

 

3 The last letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ل letter and this will always have a Fatha on it like لَ

 

 4 The simple past tense is مَبْنِي (fixed) so its appearence never changes and it always looks the same! 

 

 

Remember that English grammar only has Singular and Plural but Arabic grammar actually has Singular, Dual and Plural so accounting for 3rd person, 2nd person and 1st person a student has to memorise 14 conjugations of the verbs. We suggest using a simply technique and associating each conjugated state with a position on the right hand finger. Experience has taught us that after a few sessions’ students begin to pick their own mistakes and associate each conjugated state to its correct grammatical form. Here is a sample which the students need to come to terms with in English before practising with real verbs.

Conjugation-Begin

 

 

All forms of simple past tense are demonstrated as follows:

 

Meaning

Subject/Suffix

Base Form

Verb

 

 

3rd Person (M)

He did

 N/A

 فعل

 فَعَلَ

Advanced Lesson:

 

Saakin

Form of the verb, note that the suffix has a Sukoon on it

They (Dual) Did

 ا

 فعل

 فَعَلاَ

 They (Plural) Did

 وْا

 فعل

 فَعَلُوا

 

3rd Person (F)

 She did

  (not Subject)تْ

 فعل

 فَعَلَتْ

 They (Dual) Did

 تَا

 فعل

 فَعَلَتَا

 They (Plural) Did

 نَ

 فعل

 فَعَلْنَ

Advanced Lesson:

 

Mutaharrik

Form of the verb, note that the suffix has a vowel on it

 

2nd Person (M)

 You Did

 تَ

 فعل

 فَعَلْتَ

 They (Dual) Did

 تُمَا

 فعل

 فَعَلْتُمَا

 You (Plural) Did

 تُمْ

 فعل

 فَعَلْتُمْ

 

2nd Person (F)

 You Did

 تِ

 فعل

 فَعَلْتِ

 They (Dual) Did

 تُمَا

 فعل

 فَعَلْتُمَا

 You (Plural) Did

 تُنَّ

 فعل

 فَعَلْتُنَّ

 

1st Person

 I did

 تُ

 فعل

 فَعَلْتُ

 We did

 نَا

 فعل

 فَعَلْنَا

 At this point we need to point out a few observations in the table above:

 

1 The تْ in the verb conjugation form فَعَلَتْ is a suffix but not a subject. The subject is implied just like it is in the base form of فَعَلَ

 

2The extreme right column dividing the verbs into Saakin and Mutaharrik is a little advanced to explain at this point so it should be skipped for beginner students except for just showing them the vowel signs.

 

2He/She is the same as "It"

 

These conjugated verb forms should be taught to the students using the right hand as follows:

Conjugation-Begin-Past

 

Assignment:

Students should be given the following common past tense and made to conjugate them first and then pointing out the subject in each of them:

 

1 He went ذَهَبَ

 

2 He left خَرَجَ

 

3 He returned رَجَعَ

 

4 He helped نَصَرَ

 

5 He heard سَمِعَ

 

6 He understood فَهِمَ

 

7 He memorised حَفِظَ

 

8 He rode رَكِبَ

 

9 He worked عَمِلَ

 

10 He became noble كَرُمَ

 

11 He became large/bigger كَبُرَ

 

12 He approached قَرُبَ

Negative past tense?

1  Add a مَا in front of the past tense e.g. مَا فَعَلَ and it becomes "He did not do!"

 

2  If you are using an either or statement and two past tense then you do have the option of using لَا in front of the past tense but it should be used in front of both of the past tenses e.g. مَا أَكَلْتُ وَ مَا شَرِبْتُ and it becomes I neither eat nor drank.

 

Active Participle (الاسم الفاعل)

The active participle (الاسم الفاعل) refers to a person who does the action described by the base letters. For example, the basic past tense letters of فَعَلَ make the active participle of فَاعِلٌ so just an ا is added.

Assignment:

Students should make active participle of the verbs provided above.

Passive Participle (الاسم المفعول )

The passive participle (الاسم الفاعل) refers to a person or thing upon which the action described by the base letters is enacted. For example, the basic past tense letters of فَعَلَ make the passive participle of مَفعُوْلٌ . Please keep in mind that this rule only applies to transitive (الفِعْلُ المُتَعَدِّي) verbs i.e. verbs which require an object (مـَـــفــعـــُـــول بـــِــه).

Assignment:

Students should make passive participle of the verbs provided above.

 

 


 

Introduction to Simple Present Tense:

The first thing a student needs to know that the basic pattern of simple Arabic present tense used in majority of grammar books is يَفْعَلُ which consists of 4 letters as follows. The student needs to understand the following rules with regard to simple past tense which consists of 3 letters:

 

1 The first letter is of the four letter present tense is a prefix with always carries a Fathah so this will always be يَ or تَ orأَ or نَ . You won't have any other letters in the start.

 

2 The second letter of the four letter present tense is called ف letter and this will always have a Sukoon on it like فْ

 

3 The third letter of the four letter present tense is called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ 

 

 4 The last letter of the four letter present tense is called ل letter and this will always have a Damma on it like لُ .The position of Damma on the last letter makes the verb "Marfoo"

 

All forms of simple Arabic present tense are demonstrated as follows:

 

 

Meaning

Subject/Suffix

Base Form

Prefix

Verb

 

3rd Person (M)

He does

N/A (Subject optional)

 فعل

 يَ

يَفْعَلُ

They (Dual) Do

انِ

 فعل

 يَ

يَفْعَلاَنِ

They (Plural) Do

وْنِ

 فعل

 يَ

يَفْعَلُونَ

 

3rd Person (F)

She does

N/A (Subject optional)

 فعل

تَ تَفْعَلُ

They (Dual) Do

انِ

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلاَنِ

They (Plural) Do

نَ

 فعل

 يَ

يَفْعَلْنَ

 

2nd Person (M)

You Do

 

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلُ

You (Dual) Do

انِ

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلاَنِ

You (Plural) Do

وْنِ

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلُونَ

 

2nd Person (F)

You Do

 

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلِينَ

You (Dual) Do

انِ

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلاَنِ

You (Plural) Do

نَ

 فعل

 تَ

تَفْعَلْنَ

 

1st Person

 I Do

N/A (Subject always assumed)

 فعل

 أَ

أَفْعَلُ

We Do

N/A (Subject always assumed)

 فعل

 نَ

نَفْعَلُ

 

Five (5) easy ones:

The easiet way to introduce the present tense is to teach students five (5) easy ones which simply carry a prefix as follows:

 

Conjugation-Begin-Present-Basic-5

 

 1 Change the vowel on the last which is the ل letter and from Damma to Fatha like  لَ  and this makes the verb "Mansoob"

 

 2 Change the vowel on the last which is the ل letter and from Damma to Sukoon like  لْ  and this makes the verb "Majzoom"

 

Assignment:

Students should be given the following common past tense verbs to convert to present tense and derive the five (5) easy ones in all three grammatical states i.e. Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom.

1 He wrote كَتَبَ

 

2 He entered دَخَلَ

 

3 He sought طَلَبَ

 

4 He killed قَتَلَ

 

5 He studies دَرَسَ

Two (2) Mabni ones:

These are created by taking يَفْعَلُ or تَفْعَلُ and first converting it intoيَفْعَلْ or تَفْعَلْ respectively and then adding نَ to it. These are Mabni so there is no visible change in Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom.

These two are the only Mutaharrik forms of present tense and rest of the conjugations are all Saakin.

Conjugation-Begin-Present-Basic-7

 

Assignment:

Students should be given the following common past tense verbs to convert to present tense and seven conjugations in all three grammatical states i.e. Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom.

1 He wrote كَتَبَ

 

2 He entered دَخَلَ

 

3 He sought طَلَبَ

 

4 He killed قَتَلَ

 

5 He studies دَرَسَ

 

Seven (7) Vanishing Noones:

This isn't a grammatical classification but something easy to remember. In these conjugations the ن at the end vanishes when the verb goes from Marfoo to Mansoob or Marfoo to Majzoom states. First the entire table in the Marfoo state:

Conjugation-Begin-Present

 


You have guessed it correctly the Mansoob and Majzoom states of these conjugation states are the same!

Assignment:

Students should be given the following common past tense verbs to convert to present tense in all three grammatical states i.e. Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom.

1 He wrote كَتَبَ

 

2 He entered دَخَلَ

 

3 He sought طَلَبَ

 

4 He killed قَتَلَ

 

5 He studies دَرَسَ

 

Six (6) groups of Past-Present tense conversion:

The second letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ .The third letter of the four letter present tense is called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ 

 

Therefore when all possible combinations from past tense to present tense are settled we end up six basic groups as follows:

 

1 ( باب نَصَر /يَنْصُرُ  )A-U Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عُ in the present tense.

 

2 ( باب ضَرَبَ /يَضْرِبُ  )A-I Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عِ in the present tense.

 

3 ( باب فَتَحَ /يَفْتَحُ  )A-A Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense remains as the same as عَ in the present tense.

 

4 ( باب كَرُمَ /يَكْرُمُ  )U-U Group: In this group the عُ  in the past tense remains as the same as عُ in the present tense.

 

5 ( باب سَمِعَ /يَسْمَعُ  )I-A Group: In this group the عُ  in the past tense gets converted to عَ in the present tense.

 

6 ( باب حَسِبَ /يَحْسِبُ  )I-I Group: In this group the عِ  in the past tense remains as the same as عِ in the present tense.

 

The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic Dictionary you will find that after the past tense in brackets you will find the vowel sign which the present tense will take when it gets converted i.e. it can be عَ or عِ or عُ

Negative present tense?

 

1  Add a لَا in front of the present tense e.g. لَا يَفْعَلُ and it becomes "He is not doing", this type of لَا where the verb remains in its Marfoo form is called لا النافية

 

2  Add a لَا in front of the present tense e.g. لَا يَفْعَلْ and it becomes "He shouldn't do!", this type of لَا where the verb coverts to Majzoom form is called لا الناهية and this is the prohibitive Laa


3  Add a مَا in front of the present tense e.g. مَا يَفْعَلُ restricts the negation to this present moment i.e. this will mean "He is not doing, right now!"

 

4  Add a لَمْ in front of the present tense (where the verb coverts to Majzoom )e.g. لَمْ يَفْعَلْ and it negates to the past and it becomes "He did not do!", this is simailar to  مَا فَعَلَ and can be used interchangebly.

 

5  Add a لَنْ in front of the present tense (where the verb coverts to Mansoob) e.g. لَنْ يَفْعَلَ restricts the negation to future i.e. this will mean "He will not be doing!"

 

Assignment:

Students need to perform the exercises covered in Madina Series Book 2 (Lessons 11-18)

 


 

Introduction to Command Verb:

You can only command someone who is in front of you so you have only 2nd person verb conjugation to memorise with the following rules:

1 Change the vowel on the last letter which is the ل letter and from Damma to Sukoon like  لْ  and this makes the verb "Majzoom" so تَفْعَلُ becomes تَفْعَلْ


2 Drop the first letter which is تَ and add an اso your verb now looks like this افْعَلُ the problem which you now have is which vowel to put on this ا which you have just added? Is it اَ or اِ or اُ ?

 

3 You look at the  ع letter and if its  عُ  then you add اُ  otherwise it is alwaysاِ you can NEVER have اَ

 

 

Meaning

Subject/Suffix


Base Form

Prefix

Verb

 

2nd Person (M)

 You Do


 

 فعل

 اِ

اِفْعَلْ

You (Dual) Do

ا

 فعل

 اِ

اِفْعَلا

You (Plural) Do

و

 فعل

 اِ

اِفْعَلو

 

2nd Person (F)

You Do


ي

 فعل

 اِ

اِفْعَلِي

You (Dual) Do

ا

 فعل

 اِ

اِفْعَلا

 You (Plural) Do

نَ

 فعل

 اِ

اِفْعَلْنَ

 

Assignment:

Students need to perform the exercises covered in Madina Series Book 2 (Lessons 11-18)

 


 

Introduction to weak Verbs:

Lets recall the definition of simple past tense which we discussed earlier, it was as follows:

 

 

1 The first letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ف letter and this will always have a Fatha on it like فَ

 

2 The second letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ 

 

3 The last letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ل letter and this will always have a Fatha on it like

 

In a weak verb any of these letters are either ي or و thus they are called or الْمُعْتَلُّ weak verbs. The rules of where this ي or و appears in the verb i.e. beginning, middle or end are different and are discussed here.

Al-Mithaal OR Al-Mu'tall Al-Fa (الْمُعْتَلُّ الْفَاءُ او الْمِثَال):

 

1 The first letter is of the three letter past tense which is commonly referred to and called ف letter is ي or و

Weak letter و :

The past tense to present tense conversion only takes places in two groups:

1 ( باب ضَرَبَ /يَضْرِبُ  )A-I Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عِ in the present tense.

 

2 ( باب فَتَحَ /يَفْتَحُ  )A-A Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense remains as the same as عَ in the present tense.

 

When converting from past tense to present tense the weak letterو i.e. is simply dropped, see examples below:

وَجَدَ - يَجِدُ (He found)
وَزَنَ -  يَزِنُ(He weighed)
وَعَدَ  - يَعِدُ(He promised)

وَلَجَ  - يَلَجُ(He entered)
وَضَعَ -  يَضَعُ(He placed)
وَهَبَ  - يَهَبُ(He granted)


Lets recall the rules of normal conversion from present tense to Amr as follows:

 

1 Change the vowel on the last letter which is the ل letter and from Damma to Sukoon like  لْ  and this makes the verb "Majzoom" so تَفْعَلُ becomes تَفْعَلْ


2 Drop the first letter which is تَ and add an اso your verb now looks like this افْعَلُ the problem which you now have is which vowel to put on this ا which you have just added? Is it اَ or اِ or اُ ?

 

3 You look at the  ع letter and if its  عُ  then you add اُ  otherwise it is alwaysاِ you can NEVER have اَ

 

When converting these versb where the first letter in the past tense was something interesting happens as follows:

 

1 The first letter is of the verb form تَجِدُ which is تَ is dropped and Sukoon is placed on the last letter so the word becomes جِدْ

 

2There is no reason to add ا because the first letter doesn't have a Sukoon and it is pronouncable so the Amr is simply جِدْ

 

Active Participle (الاسم الفاعل)

The active participle (الاسم الفاعل) refers to a person who does the action described by the base letters. For example, the basic past tense letters of فَعَلَ make the active participle of فَاعِلٌ so just an ا is added.

Passive Participle (الاسم المفعول )

The passive participle (الاسم الفاعل) refers to a person or thing upon which the action described by the base letters is enacted. For example, the basic past tense letters of فَعَلَ make the passive participle of مَفعُوْلٌ .

 

Assignment:

Students need to perform full present tense conjugation in Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom states and then conversion to Amr and then also create active and passive particples.

Weak letter ي :

This will be covered later.

Al-Ajwaf OR Al-Mu'tall Al-Ain (الْمُعْتَلُّ الْعَينِ او الْأَجوَفْ):

1 The second letter is of the three letter past tense which is commonly referred to and called ع letter is ي or و

Two Saakin Rule in Arabic :

In Arabic a word having two letters (both with Saakin on it) cannot be pronounced and something has to change e.g. these words are unpronouncable:

قَاْلْنَ
زَاْرْنَ
ذَاْقْنَ

The only solution is to drop the weak letter illustrated in these by اْ and place some kind of a vowel on the next letter to pronounce it!

Weak letter و  or ي :

The past tense to present tense conversion only takes places in three groups:

 

1 ( باب نَصَر /يَنْصُرُ  )A-U Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عُ in the present tense. In this group the Mutahhirk verb takes a Damma (to be explained below)

 

2 ( باب ضَرَبَ /يَضْرِبُ  )A-I Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عِ in the present tense. In this group the Mutahhirk verb takes a Kasra (to be explained below)

 

5 ( باب سَمِعَ /يَسْمَعُ  )I-A Group: In this group the عُ  in the past tense gets converted to عَ in the present tense. In this group the Mutahhirk verb takes a Kasra (to be explained below)

 

Here are some exmaples in which the weak letter is illustrated by اْ and you have no choice but to find the present tense form and then you notice what the weak letter actually is i.e. either ي or و . In each of these cases notice how you can figure out what the weak letter actually is by just noticing the letter positioning.

قَالَ يَقُولٌ (He said)
قَام يَقُومُ(He stood)
ذَاقَ يَذُوقُ(He tasted)

بَاعَ يَبِيعُ(He sold)
سَارَ يَسِيرُ(He walked)
عَاشَ يَعِيشُ(He lived)

But there comes a group of these where this strategy of looking at the present tense doesn't work so you have no choice but to look at the Masdar form to figure out what the weak letter actually is:

نَامَ يَنَامُ نَومٌ (He said)
خَافَ يَخَافُ خَوفٌ(He stood)


The rules for conjugating them are actually very simple:

When converting these versb where the first letter in the past tense was something interesting happens as follows:

 

1 If the weak letter is و then in the Mutaharrik past tense it gets dropped and replaced with a Damma on the previous letter and in the Mutaharrik present tense it gets dropped and replaced with a Damma on the previous letter.

 

2If the weak letter is ي then in the Mutaharrik past tense it gets dropped and replaced with a Damma on the previous letter and in the Mutaharrik present tense it gets dropped and replaced with a Damma on the previous letter. Same rules applies if you have to go to Masdar to detect the weak letter.

 

The following illustrations of the past tense will make it easier to understand. You need to understand that once you get to the هُنِّ part the rest is smooth sailing!

Conjugation-Waw-Qaala

 

The two Mutaharrik present tense conjugations in this case (above) will be:

يَقُلْنَ

تَقُلْنَ

 

Conjugation-Waw-Khawfa

 

يَخَفْنَ

تَخَفْنَ

The two Mutaharrik present tense conjugations in this case (above) will be:

Assignment:

Students need to perform full past and present tense conjugations of the examples given.

Majzoom Five (5) easy ones:

Recall the five (5) easy one and the prefixes which they have:

 

Conjugation-Begin-Present-Basic-5

 

When the five easy ones of the Al-Ajwaf OR Al-Mu'tall Al-Ain (الْمُعْتَلُّ الْعَينِ او الْأَجوَفْ) gets a Lam (لَمْ) or gets concerted to Majooz form again the weak letter is dropped again because in Arabic a word having two letters (both with Saakin on it) cannot be pronounced.

لَمْ يَقُلْ
لَمْ تَقُلْ
لَمْ تَقُلْ
لَمْ أَقُلْ
لَمْ نَقُلْ

 

Assignment:

Students need to perform full present tense conjugation in Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom states of all the examples given above.

Conversion to Amr

Recall the rules for conversion to Amr above, then here are specific rules for these kinds of verbs:

 1 In the first instance تَقُولٌ becomes قُولْ then the weak letter و of also gets dropped and it simply becomes قُلْ BUT this only happens in the first conversion, in the rest the becomes visible and remember that there is no و in the last conjugation anyways to example is:

قُلْ
قُولَا
قُولُو
قُولِي
قُولَا
قُلْنَ

 

Active Participle (الاسم الفاعل)

The active participle (الاسم الفاعل) refers to a person who does the action described by the base letters. For example, the basic past tense letters of فَعَلَ make the active participle of فَائِلٌ so just anء is added.

Passive Participle (الاسم المفعول )

To be described later.

Assignment:

Students need to perform full present tense conjugation in Marfoo, Mansoob and Majzoom states and then convert to Amr of all the examples given above. Also produce active participles.

An-Naaqis OR Al-Mu'tall Al-Laam (الْمُعْتَلُّ اللَّامِ او النَّاقَصُ):

1 The third letter is of the three letter past tense which is commonly referred to and called ل letter is ي or و

There are certain instances pronunciation of a weak letter becomes difficult so certain vowels are substituted:

 

 

 

 لِؤْ

REPLACED WITH

 لُؤْ

 لُئْ

 لِئْ

 

 

Three (3) groups of Past-Present tense conversion for An-Naaqis OR Al-Mu'tall Al-Laam (الْمُعْتَلُّ اللَّامِ او النَّاقَصُ):

 

The second letter is of the three letter past tense is commonly referred to and called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ .The third letter of the four letter present tense is called ع letter and but this middle letter can carry all three vowels so it can be عَ or عِ or عُ 

 

Therefore when all possible combinations from past tense to present tense are settled we end up six basic groups as follows:

 

1 ( باب نَصَر /يَنْصُرُ  )A-U Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عُ in the present tense. To demonstrate this we will use the example of دَعَا

 

2 ( باب ضَرَبَ /يَضْرِبُ  )A-I Group: In this group the عَ  in the past tense gets converted to عِ in the present tense. To demonstrate this we will use the example ofرَمَى

 

3 ( باب سَمِعَ /يَسْمَعُ  )I-A Group: In this group the عُ  in the past tense gets converted to عَ in the present tense. To demonstrate this we will use the example ofرَضِىَ

 

Meaning

 

 

 

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﻣﻰٰ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻰﹶ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶﺍ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹷﺎ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺍ

 ﺭﹶﻣﻮﹾﺍ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹹﻮﹾﺍ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺖ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﺖﹾ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹷﺖﹾ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺘﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﺘﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹷﺘﹷﺎ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﻥﹶ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﻦﹶ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺕﹶ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹿﺖﹶ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺖﹶ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺗﹹﻤﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﺘﹹﻤﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺘﹹﻤﺎ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺗﹹﻢﹾ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﺘﹹﻢﹾ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺘﹹﻢﹾ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺕﹺ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹿﺖﹺ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺖﹺ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺗﹹﻤﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹿﺘﹹﻤﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺘﹹﻤﺎ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺗﹹﻦﱠ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﺘﹹﻦﱠ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺘﹹﻦﱠ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺕﹸ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹿﺖﹸ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﺖﹸ

 

 ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﻧﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻴﹿﻨﹷﺎ

 ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹿﻨﹷﺎ

 

Rules for the first 2 conjugations are simplified as follows:

 

1 First conjugation: Recall that whenever a or is preceded by a letter with a ﻓﹷﺘﹿﺤﺔ on it the or is changed to ; thus, the first conjugation was actually ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶ which changed into ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎ due to the simple change to alif rule. The same is true for ﺭﹶﻣﻰٰ which was initially ﺭﹶﻣﹷﻰﹶ

2 Second conjugation: The verb actually displays all its letters (including weak letters). This should actually be ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶﺍ rhyming with ﻓﹷﻌﹷﻼﹶ . However, the simple change to alif rule will cause it to become ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎﺍ which is difficult to pronounce and thus the final alif will drop leaving us with ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎ . Note that this is exactly the same as the first conjugation so there is actually no ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ allowed here. Thus the final form remains ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶﺍ

3 Third conjugation: Rhyming with ﻓﹷﻌﹷﻠﹹﻮﹾﺍ this should be ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹸﻭﹾﺍ . The first changes to due to the simple change to alif rule, leaving us with ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎﻭﹾﺍ . This form, however, has two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters coming together in it therefore we drop the first ﺍ leaving us with ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹾﺍ

4 Fourth Conjugation: This was originally ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶﺕﹾ rhyming with ﻓﹷﻌﹷﻠﹷﺖﹾ . The changed to causing it to become ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎﺕﹾ. Because of the gathering of ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters the ﺍ is dropped leaving us with ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺖﹾ

5 Fifth Conjugation: This was originally ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶﺗﹷﺎ rhyming with ﻓﹷﻌﹷﻠﹷﺘﹷﺎ . The changed to giving us ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺎﺗﹷﺎ. It is important to note here that in this last form the is actually ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ but has to carry a ﻓﹷﺘﹿﺤﺔ because of the final ﺍ which is the pronoun of duality. Thus the ﺍ in the middle will drop because of gathering of two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters leaving us with ﺩﹶﻋﹷﺘﹷﺎ


Now lets discuss our 3rd conjugations with the rules simplified as follows:

 

1 First conjugation: It was actually ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻮﹶ but changed its form due a rule which is called the edge rule. It states that “any ﻻﻡ position ﻭ (i.e. occurring at the edge of a word) preceded by a ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ will change to “. This rule deals with the concept of ‘ small ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ ‘ whereby one letter changes to another but the form of the verb is not disfigured: ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻰﹶ still rhymes with ﺳﹷﻤﹻﻊﹶ .

Note: this ‘small ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ ‘ happens in all 14 conjugations for ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻰﹶ

2 Third conjugation: The 3rd conjugation was originally ﺭﹶﺿﹻﻴﹹﻮﹾﺍ (rhyming with ﺳﹷﻤﹻﻌﹹﻮﹾﺍ ) which is hard for pronunciation since the is preceded by a ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ . Moreover, this here is then followed by a ﻭ which makes it even harder on the tongue. In this case, the ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ moved from to , which lost it ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ. The is then dropped because it is left with a which is ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ. The ﻭ cannot be dropped since it is a pronoun (denoting ‘they, group of males’).

sss

 

Meaning

 

 

 

 

 ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ

 

 ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹶﺍﻥﹺ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹷﺎﻥ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 

 ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﻥﹶ

 ﺮﹾﻣﹹﻮﹾﻥﹶ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹾﻥﹶ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹶﺍﻥﹺ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 

 ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﻥﹶ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹶﺍﻥﹺ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﻥﹶ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹹﻮﹾﻥﹶ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹾﻥﹶ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹶﺍﻥﹺ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ

 

 ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﻥﹶ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ

 

 ﺃﹶﺩﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ

 ﺃﹶﺭﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ

 ﺍﹶﺭﹾﺿٰﻰ

 

 ﻧﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ

 ﻧﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ

 ﻧﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ

 

 

 

Continues...s

 

 

Meaning

Subject

Base Form

Verb

 

3rd Person (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3rd Person (F)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2nd Person (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2nd Person (F)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1st Person