Madina Book 1: Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 introduces the masculine demonstrative pronoun هَـٰذَا and its principles


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Vocabulary for Lesson 1

This

Hadha

هَـٰذَا

What?

Maa

مَا

Who?

Man

مَنْ

A House

Baitun

بَيْتٌ

A Door

Babun

بَابٌ

A Mosque

Masjidun

مَسْجِدٌ

A Book

Kitabun

كِتَابٌ

A Key

Miftahun

مِفْتَاحٌ

A Pen

Qalamun

قَلَمٌ

A Desk

Maktabun

مَكْتَبٌ

A Bed

Sareerun

سَرِيرٌ

A Shirt

Qameesun

قَمِيصٌ

A Star

Najmun

نَجْمٌ

A Boy

Waladun

وَلَدٌ

A (Male) Student

Taalibun

طَالِبٌ

A Man

Rajulun

رَجُلٌ

A (Male) Businessman

Taajirun

تَاجِرٌ

A (Male) Teacher

Mudarrisun

مُدَرَّسٌ

An Handkerchief

Mindeelun

مِنْدِيلٌ

A Dog

Kalbun

كَلْبٌ

A Cat

Qittun

قِطّ

A Donkey

Himaarun

حِمَارٌ

A Horse

Hisaanun

حِصَانٌ

A Rooster

Deekun

دِيكٌ

A Camel

Jamalun

جَمَلٌ

Yes

Na'am

نَعَمْ

No

Laa

لا

Gender in Arabic:

In Arabic, all nouns are either masculine or feminine with the sign of the later being as follows:

Introduction to Nominal Sentence:

In English this can be a simple example e.g. "This is a boy."

In Arabic we start with a two word Nominal Sentence and it consists of the first word being Subject مُبْتَدَأ and the second word being Predicate خَبَر

So lets recap the ONLY AREA where the two words will NOT match in a simple nominal sentence:

We will return to this concept in the future lessons.

What is هَـٰذَا/هَـٰذِهِ?

Recall from the previous lesson that Arabic has three parts of speech and they are as follows:

1 اسم (Ism or Noun): This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and do not afford a tense e.g. "Masjidun" i.e. you know what this word means and it has no association with time. Pronouns are also included in this category.

2 حرف (Harf or particle): This category is defined as those words that do not impart a meaning on their own e.g. "Waa" i.e. you would not know what "Waa" means on its own unless and until you join some words to the right and left of it.

3 فعل (Fi'l or verb): This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and afford a tense e.g. "Abada (He worshipped)" i.e. you know that this refers to the action of worshipping which occurred in the past

هَـٰذَا is the masculine demonstrative pronoun for pointing to near objects and it is always definite.

هَـٰذِهِ is the feminine demonstrative pronoun for pointing to near objects and it is always definite.

The Arabic term for "demonstrative pronoun for pointing to near objects" is:

أَسْمُ الْأِشَارَةِ لِلْقَرِيب

How to construct a sentence using هَـٰذَا/هَـٰذِهِ?

In order to construct a simple nominal sentence you just have to insert a second indefinite word after the pronoun and it becomes a perfectly good sentence. The second word of the sentence has to follow three rules:

1 It has to be Marfoo: The default state of a word is Nominative case or the State of Rafa or Marfoo and the last letter of the word will carry a Tanween (Dammatain) or in case of a definite word a single Damma = كتابٌ

2 It has to match the gender of the first word

 

3 It has to be indefinite.

Using هَـٰذَا

e.g. to say “This is a Masjid” it is:

هَـٰذَا مَسْجِدٌ

 

The analysis of this sentence is as follows:

 

1هَـٰذَا Is a masculine demonstrative pronoun for near objects

 

2مَسْجِدٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:

 

 

aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cMasculine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

"This a Masjid"

4The English word “is” or the copula doesn’t exist in Arabic so it is manually inserted making the accurate translation to be:

 "This is a Masjid"

Using هَـٰذِهِ

 

To say “This is a Girl” it is:

هَـٰذِهِ بنْتٌ

 

The analysis of this sentence is as follows:

1هَـٰذِهِ Is a feminine demonstrative pronoun for near objects

 

2بنْتٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:

 

aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cFeminine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

"This a Girl"

4The English word “is” or the copula doesn’t exist in Arabic so it is manually inserted making the accurate translation to be:

 "This is a Girl"

Exercise:

Make five (5) sentences using هَـٰذَا as the first first word and then select any five masculine words as the second word (of the sentence) from the vocbulary table.


أَسْمُ الْأِشَارَةِ لِلْقَرِيب
 

Part 2

How to turn a sentence using هَـٰذَا/هَـٰذِهِ into a question?

This is done by inserting a particle of interrogation before the nominal sentence. The particle of interrogation is أَ and its Arabic term is:

حرفُ الاستفهامِ

 

Consider our previous two examples turned into questions:

Using هَـٰذَا

e.g. to say “Is this is Masjid?” it is:

  أَ هَـٰذَا مَسْجِدٌ؟

 

The analysis of this question is as follows:

 

1أَ Is particle of interrogation

 

2هَـٰذَا Is a masculine demonstrative pronoun for near objects

 

 

3مَسْجِدٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:

 

 

aMarfoo

 

 

bIndefinite

 

 

cMasculine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

 

 "Is this a Masjid?"

Using هَـٰذِهِ

 

To say “Is this is a Girl?” it is:

 

أَ  هَـٰذِهِ بنْتٌ ؟

 

The analysis of this question is as follows:

 

 

 

1أَ Is particle of interrogation

 

 

2 هَـٰذِهِ Is a feminine demonstrative pronoun for near objects

 

 

 

3 بنْتٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:

 

 

 

 

aMarfoo

 

 

 

 

bIndefinite

 

 

 

 

cFeminine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

 

 

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

 

 

 

 

 "Is this a Girl?"

 

Using نَعَمْ/لَا

Before asnwering the question siTurn the five (5) sentences which you made in the previous exercise into questions.

Before answering the “Is this” question, similar to English you need to confirm by using “Yes/Is” and then state the facts e.g:

1 Is this a Book?

 

a Yes, This is a Book

OR

b No, This is a Pen

 

Exercise:

Turn the five (5) sentences which you made in the previous exercise into questions.


Part 3

How to ask questions using مَا/مَنْ ?

 

As part of a conversation you may have to initiate a question using “What” or “Who”. In Arabic it is achieved by using the following terms:

مَا

 

 

مَا هَـٰذَا ؟

 

 

 

 

مَاهَـٰذِهِ؟

 

 

Used for things which are deemed not to have intelligence

 

مَنْ

 

 

مَنْ هَـٰذَا؟

 

 

مَنْ هَـٰذِهِ ؟

 

Used for things which are deemed to have intelligence e.g:

1 Humans

 

2 Jinns

 

3 Angels

Exercise:

Can you first ask "What/Who" in Arabic and then answer your questions by using vocabulary from the Lesson?


Student work:

Concepts of Lesson 1 have been introduced, students should now be able to do the work using the vocabulary table given and complete the Lesson. Remember that your job is not to merely translate but analyse, break down the sentence and then translate.

هَـٰذَا بَيْتٌ

هَـٰذَا مَسْجِدٌ

هَـٰذَا بَابٌ

هَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ

هَـٰذَا قَلَمٌ

هَـٰذَا مِفْتَاحٌ
هَـٰذَا مَكْتَبٌ

هَـٰذَا سَرِيرٌ

هَـٰذَا كُرْسِيٌّ


أَهَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ؟

نَعَمْ، هَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ


أَهَـٰذَا مِفْتَاحٌ؟

لا، هَـٰذَا قَلَمٌ

 

مَا هَـٰذَا؟

هَـٰذَا سَرِيرٌ

مَن هَـٰذَا؟

هَـٰذَا طَبِيبٌ