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Madina Book 1: Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 introduces the feminine demonstrative pronoun هَـٰذِهِ and its principles


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Part 1

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Vocabulary

Meaning Arabic
 This (Feminine)

هَـٰذِهِ

 Cooking Pot

قِدْرٌ

 Fruit  فَاكِهَةٌ
 The (Female) Doctor  الدُّكْتُورَةُ
 Girl  بِنْتٌ
 Head (Singular body parts are masculine)  رَأْسٌ
 Sun (Feminine)  الشَّمْسُ
 Nose (Singular body parts are masculine)  أَنْفٌ
 Eye (Dual body parts are Feminine)  عَيْنٌ
 Tongue (Singular body parts are masculine)  لِسَانٌ
 Ear (Dual body parts are Feminine)  ُأُذُنٌ
 Face (Singular body parts are masculine)  وَجْهٌ
 A Foot (Dual body parts are Feminine)  قَدَمٌ
 The iron  الْمِكْوَاةُ
 The Cow  الْبَقَرَةُ
 The Window  النَّافِذَةُ
 The Farmer (Masculine)  الفَلَّاحُ
 The Fridge

الثَّلَّاجَةٌ

 Very

جِدًّا

 The Spoon

 الْمِلعَقَةُ

The Coffee

الْقَهْوَةُ

The tea

الشَّاي

Also

أَيْضًا

Recall from Lesson 1:

Gender in Arabic:

In Arabic, all nouns are either masculine or feminine with the sign of the later being as follows:

  • Taa Marboota (ة): All nouns with a ة at the end are always feminine e.g. سيَّارَةٌ
  • Ali Maqsoorah (الف مقصورة (ى)) All nouns with an Alif Maqsoorah are also feminine e.g. مُستَشفى (Mustashfa meaning hospital). Note that there are no two dots under the "Yaa". It is a classical beginner error to pronounce this word as "Mustashfi" rather than "Mustashfa" so watch for the two dots!
  • Ali Mamdooda (الف ممدودة (ـاء)) All nouns with an Alif Mamdooda are also feminine e.g. أَذْكِياءُ (Adhkiya'u meaning those men who are intelligent).
  • Inherently Feminine: Some nouns are inherently feminine in Arabic e.g. شَمسٌ (Shamsun meaning Sun). These will be pointed out as the course continues 

Introduction to Nominal Sentence:

In English this can be a simple example e.g. "This is a Girl."

In Arabic we start with a two word Nominal Sentence and it consists of the first word being Subject مُبْتَدَأ and the second word being Predicate خَبَر

  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر(Khabar) will both match in case ending i.e. they will be Marfoo
  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر (Khabar) will both match in gender i.e. if the first word is masculine, the second one will also be masculine and vice versa
  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر (Khabar) will both match in Plurality i.e. if the first word is singular, the second one will also be singular and if the first word is feminine then second word will also be feminine

So lets recap the ONLY AREA where the two words will NOT match in a simple nominal sentence:

  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) is always definite & خَبَر (Khabar) will usually be indefinite.

We will return to this concept in the future lessons.

What is هَـٰذَا/هَـٰذِهِ?

Recall from the previous lesson that Arabic has three parts of speech and they are as follows:

1 اسم (Ism or Noun): This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and do not afford a tense e.g. "Masjidun" i.e. you know what this word means and it has no association with time. Pronouns are also included in this category.

2 حرف (Harf or particle): This category is defined as those words that do not impart a meaning on their own e.g. "Waa" i.e. you would not know what "Waa" means on its own unless and until you join some words to the right and left of it.

3 فعل (Fi'l or verb): This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and afford a tense e.g. "Abada (He worshipped)" i.e. you know that this refers to the action of worshipping which occurred in the past

هَـٰذَا is the masculine demonstrative pronoun for pointing to near objects and it is always definite.

هَـٰذِهِ is the feminine demonstrative pronoun for pointing to near objects and it is always definite.

The Arabic term for "demonstrative pronoun for pointing to near objects" is:

أَسْمُ الْأِشَارَةِ لِلْقَرِيب

How to construct a sentence using هَـٰذَا/هَـٰذِهِ?

In order to construct a simple nominal sentence you just have to insert a second indefinite word after the pronoun and it becomes a perfectly good sentence. The second word of the sentence has to follow three rules:

1 It has to be Marfoo: The default state of a word is Nominative case or the State of Rafa or Marfoo and the last letter of the word will carry a Tanween (Dammatain) or in case of a definite word a single Damma = كتابٌ

2 It has to match the gender of the first word

 

3 It has to be indefinite.

Using هَـٰذَا

e.g. to say “This is a Masjid” it is:

هَـٰذَا مَسْجِدٌ

The analysis of this sentence is as follows:

1هَـٰذَا Is a masculine demonstrative pronoun for near objects


2مَسْجِدٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:



aMarfoo

 

 

bIndefinite

 

 

cMasculine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

"This a Masjid"

4The English word “is” or the copula doesn’t exist in Arabic so it is manually inserted making the accurate translation to be:

 "This is a Masjid"

Using هَـٰذِهِ

 

To say “This is a Girl” it is:

هَـٰذِهِ بنْتٌ

The analysis of this sentence is as follows:

1هَـٰذِهِ Is a feminine demonstrative pronoun for near objects


2بنْتٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:



aMarfoo

 

 

bIndefinite

 

 

cFeminine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

 

"This a Girl"

 

4The English word “is” or the copula doesn’t exist in Arabic so it is manually inserted making the accurate translation to be:

 

 "This is a Girl"

Exercise:

Make five (5) sentences using هَـٰذِهِ as the first first word and then select any five feminine words as the second word (of the sentence) from the vocbulary table.

أَسْمُ الْأِشَارَةِ لِلْقَرِيب

How to turn a sentence using هَـٰذَا/هَـٰذِهِ into a question?

This is done by inserting a particle of interrogation before the nominal sentence. The particle of interrogation is أَ and its Arabic term is:

حرفُ الاستفهامِ

Consider our previous two examples turned into questions:

Using هَـٰذَا

e.g. to say “Is this is Masjid?” it is:

  أَ هَـٰذَا مَسْجِدٌ؟

The analysis of this question is as follows:

1أَ Is particle of interrogation



2هَـٰذَا Is a masculine demonstrative pronoun for near objects



3مَسْجِدٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:



aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cMasculine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

 "Is this a Masjid?"

Using هَـٰذِهِ

 

To say “Is this is a Girl?” it is:

 

أَ  هَـٰذِهِ بنْتٌ ؟

The analysis of this question is as follows:

1أَ Is particle of interrogation



2 هَـٰذِهِ Is a feminine demonstrative pronoun for near objects



3 بنْتٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:



aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cFeminine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

 "Is this a Girl?"


Using نَعَمْ/لَا

Before asnwering the question siTurn the five (5) sentences which you made in the previous exercise into questions.

Before answering the “Is this” question, similar to English you need to confirm by using “Yes/Is” and then state the facts e.g:

1 Is this a Book?

 

a Yes, This is a Book

 

OR

b No, This is a Pen

 

Exercise:

Turn the five (5) sentences which you made in the previous exercise into questions.

How to ask questions using مَا/مَنْ ?

As part of a conversation you may have to initiate a question using “What” or “Who”. In Arabic it is achieved by using the following terms:

مَا


مَا هَـٰذَا ؟

مَاهَـٰذِهِ؟


Used for things which are deemed not to have intelligence

مَنْ


مَنْ هَـٰذَا؟

مَنْ هَـٰذِهِ ؟


Used for things which are deemed to have intelligence e.g:

1 Humans

 

2 Jinns

 

3 Angels

 

Exercise:

Can you first ask "What/Who" in Arabic and then answer your questions by using vocabulary from the Lesson?


Part 2

Recall from Lesson 5:

Al-Idafah (Possession) الإضَافَةُ:

Al-Idfaha (Possessive phrase): These are two "Nouns" in Arabic with one posessing the other. In English "Pen of Bilal", "Book of Aisha". To convert into Arabic there are two rules:

1 The item which is the possession comes first e.g. "Pen", "Book". Interestingly this first (noun) in Arabic will neither have Tanween nor "ال" and thats the sign that this phrase is Al-Idfaha (Possessive phrase). This first noun of the phrase is called "Mudaf" مُضَاف

a قَلَمُ


b كتابُ


2 The item which is the possessor comes second e.g. "Bilal", "Aisha". Interestingly this secon (noun) in Arabic will ALWAYS be Majroor. This second noun of the phrase is called "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه


a بَلالٍ


b عائشةِ


Recall that Masculine names always get Tanween on the letter and Feminine names always get a single Harakah on the last letter

So together the Al-Idfaha (Possessive phrase) will be:

1 "Pen of Bilal" قَلَمُ بَلالٍ


1 كتابُ عائشةِ "Book of Aisha"

 

Please note that I want you to use "Pen of Bilal" in English instead of "Bilal's Pen"!

Exercise:

Translate the following into Arabic and indicate "Mudaf" مُضَاف and "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه

  • Kitaab of Allah
  • Rasool of Allah
  • Religion of Allah
  • Masjid of Rasool
  • Jannah of Allah

Remember:

Reverse the order of the words i.e. possessed item will come first

1 Possessed item i.e. Mudaf" مُضَاف will neither have Tanween nor "ال"

 

2 Possesser i.e. "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه will be Majroor.


Harf-Jar (Preposition) حَرْفُ الْجَرِّ:

Recall from Lesson 4:

Lesson four introduced you to the first our (4) prepositions with the fifth one being introduced in this lesson.

Prepositions

On

Ala

عَلَىٰ

In

Fee

فِي

To

Ila

إِلَىٰ

From

Min

مِنْ

Belongs to

Lee

لِ

Whenever a preposition comes in Arabic the next words takes a Kasrah (Zair) and the state of it is no longer called "Marfoo" but its called "Majroor"

اللهُ

Allahu is Marfoo because the last letter has Damma but when I want to say "To Allah" it becomes:

إِلَىٰ اللهِ

Al-Madinatu (The city of Madina) is Marfoo because the last letter has Damma but when I want to say "In the city of Madina" it becomes:

المَدينَةُ

فِي المَدينَةِ

Al-Janntu (The Paradise) is Marfoo because the last letter has Damma but when I want to say "From the Paradise" it becomes:

اَلجَنَّةُ

مِنْ اَلجَنَّةِ

REMEMBER THAT IN THIS TWO WORD COMBINATION:

 

1 First word is Harf-Jar (Preposition)

 

2 Second word is Majroor

 

This is one of the simplest patterns to learn and identify in the Qur'aan and you will see it over and over again.

 

Exercise:

Translate the following into Arabic using حَرْفُ الْجَرِّ  of  لِ

1 Belongs to Allah

 

2 Belongs to Rasool

 

3 Belongs to Rasool of Allah

 

a You have three words in this phrase

 

bFirst two are a Jaar/Majroor combination

 

cSecond Words then becomes a Mudaf

 

dThird word becomes Mudaf-Ileh

 

4Belongs to Servant of Allah

 

a You have three words in this phrase

 

bFirst two are a Jaar/Majroor combination

 

c Second Words then becomes a Mudaf

 

d Third word becomes Mudaf-Ileh

 


Part 3

From the building blocks given above, it should be sufficient for the students to analyse and then translate the lesson and the proceeding exercises. However all questions should be simply translated and not analysed.

 

  

هَـٰذَا ابْنُ حَامِدٍ. وَهَـٰذِهِ بِنْتُ يَاسِرٍ

 

Hint Khabar is composed of a phrase


اِبْنُ حَامِدٍ جَالِسٌ. وَبِنْتُ يَاسِرٍ وَاقِفَةٌ

 

Hint Mubatada is composed of a phrase



 مَنْ هَـٰذِهِ؟

هَـٰذِهِ  أُخْتُ مُهَنْدِسَةٌ

Hint Khabar is composed of a phrase


أَ هِيَ  مُهَنْدِسَةٌ؟

لآ,  هِيَ  طَبِيبَةٌ


لِمَنْ هَـٰذِهِ سَيَّارَةٌ؟
هَـٰذِهِ سَيَّارَةُ الْمُدِيْرِ

 

Hint Khabar is composed of a phrase


مَاهَـٰذِهِ؟
هَـٰذِهِ مِكْوَاةٌ


لِمَنْ هَـٰذِهِ
هَـٰذِهِ لِخَالِدٍ


أَدَرَّاجَةُ أَنَسٍ هَـٰذِهِ ؟
لآ ,  هَـٰذِهِ دَرَّاجَةُ عَمَّارٍ .هَـٰذِهِ  جَدِيدَةٌ

وَدَرَّاجَةُ أَنَسٍ قَدِيمَةٌ

 

Hint جَدِيدَةٌ means New and قَدِيمَةٌ means old



 

هَـٰذِهِ سَاعَةُ عَلِيٌْ .  هِيَ جَمِيلَةٌ جِدًّا

 

Hint جِدًّا means "very" but you have learned the exact type so for the time being just translate it


هَـٰذِهِ مِلعَقَةٌ  وَ هَـٰذِهِ قِدْرٌ  . الْمِلعَقَةُ فِي الْقِدرِ

Hint In the last sentence Khabar is composed of a phrase

هَـٰذِهِ بَقَرَةٌ الْفَلَّاحُ

 

هَـٰذَا أَنْفٌ وَ هَـٰذَا فَمٌ


هَـٰذِهِ أُذُنٌ وَهَـٰذِهِ  عَيْنٌ

وَهَـٰذِهِ يَدٌ وَهَـٰذِهِ  رِجْلٌ

 

Hint Look at the gender of the Mubatada

Exercise:

Complete all the exercises in the chapter.