Madina Book 1: Chapter 9

 Number-9

Chapter 9:  Introduces the concept of Noun & Adjective and they always match perfectly i.e. have the same gender, state (Marfoo, Mansoob or Majroor), singular (or plural) and definitive (or indefinite). 


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Vocabulary:

An Adjective

نَعْتٌ

A described Noun

مَنْعُوتٌ

Lazy

كَسْلاَنُ

Thirsty

عَطْشَانُ

Hungry

جَوْعَانُ

Full

مَلآنُ

Lazy

كَسْلاَنُ

Thirsty

عَطْشَانُ

Angry

غَضْبَانُ

Happy

فَرْحَانُ

Famous

شَهِيرٌ

The Fan

الْمِرْوَحَةُ

A Sparrow

عُصْفُورٌ

A Bird

طَيْرٌ

Road

طَرِيقٌ

Crowded

مُزْدَحِمٌ

He Created

خَلَقَ

He Passed

نَجَحَ

He Sat

جَلَسَ

That, who, which

الَّذِي

The Human

الإِنْسَانُ

A thing (object)

شَيْءٌ

Useful

مُفِيدٌ

Tall

طَوِيلٌ

The Cup

الكُوبٌ

The minister

الوزيرُ

The Clinic

المُستَؤصَفٌ

Why?

لِمَاذا

The Market

السٌّوقُ

Hard Working

مُجتَهِدٌ

Difficult

صَعبٌ

Easy

سَهلٌ

 

Simple Detached Pronouns (Revision):

Now look at the pronouns below and read on your fingers 7 times. Ignore the attached pronouns for the time being. We have drawn a picture for you to understand this memorisation technique even further.

Arabic Practice 1

Detached Pronouns

Third

Person

Masculine

He

Huwa

هُو

Them (2 He)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ He)

Hum

هُم

Third

Person

Feminine

She

Hiya

هِيَ

Them (2 She)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ She)

Hunna

هُنَّ

Second

Person

Masculine

You (Male)

Anta

أنتَ

You (2, Male)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+ Male)

Antum

أنتُم

Second

Person

Feminine

You (Female)

Anti

أنتِ

You (2, Female)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+, Female)

Antunna

أنتُنَّ

First

Person

I

Anna

أنَا

We

Nahnu

نَحنُ

Simple Attached Pronouns:

Use the pores of your fingers to learn this table just like you have memorised the previous tables.

Attached Pronouns

Third

Person

Masculine

His

Hu

هُ

Theirs (2 He)

Huma

هُمَا

Theirs (3+ He)

Hum

هُم

Third

Person

Feminine

Her

Ha

هَا

Theirs (2 She)

Huma

هُمَا

Theirs (3+ She)

Hunna

هُنَّ

Second

Person

Masculine

Your (Male)

Kaa

كَ

Your (2, Male)

Kuma

كُمَا

Your (3+ Male)

Kum

كُم

Second

Person

Feminine

Your (Female)

Ki

كِ

Your (2, Female)

Kuma

كُمَا

Your (3+, Female)

Kunna

كُنَّ

First

Person

Mine

Ie

يْ

Ours

Naa

نَا

 The last vowel of the pronoun is stripped of its Tanween, replaced with a single vowel and the pronoun is attached directly to it, for example:

 Your pen (1,M)    قَلَمٌ  +  كَ   =  قَلَمُكَ

Their book (3+,F)    كِتَابٌ  +  هُنَّ   =  كِتَابُهُنَّ

Attached Pronouns

Third

Person

Masculine

His Book

Kitabuhu

كِتَابُهُ

Theirs (2 He) Book

KitabuHuma

كِتَابُهُمَا

Theirs (3+ He) Book

KitabuHum

كِتَابُهُم

Third

Person

Feminine

Her Book

KitabuHa

كِتَابُهَا

Theirs (2 She) Book

KitabuHuma

كِتَابُهُمَا

Theirs (3+ She) Book

KitabuHunna

كِتَابُهُنَّ

Second

Person

Masculine

Your (Male) Book

KitabuKaa

كِتَابُكَ

Your (2, Male) Book

KitabuKuma

كِتَابُكُمَا

Your (3+ Male) Book

KitabuKum

كِتَابُكُم

Second

Person

Feminine

Your (Female) Book

KitabuKi

كِتَابُكِ

Your (2, Female) Book

KitabuKuma

كِتَابُكُمَا

Your (3+, Female) Book

KitabuKunna

كِتَابُكُنَّ

First

Person

My Book

Kitabuie

كِتَابِيْ

Our Book

KitabuNaa

كِتَابُنَا

In case of "My book" the vowel on the last letter is Kasrah instead of Damma and this will always happen in the case of "My ..."

Noun & Adjective:

In Arabic the Noun always comes first and the Adjective always follows it. Then the noun and adjective completely match each other in these four areas:

1 If the Noun is masculine then the adjective is also masculine & vice versa

 

2 If the Noun is singular then the adjective is also singular & if noun is plural then the adjective is also plural.

 

3 If the Noun is Marfoo then the adjective is also Marfoo & the same applies to the state of Mansoob & Majroor

 

4 If the Noun is definite then the adjective is also definite & the same applies if the noun is indefinite.

 

The two examples below illustrate "A new house" & "The new house" respectively, notice how in English the adjective comes first but in English the noun precedes the adjective:

بَيْتٌ جَدِيْد

A new House


البَيْتُ الجَدِيْد

The new House

The two examples below illustrate "A new watch" & "The new watch" respectively, notice how in English the adjective comes first but in English the noun precedes the adjective:

سَاعَةٌ جَدِيْدةٌ

A new Watch

السَّاعَةٌ الجَدِيْدةُ

The new Watch


The Noun is called Man'oot مَنْعُوتٌ and the adjective is called Naat نَعْتٌ

Lesson Begins

Analyse (identify Mubata, Khabar & Naat) and then translate the following. Remember to only translate the questions (don't analyse):

 

مَن هَذَا الرجل؟
هوَ عَبَّاسٌ

هوَ is Mubatada (الضَّمائِرُ المُنْفَصِلةُ) from the demonstrative pronouns to be specific.

عَبَّاسٌ is Khabar

عَبَّاسٌ تَاجِرٌ

عَبَّاسٌ is Mubatada

تَاجِرٌ is Khabar


عَبَّاسٌ تَاجِرٌ غَنِيٌّ

عَبَّاسٌ is Mubatada

تَاجِرٌ is Khabar

غَنِيٌّ is Naat نَعْتٌ

 

1 Abbasun is Mubata

 

2 Tajirun is Khabar

 

3 Ghaniun is Naat (Adjective) and notice how it matches the Khabar in four respects:

 

a Tajariun is Singular so Ghaniun is Singular

 

b Tajariun is indefinite so Ghaniun is indefinite

 

c Tajariun is Masculine so Ghaniun is Masculine

 

d Tajariun is Marfoo so Ghaniun is Marfoo

 
حَامَدٌ مُدَرِّسٌ جَدِيدٌ
ما هَذَا؟
هَذَا تُفَّاحٌ
التُفَّاحُ فَاكِهَةٌ لَذِيذَةٌ
ما ذَلِكَ؟
  ذَلِكَ عٌصفُورٌ.
العٌصفُورُ طَاءِرٌ صَغيرٌ
العربيةُ لُغَةٌ سَهْلَةٌ
العربيةُ لُغَةٌ جَمِيلَةٌ
عمَّارٌ طَالِبٌ مُجتَهِدٌ وَ مَحْمُودٌ طَالِبٌ كَسلاَنٌ
مَن انتَ؟
أَنَا طَالِبٌ
أَانتَ طَالِبٌ جَدِيدٌ؟
نَعَمْ أَنَا طَالِبٌ جَدِيدٌ

Exercise:

Analyse (identify Mubata, Khabar & Naat) and then translate the following. Remember to only translate the questions (don't analyse):

محمد طالب قدبم
أَذَلِكَ الرجل مٌدَرِّسٌ جديدٌ؟ لا , هُوَ طَالِبٌ جَدِيدٌ
هَذَا دَرْسٌ سَهْلٌ
عَبَّاسٌ تَاجِرٌ شَهِيرٌ
بِلاَلٌ مُهَندِسٌ كَبِيرٌ
الأِنكَلِيزِيَةُ لُغَةٌ صَعبَةٌ
أَانتَ رَجُلٌ غَنِيٌّ؟ لا أَنَا رَجُلٌ فَقِيرٌ
أَانتَ مٌدَرِّسٌ قدبم؟ لا أَنَا مٌدَرِّسٌ جديدٌ
أَحَامَدٌ طَالِبٌ كَسلاَنٌ؟ لا , هوَ طَالِبٌ مُجتَهِدٌ
الْقاَهِرَةُ مَدِينَةٌ كَبِيرَةٌ

 

Reminder:

Did you notice any words which are dip-totes?

Exercise 2:

Fill in the blanks with suitable Adjectives.

Exercise 3:

Fill in the blanks with suitable Khabars.

Five (5) special Adjectives:

These five adjectives express personal feelings and they are used in the Lesson, although there are more. The absence of Tanween expresses that they are diptotes. Memorise their meanings and then analyse and translate the sentences below.

English

Arabic

hirsty

عَطْشَانُ

Hungry

جَوْعَانُ

Full

مَلآنُ

Angry

غَضْبَانُ

Happy

فَرْحَان


أَنَا  جَوْعَانُ


أَ أَنْتَ جَوْعَانُ ؟ لَا , أَنَا  عَطْشَانُ


لِمَاذَا المُدَرِّسُ غَضْبَانُ الْيَومَ؟


الْكُوبُ مَلآنُ

 


Part 2:

Adverb of Time  ظَرْف الزَْمَانِ :

Noun through which a time period is expressed are known asظَرْف الزَْمَانِ and they are usually expressed as "Mudaf" مُضَاف which means that a "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه may follow it, the two common adverbs used in our lessons are as follows:

After

بَعْدَ

Before

قَبْلَ

Adverb of Place  ظَرْفُ المَكَانِ :

Noun through which a place or position is expressed are known as ظَرْفُ المَكَانِ and they are expressed as "Mudaf" مُضَاف which means that a "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه may follow it some of the common examples are as follows:

Below

تَحْتَ

Above

فَوقَ

Behind

خَلْفَ

In front of

أَمَامَ

There

مَبنَي) هُنَاكَ)

Here

مَبنَي) هُنَا)

With (Anywhere)

مَعَ

With (Physically together)

عِنْدَ

Five (5) times of Khabar:

أَلمُفرَدُ Single Word Khabar:

When the Khabar is only one word it has the following characteristics:

 

a It is generally indefinite

 

b It is Marfoo

 

c It agrees in gender with the Mubtada

 أَلبَيتُ كَبِيرٌ

شَبْهُ الجُملَةِ Khabar as a Phrase

When the Khabar is a phrase (more than one word) but not a complete sentence it is called a شَبْهُ الجُملَةِ and it can never be Mubatada although sequentially it may be appear first , below are examples of both:

a  Jaar/Majroor

 أَلقَلَمُ عَلي الْمَكتَبِ

jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} Zarf

أَلقَلَمُ تَحْتَ الْمَكتَبِ

 

أَلجُملَةُ الفِعلَيَةُ Khabar as a Verbal Sentence

When the Khabar is a complete verbal sentence

ذَهَبَ مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ
ذَهَبَتْ فَاطِمَةُ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ

أَلجُملَةُ الأَسْمِيَةُ Khabar as a Nominal Sentence

When the Khabar is a complete nominal sentence.

مُحَمَّدٌ أَخُوهُ طَبِيبٌ
فَاطِمَةُ أُختُهَا طَبِيبَةٌ

Sequencing of a verbal sentence أَلجُملَةُ الفِعلَيَةُ :

Usually the sequencing of a verbal sentence is as follows:

 

a Verb فِعْلٌ

 

b Immediately followed by a subject فَاعِلٌ and it is Marfoo :

 

cIf an Object مَفْعُولٌ بِهِ is required, it is next and it is usually Mansoob :

The following verse of the Qur'aan should be memorised to remember the sequence of verbal sentences in Arabic:

[2:251]...David killed Goliath...

قَتَلَ دَاوُدُ جَالُوتَ

 In addition consider the following two examples:

ذَهَبَ مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ

 

مُحَمَّدٌ ذَهَبَ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ

In the first example Muhammad is the subject فَاعِلٌ because it appears immediately after the verb  BUT in the second example Muhammad is NOT the فَاعِلٌ  because it appears before it!

Remember the two rules from this section:

 

a شَبْهُ الجُملَةِ can NEVER be Mubatada

 

b فَاعِلٌ has to appear after the فِعْلٌ and NEVER before.

 


Part 3:

Relative Pronoun الاسم الموصول:

Relative pronouns, like 'who', 'which', 'whose', 'what', etc. are used at the beginning of relative clauses to describe a definite noun. In Arabic, relative pronouns come after definite nouns to introduce sentences that describe these nouns or provide additional information about them. Relative pronouns in Arabic have to agree with the nouns they follow in number, gender and case, e.g. after a singular masculine noun, the pronoun (الذي) must be used after a singular feminine noun, the pronoun (التي) must be used.

Who (Living)

Which (Things)

Used for Masculine

الذي

Who (Living)

Which (Things)

Used for Feminine

التي

 The clause which follows a relative noun is called صلةِ الموصولِ

Five (5) special Adjectives:

These five adjectives express personal feelings and they are used in the Lesson, although there are more. The absence of Tanween expresses that they are diptotes.

English

Arabic

Thirsty

عَطْشَانُ

Hungry

جَوْعَانُ

Full

مَلآنُ

Angry

غَضْبَانُ

Happy

فَرْحَانُ

Lesson (Part B):

Analyse and then translate the sentences below while the questions should simply be translated. Most of them are simple Nominal sentences. Notice how the adjective always matches the noun which it qualifies and also note the use of relative noun and how it describes the definite noun which it qualifies.

 أَيْنَ الْمُدَرِّسُ؟
هُو فِي الفَصلِ
وَأَيْنَ الْمُدَرِّسُ الْجَدِيدُ؟
هُو عِنْدَ الْمُدِيرِ
أَيْنَ الطَالِبٌ الْجَدِيدُ
ذَهَبَ إَلي الْمَكتَبَةِ
مَن ذَلِك الرَّجُلُ الطَّوِيلُ الَّذِي خَرَجَ الآنَ مِنَ الْمَدرَسَةِ؟
هُو مُدِيرٌ جَدِيدٌ
وَمَنِ الْوَلَدُ الصَّغِيرُ الَّذِي خَرَجَ الآنَ مِنَ الْفَصْلِ؟
هُو ابْنُ الْمُدِيرِ الْجَدِيدِ

لِمَنْ تِلك السَّيَّا رَةُ الْجَمِيلَةُ؟
هِيَ لِلْمُدِيرِ الْجَدِيدِ
لِمَنْ هَذَا الْكِتَابُ الْكَبِيْرُ؟ أَ هُوَ لِلْمُدَرِّسِ؟
لَا , هُوَ لِلْطَّالِبَةٌ الصَّغِيرَةُ
أَيْنَ الْمِلْعَقَةُ الصَّغِيرَةُ ؟
هِيَ فَي الْكُوبِ
أَيْنَ الْكُرسِيُّ الْمَكسُورُ؟
هُوَ هُنَاكَ

 


Part 4:

Exercises

The remaining exercises in the Lesson are simply writing and then analysing and subsequently translating the concepts given and all of the key concepts have already been covered in detail in the Lesson.