ON THE RECITAL OF SAYYIDINA RASULULLAH -SALLALLAHU 'ALAYHI WASALLAM
The manner in
which Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam recited and the importance
he attached to the tarteel (distinct and clear intonation) and tajweed (recital
with established rules of pronunciation and intonation) in reciting the
Qur-aan is mentioned here. Eight ahaadith are mentioned in this chapter.
Ya'laa bin Mamlak Radiyallahu 'Anhu says: "He asked Ummul Mu'mineen
Sayyiditina Ummi Salamah Radiyallahu 'Anha about the recital of Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam". She replied: "He recited every
word separately and clearly".
When Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam recited he uttered
every word distinctly and clearly. Sayyiditina Ummi Salamah Radiyallahu
'Anha may have described this verbally, it may also be possible that she
demonstrated the manner in which Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam recited, where from this explanation is apparent. The commentators
on hadith give two explanations. The second explanation seems more appropriate.
A hadith of this nature is mentioned by Sayyiditina Ummi Salamah Radiyallahu
'Anha in hadith number three of this chapter, wherein she demonstrates
how Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam recited.
Qataadah Radiyallahu'Anhu reports: "I inquired from Anas Radiyallahu
'Anhu: 'How was the recital of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
?' He replied: 'He recited (The words of madd) with a madd".
The words that are to be recited with madd were recited with a madd (long
intonation). This can only be done if one recites steadily, and with care.
It is difficult to pronounce the madd if one recites hastily. From this,
both things are apparent. One should recite steadily, and recite the madds,
where they appear. The commentators of hadith have written that there
are laws governing the recital of the rnadd. These are described fully
in the books of tajweed. It is necessary to implement them. In our times
the Qurraa (Qaaris) stretch the madd so much, overdoing it. Only the things
that are done according to its laws and fundamentals are correct. Excess
or deficiency are both abhorred.
Ummi Salamah Radiyallahu 'Anha reports: "Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam recited every aayah separately. He recited 'Alhamdulillaahi Rabbil
'Aa-lameen' and paused, then recited 'Ar Rahmaanir Raheem' and paused.
Then paused after reciting 'Maaliki Yawmiddeen".
Briefly, he recited every aayah distinctly, and with ease. There is a
difference of opinion among the Qurraa, that is it afdal (better) to take
a breath after the recital of every aayah or not? Maulana Gangohi has
written a special booklet 'Raddut Tughyaan fi Awqaafil Qur-aan' in Urdu,
which is quite comprehensive. This book is beneficial for the rnasaa-il
of this nature.
'Abdullah bin Abi Qays Radiyallahu 'Anhu reports: "I inquired from
'Aayeshah Radiyallahu 'Anha about the recital of Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam, did he 'recite softly or audibly? She replied: 'He recited
in both ways'. I said: 'Alhamdulillaah, (Praise be to, Allah), who has
accorded us easiness in the matter"'. (According to the situation
whatever was proper, reciting softly or audibly was adopted).
This question, as has been mentioned in the jaami' Tirmidhi, is regarding
the recital at the time of tahajjud. Sayyiditina 'Aayeshah Radiyallahu
'Anha replying that he recited both softly, and audibly, may also mean
that he recited both tones in the same night.
This is also correct that in one night he recited the entire salaah audibly,
and on another night he recited the entire salaah softly. Both are correct,
and there is no harm in reciting in both manners. At times it is better
to recite audibly, especially where it is intended to persuade others,
or it will create strength to recite. Where there is a possibility that
one will be troubled, or where it is doubted that this will create pride,
it is better not to recite audibly as it is important to consider those
present. When sometimes both are of the same nature, then it is advisable
to recite in a slightly audible tone. It was the practice ol Sayyidina
Abubakr Radiyallahu 'Anhu to recite softly in the tahajjud. Sayyidina
'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu used to recite audibly. Once Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam passed both at night and witnessed the practices
of both. When they attended the noble gathering of Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam in the morning Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam discussed this. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallarn said to Sayyidina Abubakr Radiyallahu 'Anhu. "When I passed
you, you were reciting softly". He replied: "That great being
with whom I was conversing was listening". Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam then said to Sayyidina 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu: "When
I passed you, you were reciting loudly". Sayyidina 'Umar Radiyallahu
'Anhu replied: "The intention was to awaken those who were carelessly
sleeping, and to keep away the shaytaan". Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam approved the explanations of both, and said to Sayyidina
Abubakr Radiyallahu 'Anhu "Raise your voice a little" and to
Sayyidina 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu: "Lower your voice a little".
Ummi Haani Radiyallahu 'Anha reports: "I heard Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam reciting (the Qur-aan in the Masjidul Haraam) at night,
while I was on the rooftop of my house".
This will mean that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam recited
very clearly and with an audible tone, that I could hear it on the rooftop
of my house. Normally at night due to quietness the voice travels quite
a distance. On the rooftop which is open it could be heard better, especially
when the house is near.
'Abdullah bin Mughaffal Radiyallahu 'Anhu says: "I saw Rasulullah
Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam riding his camel on the day when Makkah was
conquered, he was reciting:
"Lo! We have given thee (O Muhammad) a signal victory, That Allah
may forgive thee of thy sin that which is past and that which is to come,
.. ."-Surah Fath: 1-2
He says: "He read it and repeated it". Mu'aawiyah bin Qurrah
Radiyallahu 'Anhu (who is a narrator in the chain of this hadith) says:
''If I did not fear the people would surround me, I should have recited
it in the same tone''.
According to the 'Arabic language tar-jee' means to return or repeat.
It means that the sound is repeated. The tafseer (commentary) of it is
related by Sayyidina 'Abdullah bin Mughaffal Radiyallahu 'Anhu himself
as Aa-Aa. Some of the 'ulama state this means to clear the voice and recite.
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallhu 'Alayhi Wasallam was very happy on the
conquest of Makkah, and it becoming Darrul Islaam, therefore he was reciting
with enjoyment. The research of my late father -May Allah fill his grave
with nur-is that since Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
was sitting on a camel, its walking and moving made it seem that the sound
was being repeated. For this reason Sayyidina 'Abdullah bin Mughaffal
Radiyallahu 'Anhu explained is as Aa-Aa and Sayyidina Mu'aawiyah Radiyallahu
'Anhu did not attempt to demonstrate it, because he feared people would
begin gathering around him. According to this explanation it will not
contradict the following hadith. This humble servant prefers this explanation,
because according to the first explanation it will mean to recite clearly
and with a good melodious voice, then what fear shall there be of people
gathering around. It is necessary to recite the Qur-aan correctly, wherein
there is no singing tune. In many ahaadith under diffrent headings it
has been stressed that the Qur-aan must be recited with tarteel and a
good intonation. I have compiled some of these ahaadith in my kitaab 'Chehl
Hadith;. Those who are interested may read it.
Qataadah Radiyallahu 'Anhu narrates that Allah gave to every Nabi that
He had sent a beautiful feature and beautiful voice. Your Nabi Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam also had a beautiful feature and a beautiful voice. Rasulullah
Sallallhu 'Alayhi Wasallam did not recite in a melodious tone as singers
Apparently this hadith seems to contradict the previous one, explained
in the commentary of the previous hadith. It means that he did not repeat
the sound whilst reciting. Some of the 'ulama take this to mean as singing
and reciting, and that it has been prohibited in many ahaadith to recite
with a singing tone.
Ibn 'Abbaas Radiyallahu 'Anhu says: "Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam raised his voice only to the extent, that it might have been
possible that if he recited in the house, those in the courtyard might
be able to listen".
The voice did not reach beyond the courtyard. The reciting of the Qur-aan
softly and audibly are both better according to the circumstances. On
a correct and suitable occasion, or where for a reason it is desirable
to recite audibly, there one should recite audibly. If there exists a
fear that it will create show etc., there one should recite softly. The
object is that according to circumstances it keeps changing, therefore,
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam has said the one that
recites the Qur-aan audibly is like the one that openly gives sadaqah,
and the one who recites softly is like the one who gives sadaqah secretly.
Concerning sadaqah, at times it is better to openly reveal the giving
of it and at times it is better to conceal it. Circumstances should be
taken into consideration, which change from time to time. This rule applies
to the reciting of the Qur-aan also.
taken (with Thanks) from Darul-uloom Bury