ON THE MUBAARAK RING OF SAYYIDINA RASULULLAH SALLALLAHU 'ALAYHI WASALLAM
has mentioned eight ahaadith in this chapter.
Hadith Number 1
bin Maalik Radiyallahu 'Anhu says that the ring of Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam was ,made of silver and the gem stone was from Abyssinia.
According to the majority of the 'ulama it is permissible to wear
a ring made made of silver. The Hanafis say it is not permissible to wear
a ring made of bronze. iron, steel etc. In the early stages, Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam did not have a ring made, until
it was known that the kings of Persia and other countries did not accept
or take into consideration letters that had no seal (stamp) on them. He
had begun sending letters to.the kings inviting thern to Islaam. A seal
(stamp) was made in the sixth or seventh year hijri. The 'ulama give different
opinions on the wearing of the ring. Some'ulama say that it is makruh
for any person besides the king and judge to wear a ring. The research
of the Hanafi 'ulama (may Allah Increase their number and accept their
efforts) in this matter, according to the saying of 'Shaami' is, that
it is sunnah for the kings, judges, trustees and those who need a seal.
Besides them it is permissible for others, but better not to use it. The
reason is evident that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
only made one when it became necessary, before he began sending letters
to the kings. This will be mentioned in hadith number six in this chapter.
Abu Daawud and others have stated that besides the kings, others are prohibited
from wearing a ring. Since it has been proven that many Sahaabah Radiyallahu
'Anhum wore a ring in the presence of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam, and in other ahaadith that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam had permitted it, this prohibition will be taken as that
which is contrary to a more meritorious and desired act.
Hadith Number 2
Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu says that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
had a ring made of silver. He used it as a seal (Stamp) on letters etc.,
but did not wear it.
Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam wore a ring as has been
stated in the ahaadith. The ulama give a few explanations to this hadith.
Some have explained that it meant that he did not wear it continuously.
Some are of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
possessed two rings, one had the seal and was used to put a stamp on letters
etc. and he did not wear this ring. The other ring was used for wearing.
In the same manner, the 'ulama have given many other explanations. According
to this humble servant the most accepted explanation is that he did not
wear it always.
It is reported in the hadith that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu
alayhe wasallam was once performing salaah, he was wearing a ring on the
right hand. While performing salaah, his eyes fell on the ring. After
that he stopped wearing the ring.
In the ahaadith a similar incident is mentioned regarding a printed cloth.
While in salaah his sight fell on it. Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu
alayhe wasallam removed this cloth and wore another one.
Since the ring was of importance it could not be discarded completely.
Therefore he did not generally wear it. This is the nearest (most correct).
It will be stated in the sixth hadith of the next chapter that the ring
was mostly kept by Sayyidina Mu'ayqeeb radiallahu anhu.
Hadith Number 3
Anas radiallahu anhu reports that Rasululah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
had a ring made of silver and its (inlaid) gem was also of sliver.
This hadith seems to contradict the one where it is mentioned that an
Abyssinian stone was inlaid.
Those who are of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe
wasallam had two rings, say that this hadith in context is similar to
it being two rings. Bayhaqi and others also hold the same view, and according
to him there no is complication.
Those who are of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasulluahsallallahu
alayhe wasallam had one ring, give the explanation, that by Habshi (Abyssinian)
it is meant Habshi colour or Habshi style, or the maker of it was a Habshi.
According to this humble servant the explanation is that there was
more than one ring seems correct, because from the hadith it has been
proved that at different times Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe
wasallam had different rings. Sayyidina Rasulluahsallallahu alayhe wasallam
had a ring made for himself. His servant gave him one as a present as
is evident from different narrations stated in the book of 'Jam'ul Wasaa-Il'.
Hadith Number 4
radiallahu anhu relates: "When Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
intended to write letters to the kings of 'Ajam (non arabs), inviting
them to Islam, the people said that they did not accept letters without
a seal (stamp) on them. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam therefore
had a ring made, the whiteness of which is still before my eyes."
The last sentence shows that he remembers this incident well. By whiteness
the silver in the ring is referred to.
Hadith Number 5
is related from Hazrat Anas radiallahu anhu that the inscription engraved
on the ring of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam was 'Muhammad
Rasullulah, of in the first line was engraved, in the second line 'Rasul,
and in the third line 'Allah'.
Some 'ulama have written that 'Muhammad Rasulullah' was engraved in such
a manner, that the word 'Allah' was engraved on the top. This stamp was
round, and was read from the bottom. The muhaqqiqeen (research scholars)
write that this is not proven from any hadith, but from the apparent words
we find it was written thus:
Hadith Number 6
Radiyallahu relates that: Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam made an
intention to write letters to Kisra, Qaysur (Ceasar) and Najashi, inviting
them to accept Islaam. The people said: '(O Rasulullah) those people do
not accept letters without a stamp on it'. For this reason Rasulullah
Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam had a stamp made. The ring (loop) of which
was silver, and had 'Muhammad Rasulullah' engraved on it".
Kisra is the title of the Persian kings. Qaysar (Ceasar) that of the Romans
and Najaashi that of the Abyssinian kings. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam sent a letter to Kisra with Sayyidina Abdullah bin Hudhaa-fah
Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Kisra tore the letter of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu-
'Alayhi Wasallam to pieces. When Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam heard this he said. 'May Allah tear his kingdom to pieces', and
so did it happen. The letter to the king of the Romans was sent with Sayyidina
Dihyah bin Khalifah Kalbi Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Although accepting the prophethood
of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam, he did not accept
Islaam. The letter to Najaashi, the king of Abyssinia was sent with Sayyidina
'Amr bin Urnayyah Damri Radiyallahu 'Anhu, as is mentioned in 'Mawaahib
Ladunniyyah' and other kitaabs. This is not the Najaashi that has been
mentioned previously, and for whom Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam had performed janaazah salaah. This was another Najaashi. It
is not known whether he had accepted Islaam or not, as Mulla'Ali Qaari
has written in his kitaab. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
wrote many letters which have been discussed in detail in the books of
hadith and history. Special books have been written on this subject. In
the above hadith, three letters are mentioned, of which a brief account
seems appropriate here. One letter was written to Kisra, which is the
title of the kings of Persia. The name of this Kisra was Aparvez, who
was the grandson of Naw-sherwaan. The contents of the letter to him were
as follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful
From Muhammad, Allah's Messenger, to the great ruler of Persia. Peace
be upon the one who follows (accepts) righteousness and reposes a faith
(imaan) in Allah and His Rasul, and bears witness that none is to be worshipped
besides Allah, Who has no partners and that Muhammad is His servant and
Messenger. I call you towards Allah, for I am Allah's true Messenger,
who has been sent to the whole world to warn those whose hearts are alive
(because they have a little understanding-a man without sense is like
a dead person), and complete the proof of Allah (Allah's existence) to
non-believers (so that they may not say on the day of qiyaamah that we
did not know). Accept Islaam so that you may live in peace. If you reject
then the sin of all the fire-worshippers will be upon you, for they will
be led astray by following you.
Sayyidina 'Abdullah bin Hudhaa-fah Radiyallahu 'Anhu was given this letter
and instructed to give it to a governor of Kisra who was living in Bahrain.
The letter was to be sent to Kisra through him. It was then delivered
to Kisra with the governor's assistance. Kisra had this letter read out
to him whereafter he tore it to pieces and threw it away. When Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam was informed of this he cursed Kisra.
Later the son of Kisra, Sherwiyyah, killed him in a very brutal manner.
This incident is written in the books of history. The second letter mentioned
in the hadith was sent to Qaysar (Ceasar), the king of the Romans. According
to historians his name was Hiraql. This letter was sent with Sayyidina
Dihyah Kalbi Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Although the Qaysar did not accept Islaam,
he respected the letter and kept it safely. When Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam heard of this he said: 'Kisra tore his country
to pieces, and Qaysar guarded his'. The contents of the letter were as
follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful From
Muhamrnad, Allah's servant and Messenger, to Hiraql, the great (ruler)
of the Romans. Peace be upon the one that follows righteousness. After
praise and salutations, I call you towards the Kalimah (Laa liaha illlallah
Muhamamdur Rasulullah) of Islaam. Accept Islaam that you may live in peace.
Allah will grant you a double reward, (because the Ahlul-Kitaab will receive
double reward if they accept Islaam, as is mentioned in the Qur-aan at
the end of Surah Hadid), and if you reject then the sin of the tillers
of the land (farmers) who are under you, will be upon you. Oh People of
the Book, come towards the kalimah, that is the same between us and you,
and that is tauheed (the oneness of Allah), that we shall not worship
anyone besides Allah and shall not make any partner unto Him, and that
we shall not make anyone from among ourselves a god besides Allah (like
the monks and priests are made gods) and if they reject (Oh you Muslims)
then say to them that bear witness that we are Muslims (we openly proclaim
our religion and now you are responsible for yourselves). -Bukhaari, I'laamus
Saa-i-leen. The portion from, 'Oh People of the Book, come towards ...
to the end, is an aayah of the Qur-aan in Surah Aali 'Imraan.
When Sayyidina Dihyah Kalbi Radiyallahu 'Anhu delivered this letter and
it was read before the Qaysar, his nephew who was present, became very
angry, and began saying, give this letter to me. The uncle (Qaysar) asked:
'What will you do with it?" He replied: 'This letter is not worth
reading, your name was not mentioned first in the letter, but that of
his (Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam). Instead of emperor
he addresses you as a ruler etc. etc'. The Qaysar replied: 'You are stupid.
Do you want me to throw away such a letter from a person to whom the Great
Jibra-eel ('Alayhis Salaam) comes. If he is a prophet then he should write
like this'. Sayyidina Dibyah Radiyallahu 'Anhu was accommodated with great
honour and respect. The Qaysar was on a tour there at that time. When
he was returning he called all the ministers of his kingdom, and said
to them that, "I wish to bring vour, attention to such a thing that
is full of goodness and prosperity. And is a means to keep your country
for long. Verily this person ( i.e. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam) is a prophet, follow him and pay allegiance to him". He
delivered this long speech in a room where all the doors and windows were
closed and locked. The ministers and others became so rash with anger
that they caused a commotion and began jumping about violently, trying
to run out. Since all the doors and windows were locked, this situation
carried on for a while. The Qaysar calmed all those present and delivered
another speech, and said: 'A person who has claimed prophethood has appeared.
I was 'testing your reaction that how firm are you on you religion, and
now I have gauged it'. As was normal all began prostrating before him.
Thereafter he praised them and let them leave. In some narrations it is
stated that he kissed the letter and put it on his head. He then covered
it with silk and put it safely away. He sent for the pope and discussed
this matter with him. The pope said: 'Verily this is the last of the Prophets,
the good news of which has been mentioned in our Holy Books'. The Qaysar
said: 'I also believe this, but there is one problem, if I become a Muslim
these people will kill me, and I will lose my kingdom'. I'laamus Saa-i-leen.
The Qaysar was on a pilgrimage to Baytul Muqaddas when this letter, reached
him. A trading caravan from Makkah was also there at that time. To investigate
this matter the Qaysar called the leader of the Makkan traders. Details
of thiss event are mentioned in Bukhaari. This incident took place at
the time when Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'alayhi, Wasallam had signed
a peace treaty for a few years with the Makaans at Hudaybiyyah. An agreement
was drawn up that there would be no war, between the Muslims and the Makkans.
Abu Sufyaan, who had not yet; accepted lslaam, said: 'I once went to Shaam
(Syria) during this period, of peace. At that time Hiraql received Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam's letter inviting him to accept
Islaam. Upon receiving, this letter, which was delivered by Dihyah' Kalbi,
he asked the local people if there was anybody in the town who knew this
person claiming prophethood. They said: 'Yes, there are some people who
have recently, arrived'. Thereupon we were asked to appear before the
king. A few of my companions and myself from the Quraysh went to the king.
He made us all sit near him and then asked: 'Who of you is the nearest
in relationship to the person that has claimed prophethood?' I replied
that I was the most closely related. He asked me to come nearer to him
motioning my companions to sit behind me, and said to them: 'I am to ask
him some questions. If he gives false information, inform me. Abu Sufyaan
had not yet accepted Islaam and was a staunch enemy of Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi
Wasallam. He said: 'I swear that if I had not been afraid that the people
would later say that I was a liar, and disgrace me, then I would have
surely given false information, but fear of disgrace made me speak the
truth'. He then began asking me through his interpreter the following
Q. The person who has claimed prophethood, how is he regarded amongst
you according to his family lineage?
A,. He hails from a great family and is of a noble lineage amongst us.
Q. Was anyone amongst his ancestors a king?
A. There was none.
Q. Before claiming prophethood, was he ever accused of falsehood?
Q. Those who follow him, are they from the elite, or are they from the
A. From the ordinary people.
Q. Are his followers increasing or decreasing?
A. They are increasing.
Q. Those who adopt his religion, does anyone among them become frustrated
and turn away?
Q. Did you go to war with him? A. yes.
Q. What were the results of the war?
A. Sometimes they were victorious, at other times we were victorious.
Q. Does he ever break his promises
A. No. These days we have an agreement between us. We do not know if he
will fulfil it or not. Abu Sufyaan said: 'I did not have a chance to say
anything from my own side besides this sentence'. Q. Did anyone claim
prophethood before him?
In some narrations it stated that Hiraql asked Abu Sufyaan: 'Why do you
fear that he will dishonour the treaty?' Abu Sufyaan replied: 'My People
have helped our allies against their allies'. Hiraql said you have been
dishonest'. Thereafter Hiraql continued the conversation and said: 'I
asked you about his lineage. You replied that he was of noble lineage.
The prophets are from the noble families of their people. I asked if any
of his ancestors were kings? You said: 'No'. I thought that he wanted
to regain the control of kingship. I asked if his followers were from
the high class or common and weak people. All those who followed the earlier
prophets, were from among such people (The high class felt it a shame
to follow others). Iasked if he was ever accused of falsehood before he
claimed prophethood. You' denied it. I thought that by lying to people
he would begin to lie about Allah (Na'udhu billah). (The person who does
not lie to people, how can he lie about Allah). I asked if anyone accepted
his message and thereafter became disillusioned and turned away from it
(became a murtad-apostate ). You replied in the negative. This is a peculiarity
of imaan, that the love and happiness of it enters the heart. I enquired
if their number increased or decreased? You replied that they were increasing.
The peculiarity of good imaan is this till its completion. I asked about
war against him? You said sometimes he gained victory, sometimes you.
This was the case with all the prophets, but the best results were always
in favour of them. I queried about his breaking promises? You said no.
This is the quality of a prophet, for, he does not break promises. I asked
did anyone claim, prophethood before him? You denied it. I thought if
someone had claimed prophethood before, then he might be trying to imitate
them. Hiraql thereafter asked these people: 'What are his teachings?'
The people replied: 'To perform salaah, give zakaah and to uphold relationship
with one's relatives. To keep one's chastity and modesty'. Hiraql said:
'If all that you have said is true, then verily he is a nabi (prophet).
I was certain that he was to be born shortly, but not certain that he
would be amongst you. If I were sure that I could go to him, I would surely
have gone to meet him. (But cannot go because of the fear that I will
lose my kingdom and my life). If I were in his presence I would have washed
his feet. There is no doubt that his rule will reach till where I am'.
There are many other incidents about Hiraql related in the books of hadith.
He was well versed in their holy books and was also an expert in astronomy.
He therefore thought on these lines, and did some research on it too.
In some narrations it is related that he kept the letter of Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam very carefully with respect in a
golden case. This was kept safely by his children and then their
offspring for many generations. The third letter which is mentioned in
the above hadith was sent to Najaashi. It has already been stated that
the Abyssinian kings were called. Najaashi. in the lifetime of Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam there were two kings of Abyssinia.
The name of the first was As-hamah who accepted Islaam. The Muslims had
migrated to Abyssinia under his rule. At that time he had not yet accepted
Islaam. This incident has been briefly narrated in the first chapter of
'Stories of the Sahaabah Radiyallahu 'Anhu'. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam sent a letter to the second Najaashi with Sayyidina 'Amr
bin Umayyah Damri Radiyallahu 'Anhu. The contents of the letter reads
as follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to Najaashi, the king of Abyssinia.
You love peace. I convey to you the praises of that Allah, besides whom
there is none worthy of worship. He is the King, and is free from all
faults. He is free from all shortcomings (or the creation is safe from
His oppression). He grants peace; He guards (He saves the creation from
all calamities); And I bear witness that 'Eesa 'Alayhis Salaam is one
of Allah's Ruhs, and was the Kalimah of Allah which was sent to the pure,
clean and virgin Maryam, thus she conceived. Allah Ta'aala created 'Eesa'Alayhis
Salaam from one of his special ruh's, and put life into him, as he had
created Sayyidina Aadam 'Alayhis Salaam with His hands (without a father).
I call you towards the worship of the One Who is alone and has no partner
and call you to assist in obeying His commands. I invite you to accept
imaan (faith), and follow the shari'ah with which I am sent. Without doubt
I am the Messenger of Allah. I invite you and your army towards Allah.
I have conveyed the truth to you and have advised you. Accept my advice.
Peace be on the one who follows the right path. A group among the muhadditheen
have ascertained that this Najaashi had already accepted Islaam. After
receiving this letter of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
he publicly declared that he was a Muslim. Some are of the opinion that
he accepted Islaam after receiving the letter. He replied to the letter
confirming that he had accepted Islaam, and that whatever was written
of Sayyidina 'Eesa 'Alayhis Salaam was word for word, true. He sent the
reply with his son, accompanied by a group of seventy people, to Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam, but unfortunately the boat that
they were travelling in sank in the sea and none among them reached Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam. Najaashi passed away during the
life-time of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi wasallam. Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam performed janaazah salaah for him.
(To perform janaazah salaah for an absent person is a fiqhi mas-alah.
Due to many reasons it had its peculiarities according to the Hanafis).
After the death of this Najaashi, another Najaashi was crowned as a ruler.
Another letter was written to him which read as follows: This letter is
from Allah's Nabi Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam to the, Najaashi, great
(ruler) of Abyssinia. Peace be on the one that follows the straight path,
and reposes his faith in Allah and His Rasul, and bears witness that none
is worthy of worship save Allah; He is One; He has no partners nor any
wife, nor any child; And also bears witness that Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam is His servant and Messenger. I invite you to the Kalimah (Laa
ilaha illahah, Muhammadur Rasulullah) of Allah. Accept Islaam and you
shall remain in peace. Oh People of the Book, come to the word that is
common between us and you, that we shall not worship anyone besides Allah,
and we shall not make anyone from amongst ourselves a god besides Allah.
And if they reject (Oh Muslims) then say to them, bear witness that we
are Muslims (openly announce their imaan). If you do not accept my invitation
(to Islaam) and reject it, the sin of the Christians (as they are your
followers) shall fall on you. At the beginning of the letter, as is customary,
Bismillah must have been written. But Bismillah was not written in the
copy from where I have taken this. It has not been confirmed whether this
Najaashi had accepted lslaam or not, or what his name was. The opinion
of the majority of the muhadditheen is that the third letter in this hadith,
which is to Najaashi, is the same Najaashi. In some narrations with the
name Najaashi, it is also stated that this was not the Najaashi for whom
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had performed janaazah
salaah. This is a more correct explanation. A few muhadditheen have only
mentioned the letter to the first Najaashi, and a few have only mentioned
the second letter.
Hadith Number 7
bin Maalik Radiyallahu 'Anhu reports: "When Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam went to the toilet, he removed his ring".
As the name of Allah Jalla Jalaaluhu was engraved on it, he never went
to the toilet with it. For this reason the 'ulama have written that it
is makruh to go to the toilet with anything that has a venerable name
or sentence on it.
Hadith Number 8
'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu says. "Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
kept his ring in his mubaarak hands (possession). Then it was kept by
Abubakr Radiyallahu 'Anhu, then by 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Thereafter
by 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu. In his ('Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu's) time
it fell in the Well of 'Arees. The inscription on this ring was 'Muhammadur
Bir 'Arees is a well near Masjid Quba. During the khilaafah of Sayyidina
Uthrnaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu the ring remained with him for six years, then
accidently it fell into the well. Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu
'Anhu ordered a thorough search of the well. For two days water of the
well was pulled out, but it could not be found. The 'ulama write that
from the time the ring fell in the well, mischief and revolt began, and
increased in the later years of Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu's
khilaafah. In this hadith Sayyidina Ibn 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu says,
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam kept the ring in his
mubaarak hands, and in another hadith in this chapter he denies that Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam wore a ring. This has already been
explained. A special answer to the apparent contradictions in this hadith
is that the meaning of Sayyidina Rasuluilah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
kept the ring in his hands is, he kept it in his possession. It does not
necessarily mean that he wore it. It is stated in the following chapter
that the ring was kept by Sayyidina Mu'ayqeeb Radiyallahu 'Anhu.
taken (with Thanks) from Darul-uloom Bury