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[24:32] Arrange the marriage of the spouseless among you, and the capable from among your bondmen and bondwomen. If they are poor, Allah will enrich them out of His grace. Allah is All-Encompassing, All-Knowing.


Caution:

This article is not to provide justification for our Sisters to get married without the permission and consent of their Wali (guardian). Rather, we advise Sisters who have Wali (guardian) unreasonably preventing them from fulfilling half of their religion to refer the matter to Islamic Scholars or Islamic Shariah councils and let a Mufti or a Scholar from a Shariah council and let them consider the situation and act as Wali (if necessary) and give them in marriage.

This purpose of this article is demonstrate academically that some leeway in the Hanafi School of thought on the matter of marriage without wali (consent) is not without evidence. Due to the sensitivity of the subject, we advise (again) that although leeway does exist our Sisters should opt to consult Islamic Scholars on the matter and let them rule on their individual circumstances and act as their Wali.

Please proceed to read the evidence of the Hanafi School of thought once you have understood the position and the rationale behind this article.  Following are some contacts for our Sisters to consult Islamic Scholars and have the Ulama rule on their individual circumstances and assist (if necessary); at the very least local Imam (or local Mosque) should be consulted. Nikah should be publicised and officially endorsed, please also read out detailed article on marriages.

 

1 Islamic Tarbiyah Academy (UK)

 

2 Birmingham Fiqh Council (UK)

 

3 Rahmat-e-Alam Foundation (Chicago, USA)

 

4 Shariah Board of New York (USA) [redirect through above site)

 

5 Fatwa Centre of America (Rhode Island, USA)

 

6 Darul Qasim (Chicago, USA)

 

Evidence for marraige without wali (consent):

 

1 Qur’aan encourages believers to marry without placing any restrictions on a believing woman needing a Wali.

 

وَأَنكِحُواْ ٱلۡأَيَـٰمَىٰ مِنكُمۡ وَٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ مِنۡ عِبَادِكُمۡ وَإِمَآٮِٕڪُمۡ‌ۚ إِن يَكُونُواْ فُقَرَآءَ يُغۡنِهِمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ وَٲسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ۬

[24:32] Arrange the marriage of the spouseless among you, and the capable from among your bondmen and bondwomen. If they are poor, Allah will enrich them out of His grace. Allah is All-Encompassing, All-Knowing.

 

2 There is no question about a woman who is divorced or widowed and her ability to marry without the permission of her Wali.

 

وَإِذَا طَلَّقۡتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فَبَلَغۡنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعۡضُلُوهُنَّ أَن يَنكِحۡنَ أَزۡوَٲجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَٲضَوۡاْ بَيۡنَہُم بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ‌ۗ ذَٲلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِۦ مَن كَانَ مِنكُمۡ يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۗ ذَٲلِكُمۡ أَزۡكَىٰ لَكُمۡ وَأَطۡهَرُ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

[2:232] When you have divorced women, and they have reached (the end of) their waiting period, do not prevent them from marrying their husbands when they mutually agree with fairness. Thus the advice is given to everyone of you who believes in Allah and in the Hereafter. This is more pure and clean for you. Allah knows and you do not know.

حَدَّثَنِي مَعْقِل بْن يَسَار قَالَ : كَانَتْ لِي أُخْت فَخُطِبَتْ إِلَيَّ فَكُنْت أَمْنَعهَا النَّاس , فَأَتَى اِبْن عَمّ لِي فَخَطَبَهَا فَأَنْكَحْتهَا إِيَّاهُ , فَاصْطَحَبَا مَا شَاءَ اللَّه ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا طَلَاقًا رَجْعِيًّا ثُمَّ تَرَكَهَا حَتَّى اِنْقَضَتْ عِدَّتهَا فَخَطَبَهَا مَعَ الْخُطَّاب , فَقُلْت : مَنَعْتُهَا النَّاسَ وَزَوَّجْتُك إِيَّاهَا ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتَهَا طَلَاقًا لَهُ رَجْعَة ثُمَّ تَرَكْتهَا حَتَّى اِنْقَضَتْ عِدَّتهَا فَلَمَّا خُطِبَتْ إِلَيَّ أَتَيْتنِي تَخْطُبهَا مَعَ الْخُطَّاب لَا أُزَوِّجك أَبَدًا فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّه , أَوْ قَالَ أُنْزِلَتْ : " وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمْ النِّسَاء فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلهنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَنْ يَنْكِحْنَ أَزْوَاجهنَّ " فَكَفَّرْت عَنْ يَمِينِي وَأَنْكَحْتهَا إِيَّاهُ

 

Sayydina Mu’aqal bin Yasaar relates: I had a sister who was married to our cousin, he issued my sister with one Talaaq Rajaee. After her Iddah was complete, he wished to perform Nikah with her again. When he put the proposal forward, I prevented her from accepting his proposal. On that incident and in relation to my action this verse of the Qur’an: ‘And when you have divorced women...’ [2:232] was revealed, hence preventing me from prohibiting my sister to marry her former husband again.’[Qurtubi]

وَٱلَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوۡنَ مِنكُمۡ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا يَتَرَبَّصۡنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرۡبَعَةَ أَشۡہُرٍ۬ وَعَشۡرً۬ا‌ۖ فَإِذَا بَلَغۡنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِيمَا فَعَلۡنَ فِىٓ أَنفُسِهِنَّ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ۬

[2:234] Those among you who pass away and leave wives behind, their wives keep themselves waiting for four months and ten days. So, when they have reached (the end of) their waiting period, there is no sin on you in what they do for themselves in recognized manner. Allah is All-Aware of what you do.

 

3 Woman presenting herself to Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) for marriage without wali (consent).

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا مَرْحُومٌ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ثَابِتًا الْبُنَانِيَّ، قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَنَسٍ وَعِنْدَهُ ابْنَةٌ لَهُ، قَالَ أَنَسٌ جَاءَتِ امْرَأَةٌ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم تَعْرِضُ عَلَيْهِ نَفْسَهَا قَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَلَكَ بِي حَاجَةٌ، فَقَالَتْ بِنْتُ أَنَسٍ مَا أَقَلَّ حَيَاءَهَا وَاسَوْأَتَاهْ وَاسَوْأَتَاهْ‏.‏ قَالَ هِيَ خَيْرٌ مِنْكِ رَغِبَتْ فِي النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَعَرَضَتْ عَلَيْهِ نَفْسَهَا‏.

 

Sayyidina Thabit Al-Banani (RA) narrated that I was with Anas (RA) while his daughter was present with him. Anas said, "A woman came to Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and presented herself to him, saying, 'O Allah's Messenger(Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam), have you any need for me (i.e. would you like to marry me)?' "Thereupon Anas's daughter said, "What a shameless lady she was ! Shame! Shame!" Anas said, "She was better than you; she had a liking for the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) so she presented herself for marriage to him." [Bukhari]

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو غَسَّانَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو حَازِمٍ، عَنْ سَهْلٍ، أَنَّ امْرَأَةً، عَرَضَتْ نَفْسَهَا عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لَهُ رَجُلٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ زَوِّجْنِيهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَا عِنْدَكَ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ مَا عِنْدِي شَىْءٌ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ اذْهَبْ فَالْتَمِسْ وَلَوْ خَاتَمًا مِنْ حَدِيدٍ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَذَهَبَ ثُمَّ رَجَعَ فَقَالَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ مَا وَجَدْتُ شَيْئًا، وَلاَ خَاتَمًا مِنْ حَدِيدٍ، وَلَكِنْ هَذَا إِزَارِي وَلَهَا نِصْفُهُ ـ قَالَ سَهْلٌ وَمَا لَهُ رِدَاءٌ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ وَمَا تَصْنَعُ بِإِزَارِكَ إِنْ لَبِسْتَهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهَا مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ، وَإِنْ لَبِسَتْهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْكَ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَجَلَسَ الرَّجُلُ حَتَّى إِذَا طَالَ مَجْلَسُهُ قَامَ فَرَآهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَدَعَاهُ أَوْ دُعِي لَهُ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَاذَا مَعَكَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ مَعِي سُورَةُ كَذَا وَسُورَةُ كَذَا لِسُوَرٍ يُعَدِّدُهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَمْلَكْنَاكَهَا بِمَا مَعَكَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏‏.‏

 

Sayyidina Sahl bin Sa`d (RA) narrated that a woman presented herself to the Prophet (for marriage). A man said to him, "O Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam)! (If you are not in need of her) marry her to me." The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "What have you got?" The man said, "I have nothing." The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said (to him), "Go and search for something) even if it were an iron ring." The man went and returned saying, "No, I have not found anything, not even an iron ring; but this is my (Izar) waist sheet, and half of it is for her." He had no Rida' (upper garment). The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "What will she do with your waist sheet? If you wear it, she will have nothing over her; and if she wears it, you will have nothing over you." So the man sat down and when he had sat a long time, he got up (to leave). When the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) saw him (leaving), he called him back, or the man was called (for him), and he said to the man, "How much of the Qur'an do you know (by heart)?" The man replied I know such Sura and such Sura (by heart)," naming the Suras The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "I have married her to you for what you know of the Qur'an ." [Bukhari]

4 Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) permitting a woman to marry without wali (consent).

 

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، وَأَبَا، سَلَمَةَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ اخْتَلَفَا فِي الْمَرْأَةِ تُنْفَسُ بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ زَوْجِهَا بِلَيَالٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو سَلَمَةَ إِذَا وَضَعَتْ مَا فِي بَطْنِهَا فَقَدْ حَلَّتْ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ آخِرَ الأَجَلَيْنِ ‏.‏ فَجَاءَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ فَقَالَ أَنَا مَعَ ابْنِ أَخِي ‏.‏ يَعْنِي أَبَا سَلَمَةَ فَبَعَثُوا كُرَيْبًا مَوْلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ إِلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْأَلُهَا عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَجَاءَهُمْ فَأَخْبَرَهُمْ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ وَلَدَتْ سُبَيْعَةُ الأَسْلَمِيَّةُ بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ زَوْجِهَا بِلَيَالٍ فَذَكَرَتْ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ قَدْ حَلَلْتِ فَانْكِحِي مَنْ شِئْتِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Sulayman ibn Yasar that Abdullah ibn Abbas and Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf differed on the question of a wornan who gave birth a few nights after the death of her husband. Abu Salama said, "When she gives birth to the child she is carrying, she is free to marry." Ibn Abbas said, "At the end of two periods." Abu Hurayra came and said, "I am with my nephew", meaning Abu Salama. They sent Kurayb, a mawla of Abdullah ibn Abbas to Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask her about it. He came back and told them that she had said that Subaya al-Aslamiya had given birth a few nights after the death of her husband, and she had brought the matter to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he had said, "You are free to marry, so marry whomever you wish." [Muwatta]

5 Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) marrying Umm Salamah (RA) without wali (consent).

من طريق عمر بن أبي سلمة عن أم سلمة قالت: دخل عليَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد وفاة أبي سلمة، فخطبني إلى نفسي فقلت: يا رسول الله؛ إنه ليس أحد من أوليائي شاهدًا. فقال: (إنه ليس منهم شاهد ولا غائب يكره ذلك). قالت: قم يا عمر. فزوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فتزوجها

 

Sayyidah Umme Salama related, when her Iddah was completed following the death of her husband, the Prophet sent her a proposal for marriage. She responded to the Prophet: ‘my guardian is not present here.’ The Prophet responded: ‘whether your guardians are present or not, they will not disapprove of this Nikah.’ Then Umme Salama said to her young (immature) son: ‘O Umar come accompany me at my Nikah. [Tahawi]

 

6Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) explicitly stating the rights of previously married woman to herself.

وَحَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ زِيَادِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْفَضْلِ، سَمِعَ نَافِعَ بْنَ جُبَيْرٍ، يُخْبِرُ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ الثَّيِّبُ أَحَقُّ بِنَفْسِهَا مِنْ وَلِيِّهَا وَالْبِكْرُ تُسْتَأْمَرُ وَإِذْنُهَا سُكُوتُهَا ‏"‏ ‏
 

Sayyidina Ibn Abbas (RA) reported Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) as saying: A woman who has been previously married (Thayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. And a virgin should also be consulted, and her silence implies her consent. [Muslim]

 
7Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) explicitly ordering to seek consent from a woman.
 
حَدَّثَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ مَيْسَرَةَ الْقَوَارِيرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ تُنْكَحُ الأَيِّمُ حَتَّى تُسْتَأْمَرَ وَلاَ تُنْكَحُ الْبِكْرُ حَتَّى تُسْتَأْذَنَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَكَيْفَ إِذْنُهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ أَنْ تَسْكُتَ ‏"
 
 

Sayyidina Abu Huraira (RA) reported Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) as having said: A woman without a husband (or divorced or a widow) must not be married until she is consulted, and a virgin must not be married until her permission is sought. They asked the Prophet of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam): How her (virgin's) consent can be solicited? He (the Holy Prophet) said: That she keeps silence. [Bukhari]

 
 
8 Sayyida Aisha (RA) marrying a girl without the permission of her Wali!
 
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ " زَوَّجَتْ حَفْصَةَ بِنْتَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْمُنْذِرَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ غَائِبٌ بِالشَّامِ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ، قَالَ: " وَمِثْلِي يُصْنَعُ هَذَا بِهِ، وَمِثْلِي يُفْتَاتُ عَلَيْهِ؟ فَكَلَّمَتْ عَائِشَةُ الْمُنْذِرَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، فَقَالَ الْمُنْذِرُ: فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ بِيَدِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ: مَا كُنْتُ لِأَرُدَّ أَمْرًا قَضَيْتِهِ، فَقَرَّتْ حَفْصَةُ عِنْدَ الْمُنْذِرِ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ طَلَاقًا "

 

It was reported in Al Muwatta' on the authority of `Abdur-Rahman ibn Al Qasim from his father from `A'ishah (RA) that she gave Hafsah bint `Abdur-Rahman in marriage to Al Mundhir ibn Az-Zubayr while `Abdur-Rahman was away in Syria. When `Abdur-Rahman arrived, he said: "Shall someone like me have this done to him? Am I the kind of man to have something done to him without his consent?" `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) spoke to Al Mundhir ibn Az-Zubayr, and Al Mundhir said: " It is in the hands of `Abdur-Rahman ."`Abdur-Rahman said: "I will not oppose something that you have already completed." Hafsah stayed with Al Mundhir, and there was no divorce. [Muwatta]

Counter evidence?

 

1 The narrations presented which quote the marriage of a woman without wali (consent) to be invalid are considered weak by many Masters of Hadeeth; although some do regard them as authentic.

 

2 The actions of Sayyida Aisha (RA) recorded in Muwatta after the passing away of Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) in giving away the daughter of Sayyidina Abdur-Rahman (RA) without his consent clearly demonstrate her understanding of the matter.

 

3 The marriage of the daughter Sayyidina Abdur-Rahman (RA) was neither invalidated nor her Nikah performed (again).

 



Does the Hanafi School encourage marriage without the guardian’s (wali) approval?

Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad ibn Adam (HA)

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

 

The short and simple answer to your question is that: No, the Hanafi School does not, in any way, promote or encourage a marriage without the approval of one’s parents or a legal guardian (wali).

 

To elaborate: It is a common misconception that the Hanafi School unreservedly allows a marriage without the consent of the woman’s parents or her guardian (wali). However, the matter is not as simple as that, and one must understand the Hanafi position properly before coming to any sort of conclusion.

In contrast to the position of most other scholars including the three Sunni Schools of Islamic law, the Hanafi School indeed has some leeway in regards to the necessity of obtaining the consent of the woman’s guardian. The relied upon position within the School is that the marriage of a free, sane and adult woman without the approval of her guardian (wali) is valid if the person she is marrying is a “legal” and suitable match (kuf’) to her. Conversely, if the person she is marrying is not a legal match to her, then her marriage is considered invalid. (Radd al-Muhtar ala ‘l-Durr al-Mukhtar 3/56-57 & I’la al-Sunan 11/69. For more details and the relevant evidences, please refer to the answer previously posted on this website titled: “Divorced woman marrying without her guardian’s approval”).

However, this does not mean that such a marriage is encouraged or permitted without any blame. Disobeying one’s parents is one of the most serious of sins in Islam, and as such, no School would, and can, allow going against the wishes of one’s parents outright. Many Hanafi jurists (fuqaha) have pointed out that it is generally blameworthy and going against the Sunnah to marry without the consent of the Wali regardless of whether the spouse is a legal match or otherwise due to the many Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) emphasising the importance of having the approval of one’s guardian such as: “Any woman who marries without the permission of her guardian, her marriage is invalid, invalid, invalid” (related by Ibn Hibban, Tirmidhi and others, and Tirmidhi considered it a sound/hasan Hadith) and: “There is no marriage without the [permission of a] guardian” (related by Hakim and Abu Dawud). (See: Imdad al-Muftin P: 527)

As such, this Hanafi position is merely a concession (rukhsa) which may be resorted to in situations of need, and a blessing for those sisters who fall victim to their parent’s mistreatment and abuse. In cases where parents force their daughters to marry against their wishes based purely on caste, wealth and other similar preferences, and not Islam, and they give importance to their personal gains over and above the interests of their daughters; this position of the Hanafi School can be an important haven. However, the Hanafi School, in no way, gives a green light for sisters to marry themselves without parental approval in all situations, and as such, this position must not be taken as a standard norm upon which marriage contracts are based.

Thus, a woman must first try and convince her parents or Wali to allow her to marry according to her wishes. She may use the intermediary of someone who may be able to influence her parents. Despite trying, if her parents are still being difficult, and her wish is to marry someone based on religious piety, she should present her case to a knowledge, wise and god-fearing scholar who may be able to advise whether she may marry without her guardian’s approval or not.

And Allah knows best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Darul Iftaa
Leicester , UK