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www.central-mosque.com - Aqeedah https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Table/Beliefs/ Sun, 25 Jun 2017 17:21:24 +0000 en-gb webmaster@central-mosque.com (www.central-mosque.com) The issue of Hazir Nazir and Alimul-Ghaib! https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/hazirnazir.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/hazirnazir.html hazir

{jb_quote}Say no one in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah.{/jb_quote}


Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

Q:) muhtaram mufti sahab,

One of my brothers went to Syria to learn Arabic,he took bay'ah to shaykh nooh in Jordan.none of us is knowledgeable enough to discuss the shariyaah but, we had some general discussion about deobandis and barelwis. according to him,there is ikhtilaaf in the views of scholars about the omnipresence of our prophet (p.b.u.h.).and not only in India but also in some other parts of the world there r people who believe rasulullah(p.b.u.h.)to be hazir nazir and they stand up and read salato salam etc. some people don't see anything wrong in saying ' ya' before speaking name of our prophet( p.b.u.h.),because they argue that when we read attahiyyat in our prayer we say,

''assalmu 'alaika ayyuhan nabiyyu" which means "peace be upon u, o prophet"

So they believe saying these words "peace be upon u, o prophet" means we r saying it directly to our prophet (p.b.u.h.) and if it is allowed to say it in prayer than there is nothing wrong to speak them without prayer. and further more they say that life of barzakh has no limitations of distance(they r for live human beings only),so when we say 'ya rasulullah' from anywhere in the world it means our prophet(p.b.u.h.) can still listen us as he is alive in his pious grave i.e. a'alame barzakh

and that's why we can not reject the view of omnipresence of our prophet( p.b.u.h.).

now, according to our aqeeda of ahlus sunnah wal jama'ah it is kufr to believe in omnipresence of rasulullah (p.b.u.h.),and saying ya rasulullah believing him to be there. I'm not able to explain him,i would appreciate if u can help us with detailed explanation, specially about the purpose of the words of attahiyyat.

please make duaa for all of us to be on right path always

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

1.      Allah Ta’ala mentions in the Noble Quran:

قل لا يعلم من في السماوات والأرض الغيب إلا الله وما يشعرون أيان يبعثون (النمل65)

Say no one in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah. (Naml 65)

2.       

إن الله عنده علم الساعة وينزل الغيث ويعلم ما في الأرحام وما تدري نفس ماذا تكسب غدا وما تدري نفس بأي أرض تموت إن الله عليم خبير (لقمن34)

Surely, it is only Allah who has knowledge of the Hour; and He sends down the rain, and He knows what is in the wombs. No one knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no one knows in which land he will die. Surely, Allah is All Knowing, All Aware. (Luqman 34)

3.       

يقولون لئن رجعنا إلى المدينة ليخرجن الأعز منها الأذل ولله العزة ولرسوله وللمؤمنين ولكن المنافقين لا يعلمون (المنفقون8)

They say if we return to Madina the more honourable will remove the lower class. (Munafiqoon 8)

تفسير ابن كثير - (ج 4 / ص 334)دار المفيد

طريق أخرى عن زيد: قال الإمام أحمد، رحمه الله، حدثنا يحيى بن آدم، ويحيى بن أبي بُكَير (7) قال: حدثنا إسرائيل، عن أبي إسحاق قال: سمعت زيد بن أرقم -وقال ابن أبي بُكَير (8) عن زيد بن أرقم-قال: خرجت مع عمي في غزاة، فسمعت عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول يقول لأصحابه: لا تنفقوا على من عند رسول الله، ولئن رجعنا إلى المدينة ليخرجن الأعز منها الأذل. فذكرت ذلك لعمي فذكره عمي لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأرسل إلي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فحدثته فأرسل إلى عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول وأصحابه فحلفوا ما قالوا: فكَذبني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصَدَّقه، فأصابني هَمٌ لم يصبني مثله قط، وجلست في البيت، فقال عمي: ما أردت إلا أن كذبك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ومقتك. قال: حتى أنزل الله: { إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ} قال: فبعث إليَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقرأها رسول الله على، ثم قال: "إن الله قد صدقك" (9)

Sayyiduna Zaid ibn Arqam رضي الله تعالى عنهrelates that he went out on battle with Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم. During the journey he heard Ibn Ubayy say to his companions “do not spend on the companions of the messenger and if we return to Madina the more honourable will remove the lower class from Madina”. Sayyiduna Zaidرضي الله تعالى عنه related this to Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمsent for Ibn Ubayy and his friends and asked them regarding this. They took an oath that they did not say such a thing. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم accepted what they said and did not accept what I said. I became very disheartened and I just sat in my home until this verse was revealed. After this verse was revealed Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent for me and recited this verse to me. Thereafter Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم commented that Allah Ta’ala has confirmed what you have said. (Ibn Khathir 4/334)

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم knew the unseen and if Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم was omnipresent why did Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم not accept Sayyiduna Zaid رضي الله تعالى عنه’s statement the first time?

4.      Allah Ta’ala mentions:

يا أيها الذين آمنوا إن جاءكم فاسق بنبأ فتبينوا أن تصيبوا قوما بجهالة فتصبحوا على ما فعلتم نادمين (الحجرات6)

O you who believe, if a sinful person brings you a report, verify its correctness, lest you should harm a people out of ignorance, and then become remorseful on what you did. (Hujurat 6)

تفسير ابن كثير - (ج 4 / ص 187) دار المفيد

وقد ذكر كثير من المفسرين أن هذه الآية نزلت في الوليد بن عقبة بن أبي معيط، حين بعثه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على صدقات بني المصطلق. وقد روي ذلك من طرق، ومن أحسنها ما رواه الإمام أحمد في مسنده من رواية ملك بني المصطلق، وهو الحارث بن ضِرَار، والد جُويرية (3) بنت الحارث أم المؤمنين، رضي الله تعالى عنها، قال الإمام أحمد:

حدثنا محمد بن سابق، حدثنا عيسى بن دينار، حدثني أبي أنه سمع الحارث بن ضرار الخزاعي يقول: قدمت على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فدعاني إلى الإسلام، فدخلت فيه وأقررت به، ودعاني إلى الزكاة فأقررت بها، وقلت: يا رسول الله، أرجع إليهم فأدعوهم إلى الإسلام وأداء الزكاة، فمن استجاب لي جمعت زكاته، ويُرسل إليَّ رسول الله رسولا لإبَّان كذا وكذا ليأتيك بما جمَعتُ من الزكاة. فلما جمع الحارث الزكاة ممن استجاب له، وبلغ الإبان الذي أراد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يبعث إليه، احتبس عليه الرسول فلم يأته، فظن الحارث أنه قد حدث فيه سُخْطة من الله ورسوله، فدعا بسَرَوات قومه، فقال لهم: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان وَقَّت لي وقتا يرسل إلي رسوله ليقبض ما كان عندي من الزكاة، وليس من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الخُلْف، ولا أرى حبس رسوله إلا من سخطة كانت، فانطلقوا فنأتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وبعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الوليد بن عقبة إلى الحارث ليقبض ما كان عنده مما جمع من الزكاة، فلما أن سار الوليد حتى بلغ بعض الطريق فَرَق -أي: خاف-فرجع فأتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال: يا رسول الله، إن الحارث منعني الزكاة وأراد قتلي. فضرب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم البعث إلى الحارث. وأقبل الحارث بأصحابه حتى إذا استقبل البعث وفَصَل عن المدينة لقيهم الحارث، فقالوا: هذا الحارث، فلما غشيهم قال لهم: إلى من بُعثتم؟ قالوا: إليك. قال: ولم؟ قالوا: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان بعث إليك الوليد بن عقبة، فزعم أنك منعته الزكاة وأردت قتله. قال: لا والذي بعث محمدا بالحق ما رأيته بَتَّةً ولا أتاني. فلما دخل الحارث على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: "منعت الزكاة وأردت قتل رسولي؟" . قال: لا والذي بعثك بالحق ما رأيته ولا أتاني، وما أقبلت إلا حين احتبس علي رسول رسول الله (1) صلى الله عليه وسلم، خشيت أن يكون كانت سخطة من الله ورسوله. قال: فنزلت الحجرات: { يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ } إلى قوله: { حكيم }

Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم had an appointment with the leader of the Banu Mustaliq tribe that he will send someone on a certain date to collect the zakah. On the appointed date no one arrived at the Banu Mustaliq tribe to receive the zakah from them, so they became worried that it should not be that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم is upset with them as Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمwill never go against his word. The leader of the Banu Mustaliq, Sayyiduna Harith رضي الله تعالى عنه, gathered his chiefs and noble people and decided that they will go and meet Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم. At the same time Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent Sayyiduna Walid رضي الله تعالى عنه to collect the zakah. On the way Sayyiduna Walid رضي الله تعالى عنه became scared so he returned and told Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم that the Banu Mustaliq refused to pay zakah and they intended to kill him. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent an army to go and meet with Sayyiduna Harith رضي الله تعالى عنه. On the way the met with Sayyiduna Harith رضي الله تعالى عنهand his people who were on their way to meet with Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم. Sayyiduna Harith رضي الله تعالى عنهenquired form them where they were going to. The army replied that they were on their way to combat with him. He asked the reason for this to which they replied that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent Sayyiduna Walid رضي الله تعالى عنه to collect the zakah from them to which they refused and intended to kill him. Sayyiduna Harith رضي الله تعالى عنهtook an oath that no one approached him and he did not even see Sayyiduna Walid رضي الله تعالى عنه. When Sayyiduna Harith رضي الله تعالى عنهcame to Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم, Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم told him “you refused to pay zakah and you intended to kill my messenger!” He replied that by that being who sent you with the truth he did not come to me nor did I even see him. It was only when we saw no messenger has come that we came to meet with you as we feared that it should not be that Allah and His messenger  is upset with us. It was then that these verses were revealed. (Ibn Khathir 4/187)

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم knew the unseen and if Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم was omnipresent what was the reason for sending an army against the Banu Mustaliq?

5.       

قل لا أملك لنفسي نفعا ولا ضرا إلا ما شاء الله ولو كنت أعلم الغيب لاستكثرت من الخير وما مسني السوء إن أنا إلا نذير وبشير لقوم يؤمنون (الاعراف188)

Say I have no power to benefit or harm myself except what Allah Ta’ala wishes. Had I known the unseen, I would have accumulated a lot of good, and no evil would have touched me. I am only a warner, and give glad tidings to those who believe. (A’raf 188)

6.       

مشكاة المصابيح - (ج 1 / ص 25 اثبات عذاب القبر)

عن زيد بن ثابت قال بينما النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في حائط لبني النجار على بغلة له ونحن معه إذ حادت به فكادت تلقيه وإذا أقبر ستة أو خمسة أو أربعة قال كذا كان يقول الجريري فقال : " من يعرف أصحاب هذه الأقبر فقال رجل أنا قال فمتى مات هؤلاء قال ماتوا في الإشراك فقال إن هذه الأمة تبتلى في قبورها فلولا أن لا تدافنوا لدعوت الله أن يسمعكم من عذاب القبر الذي أسمع منه ثم أقبل علينا بوجهه فقال تعوذوا بالله من عذاب النار قالوا نعوذ بالله من عذاب النار فقال تعوذوا بالله من عذاب القبر قالوا نعوذ بالله من عذاب القبر قال تعوذوا بالله من الفتن ما ظهر منها وما بطن قالوا نعوذ بالله من الفتن ما ظهر منها وما بطن قال تعوذوا بالله من فتنة الدجال قالوا نعوذ بالله من فتنة الدجال " . رواه مسلم

Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم passed by some grave and asked does anyone know who the inmates of these graves are? Someone from the gathering replied I know. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم asked when did they pass away? This person replied that it was during the time of ascribing partners to Allah Ta’ala that they passed away. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم said verily this nation will be tested in their graves. Had it not been that you will not burry your deceased, I would have asked Allah Ta’ala to make you hear the punishment of the grave that which I hear. (Mishkat 25 with ref to Muslim)

Why did Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم have to ask if anybody knew the inmates of these graves and when did they pass away?

7.       

مشكاة المصابيح - (ج 1 / ص 40كتاب الطهارة)

وعن أبي هريرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أتى المقبرة فقال : " السلام عليكم دار قوم مؤمنين وإنا إن شاء الله بكم لاحقون وددت أنا قد رأينا إخواننا قالوا أولسنا إخوانك يا رسول الله قال أنتم أصحابي وإخواننا الذين لم يأتوا بعد فقالوا كيف تعرف من لم يأت بعد من أمتك يا رسول الله فقال أرأيت لو أن رجلا له خيل غر محجلة بين ظهري خيل دهم بهم ألا يعرف خيله قالوا بلى يا رسول الله قال فإنهم يأتون غرا محجلين من الوضوء وأنا فرطهم على الحوض " . رواه مسلم

Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم said I would have loved to see my brothers. The honourable Sahaba رضوان الله تعالى عليهم replied are we not your brothers? Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم replied you are my companions. My brothers are those who have not yet come. Sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهم asked Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمhow will he recognize those who still have to come in his ummah. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم replied if a person has shining horses between dark horses will he not recognize his horses? The sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهمreplied yes he will. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم said my ummah will come shining due to the effects of wudhu and I will be their fore comer at the pond. (Mishkat 40 with ref to Muslim)

This narration shows that sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهمdid not believe that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمknew the unseen. Also if Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم knew the unseen he should have replied that the life of barzakh has no limitations, I know them. Rather, Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم said I will see them and recognize them by effects of wudhu.

8.       

مشكاة المصابيح - ( ص 487 حوض والشفاعة)

وعن سهل بن سعد قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : " إني فرطكم على الحوض من مر علي شرب ومن شرب لم يظمأ أبدا ليردن علي أقوام أعرفهم ويعرفونني ثم يحال بيني وبينهم فأقول : إنهم مني . فيقال : إنك لا تدري ما أحدثوا بعدك ؟ فأقول : سحقا سحقا لمن غير بعدي " . متفق عليه

On the Day of Judgment some people will come to Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم to drink from the pond. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم will recognize them and they will recognize Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم. They will be prevented from getting got drink. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم will say they are from me. The reply will be given the you do not know what they invented after you. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمwill then say go go far away with those you changed after me. (Mishkat 487 with ref to Bukhari and Muslim)

It is clear from this narration that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم does not know the unseen neither the barzakh life which has no limitations allow him to know what the people are doing after him.

9.       

مشكاة المصابيح - (ص 529 باب في المعراج)

وعن أبي هريرة قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : " لقد رأيتني في الحجر وقريش تسألني عن مسراي فسألتني عن أشياء من بيت المقدس لم أثبتها فكربت كربا ما كربت مثله فرفعه الله لي أنظر إليه ما يسألوني عن شيء إلا أنبأتهم وقد رأيتني في جماعة من الأنبياء فإذا موسى قائم يصلي . فإذا رجل ضرب جعد كأنه أزد شنوءة وإذا عيسى قائم يصلي أقرب الناس به شبها عروة بن مسعود الثقفي فإذا إبراهيم قائم يصلي أشبه الناس به صاحبكم - يعني نفسه - فحانت الصلاة فأممتهم فلما فرغت من الصلاة قال لي قائل : يا محمد هذا مالك خازن النار فسلم عليه فالتفت إليه فبدأني بالسلام " . رواه مسلم

When Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم returned from mi’raj the disbelievers became asking Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم about Bait al-Maqdis. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم mentions I become extremely worried, so Allah Ta’ala raised Bait al-Maqdis so that I could see it. The disbelievers did not ask anything except that I answered.  (Mishkat 529 with ref to Muslim)

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم had knowledge of the unseen and was omnipresent why did Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم become extremely worried? What was the need to raise Bait al-Maqdis.

10.   

صحيح البخاري - (ج 2 / ص 663)

4241 - حدثنا إسماعيل قال حدثني مالك عن عبد الرحمن بن القاسم عن أبيه عن عائشة رضي الله عنها زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قالت

خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في بعض أسفاره حتى إذا كنا بالبيداء أو بذات الجيش انقطع عقد لي فأقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على التماسه وأقام الناس معه وليسوا على ماء وليس معهم ماء فأتى الناس إلى أبي بكر الصديق فقالوا ألا ترى ما صنعت عائشة أقامت برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وبالناس وليسوا على ماء وليس معهم ماء فجاء أبو بكر ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم واضع رأسه على فخذي قد نام فقال حبست رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم والناس وليسوا على ماء وليس معهم ماء قالت عائشة فعاتبني أبو بكر وقال ما شاء الله أن يقول وجعل يطعنني بيده في خاصرتي ولا يمنعني من التحرك إلا مكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على فخذي فقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى أصبح على غير ماء فأنزل الله آية التيمم فتيمموا فقال أسيد بن حضير ما هي بأول بركتكم يا آل أبي بكر قالت فبعثنا البعير الذي كنت عليه فإذا العقد تحته

During one journey Sayyidatuna Aisha رضي الله تعالى عنها lost her necklace. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم and the sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهم began to look for it. There was no water. All the sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهم were very perturbed. Later on the necklace was found under the camel.(Bukhari 2/663)

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم was omnipresent and had knowledge of the unseen what was the need of going out to look for it and all the sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهمgetting so perturbed?

11.   

صحيح البخاري - (ج 2 / ص 706(

حدثني عبد الله بن محمد حدثنا يعقوب بن إبراهيم قال حدثني أبي عن صالح عن ابن شهاب أن أنسا قال

أنا أعلم الناس بالحجاب كان أبي بن كعب يسألني عنه أصبح رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عروسا بزينب بنت جحش وكان تزوجها بالمدينة فدعا الناس للطعام بعد ارتفاع النهار فجلس رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وجلس معه رجال بعد ما قام القوم حتى قام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فمشى ومشيت معه حتى بلغ باب حجرة عائشة ثم ظن أنهم خرجوا فرجعت معه فإذا هم جلوس مكانهم فرجع ورجعت معه الثانية حتى بلغ باب حجرة عائشة فرجع ورجعت معه فإذا هم قد قاموا فضرب بيني وبينه سترا وأنزل الحجاب

When Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم married Sayyidatuna Zainab رضي الله تعالى عنهاHe invited the sahabaرضي الله تعالى عنهم for meals. After eating, the sahabaرضي الله تعالى عنهم sat and were talking. They sat for a very long time. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمleft the gathering. After some time when Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم thought they had left he returned but the sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهمhad still not returned. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم returned until he reached the room of Sayyidatuna Aisha رضي الله تعالى عنها and he thought that they left, Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم returned.

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمwas omnipresent and had knowledge of the unseen why did Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمthink that they left only to find that they had not left?

12.   

صحيح البخاري - (ج 2/ ص 568)

3690 - حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل حدثنا إبراهيم أخبرنا ابن شهاب قال أخبرني عمر بن أسيد بن جارية الثقفي حليف بني زهرة وكان من أصحاب أبي هريرة عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال

بعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عشرة عينا وأمر عليهم عاصم بن ثابت الأنصاري جد عاصم بن عمر بن الخطاب حتى إذا كانوا بالهدة بين عسفان ومكة ذكروا لحي من هذيل يقال لهم بنو لحيان فنفروا لهم بقريب من مائة رجل رام فاقتصوا آثارهم حتى وجدوا مأكلهم التمر في منزل نزلوه فقالوا تمر يثرب فاتبعوا آثارهم فلما حس بهم عاصم وأصحابه لجئوا إلى موضع فأحاط بهم القوم فقالوا لهم انزلوا فأعطوا بأيديكم ولكم العهد والميثاق أن لا نقتل منكم أحدا فقال عاصم بن ثابت أيها القوم أما أنا فلا أنزل في ذمة كافر ثم قال اللهم أخبر عنا نبيك صلى الله عليه وسلم فرموهم بالنبل فقتلوا عاصما ونزل إليهم ثلاثة نفر على العهد والميثاق منهم خبيب وزيد بن الدثنة ورجل آخر فلما استمكنوا منهم أطلقوا أوتار قسيهم فربطوهم بها قال الرجل الثالث هذا أول الغدر والله لا أصحبكم إن لي بهؤلاء أسوة يريد القتلى فجرروه وعالجوه فأبى أن يصحبهم فانطلق بخبيب وزيد بن الدثنة حتى باعوهما بعد وقعة بدر فابتاع بنو الحارث بن عامر بن نوفل خبيبا وكان خبيب هو قتل الحارث بن عامر يوم بدر فلبث خبيب عندهم أسيرا حتى أجمعوا قتله فاستعار من بعض بنات الحارث موسى يستحد بها فأعارته فدرج بني لها وهي غافلة حتى أتاه فوجدته مجلسه على فخذه والموسى بيده قالت ففزعت فزعة عرفها خبيب فقال أتخشين أن أقتله ما كنت لأفعل ذلك قالت والله ما رأيت أسيرا قط خيرا من خبيب والله لقد وجدته يوما يأكل قطفا من عنب في يده وإنه لموثق بالحديد وما بمكة من ثمرة وكانت تقول إنه لرزق رزقه الله خبيبا فلما خرجوا به من الحرم ليقتلوه في الحل قال لهم خبيب دعوني أصلي ركعتين فتركوه فركع ركعتين فقال والله لولا أن تحسبوا أن ما بي جزع لزدت ثم قال اللهم أحصهم عددا واقتلهم بددا ولا تبق منهم أحدا ثم أنشأ يقول فلست أبالي حين أقتل مسلما

على أي جنب كان لله مصرعي

وذلك في ذات الإله وإن يشأ

يبارك على أوصال شلو ممزع

ثم قام إليه أبو سروعة عقبة بن الحارث فقتله وكان خبيب هو سن لكل مسلم قتل صبرا الصلاة وأخبر أصحابه يوم أصيبوا خبرهم وبعث ناس من قريش إلى عاصم بن ثابت حين حدثوا أنه قتل أن يؤتوا بشيء منه يعرف وكان قتل رجلا عظيما من عظمائهم فبعث الله لعاصم مثل الظلة من الدبر فحمته من رسلهم فلم يقدروا أن يقطعوا منه شيئا

وقال كعب بن مالك ذكروا مرارة بن الربيع العمري وهلال بن أمية الواقفي رجلين صالحين قد شهدا بدرا

Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم once sent out a small army consisting of ten sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهم. Two hundred people from the enemy surrounded them. The leader of the sahaba, Sayyiduna Asim رضي الله تعالى عنه,made dua O Allah inform you Nabi regarding us.  (Bukhari 2/568)

This shows that the Sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهمdid not believe that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمhad knowledge of the unseen and was not omnipresent.

13.   

صحيح مسلم - (ج 2 / ص 139)

3522 - حدثنا محمد بن حاتم حدثنا عفان حدثنا حماد أخبرنا ثابت عن أنس بن مالك قال

جاء ناس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالوا أن ابعث معنا رجالا يعلمونا القرآن والسنة فبعث إليهم سبعين رجلا من الأنصار يقال لهم القراء فيهم خالي حرام يقرءون القرآن ويتدارسون بالليل يتعلمون وكانوا بالنهار يجيئون بالماء فيضعونه في المسجد ويحتطبون فيبيعونه ويشترون به الطعام لأهل الصفة وللفقراء فبعثهم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إليهم فعرضوا لهم فقتلوهم قبل أن يبلغوا المكان فقالوا اللهم بلغ عنا نبينا أنا قد لقيناك فرضينا عنك ورضيت عنا قال وأتى رجل حراما خال أنس من خلفه فطعنه برمح حتى أنفذه فقال حرام فزت ورب الكعبة فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأصحابه إن إخوانكم قد قتلوا وإنهم قالوا اللهم بلغ عنا نبينا أنا قد لقيناك فرضينا عنك ورضيت عنا

Some people came to Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم and requested that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent someone who could teach them Quran and Sunnah. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent seventy Sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهم who were known as the Qura. On the way these people attacked these Qura and killed them. These Sahaba رضي الله تعالى عنهمmade dua: O Allah inform our Nabi on our behalf that we have met You. You are happy with us and we are happy with You.

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمhad knowledge of the unseen why did Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم sent these Sahaba and why did these Sahaba made dua that Allah Ta’ala inform Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم on their behalf?

14.   

صحيح البخاري - (ج 2 / ص 1062)

6634 - حدثنا عبد الله بن مسلمة عن مالك عن هشام عن أبيه عن زينب بنت أبي سلمة عن أم سلمة رضي الله عنها

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إنما أنا بشر وإنكم تختصمون إلي ولعل بعضكم أن يكون ألحن بحجته من بعض فأقضي على نحو ما أسمع فمن قضيت له من حق أخيه شيئا فلا يأخذه فإنما أقطع له قطعة من النار

Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid: Verily you bring your disputes to me. It could be that some are more eloquent in presenting the arguments resulting in that I rule in his favour. If I rule for someone that which he is not liable to receive, then I am giving him a portion of fire, so he should not accept it.

If Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم knew the unseen he would have ruled for the person whose right it is.

15.   

صحيح البخاري - (400)

2645 - حدثنا محمد بن بشار حدثنا غندر حدثنا شعبة سمعت قتادة عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال

كان فزع بالمدينة فاستعار النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فرسا لنا يقال له مندوب فقال ما رأينا من فزع وإن وجدناه لبحرا

One night there was some noises outside Madina. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمborrowed the horse of Abu Talha and went to see what it is. When Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمreturned he said I did not find anything.

What was the need for Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمto go out and see if he knew the unseen.

16.   

صحيح مسلم - (ج 2 / ص 107)

3343 - حدثنا زهير بن حرب وإسحق بن إبراهيم جميعا عن جرير قال زهير حدثنا جرير عن الأعمش عن إبراهيم التيمي عن أبيه قال

كنا عند حذيفة فقال رجل لو أدركت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قاتلت معه وأبليت فقال حذيفة أنت كنت تفعل ذلك لقد رأيتنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ليلة الأحزاب وأخذتنا ريح شديدة وقر فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ألا رجل يأتيني بخبر القوم جعله الله معي يوم القيامة فسكتنا فلم يجبه منا أحد ثم قال ألا رجل يأتينا بخبر القوم جعله الله معي يوم القيامة فسكتنا فلم يجبه منا أحد ثم قال ألا رجل يأتينا بخبر القوم جعله الله معي يوم القيامة فسكتنا فلم يجبه منا أحد فقال قم يا حذيفة فأتنا بخبر القوم فلم أجد بدا إذ دعاني باسمي أن أقوم قال اذهب فأتني بخبر القوم ولا تذعرهم علي فلما وليت من عنده جعلت كأنما أمشي في حمام حتى أتيتهم فرأيت أبا سفيان يصلي ظهره بالنار فوضعت سهما في كبد القوس فأردت أن أرميه فذكرت قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا تذعرهم علي ولو رميته لأصبته فرجعت وأنا أمشي في مثل الحمام فلما أتيته فأخبرته بخبر القوم وفرغت قررت فألبسني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من فضل عباءة كانت عليه يصلي فيها فلم أزل نائما حتى أصبحت فلما أصبحت قال قم يا نومان

During one battle Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمasked who will go and get some information of the enemy? Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid this thrice.

Had Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمknown the unseen what was the need of sending out a spy?

17.   

مشكاة المصابيح - (ج 1 / ص 86(

وعن ابن مسعود قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : " إن لله ملائكة سياحين في الأرض يبلغوني من أمتي السلام " . رواه النسائي والدارمي

Verily Allah Ta’ala appointed some angels who travel through the earth and convey the salam of my ummah to me. (Mishkat with ref to Nasa’I and Darmi)

                                          

If the life of barzakh had no limitations and Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمcould directly hear the salam what is the need for Allah Ta’ala appointing separate angels for this task?

When writing a letter, e-mail or even whilst talking on the phone, everybody speaks in second person. Does this mean that the other person is hazir nazir??? Similarly, using the second person in tashahhud does not demand that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمbe hazir nazir.

There are many other proofs that Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم did not have knowledge of the unseen and was not omnipresent. Some proofs are:

    1) The incident of accusing Sayyidatuna Aisha رضي الله تعالى عنها.
    2) Sayyiduna Jabir رضي الله تعالى عنه knocked on Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم door. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمasked who is there.
    3) Incident of the dog under Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم bed.
    4) Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمeating the poisoned meat in Khaibar.
    5) Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم being prevented from Umrah.
    6) During the period in Hudaibiyyah the news spreading of Sayyiduna Uthman رضي الله تعالى عنهmartyrdom.
    7) Before consuming anything Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمwould ask if its sadaqah or hadiyyah.
    8) Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمgiving bay’ah to a person not knowing that he was a slave.
    9) Incident of Sayyiduna Hatib ibn Abi Balta’a رضي الله عنه before conquest of Makkah.
    10) The incident of doing black magic against Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم.
    11) Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah رضي الله تعالى عنهwas lying sown in the masjid. Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمentered and enquired does anybody know where is Abu Hurayrah?
    12) Are all the dates of Khaibar like this?
    13) Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمasked Manil Qawn Manil Wafd?
    14) The incident where in Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمcalled Sayyiduna Ali رضي الله تعالى عنهAbu Turab.
    15) The incident wherein in Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلمpassed by some dates and remarked had I not feared it being sadaqah I would have partaken from it.

We make dua that Allah Ta’ala keep us all on the straight path. Ameen.

And Allah knows best

Wassalamu Alaikum

Ml. Ishaq E. Moosa,
Student Darul Iftaa

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

 me of that problem and it (my dua) would be answered and the problem alleviated. And this is something I did, and found to work, many times ..."{/jb_bluebox}

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Wed, 23 Nov 2016 20:10:01 +0000
Is Allah Physically close to Jugular Vein? https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/jugularvein.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/jugularvein.html  tumblr mxasd8cBEv1smyb0ko1 500

{jb_quote}[50-16] And indeed We have created man, and We know whatever thoughts his inner self develops, and We are closer to him than (his) jugular vein, [16].{/jb_quote}


Is Allah (SWT) "physically" close to humans or their jugular vein?

Adopted from Mariful Qur'aan by Mufti Mohammed Shafi (RA)

وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ وَنَعۡلَمُ مَا تُوَسۡوِسُ بِهِۦ نَفۡسُهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَنَحۡنُ أَقۡرَبُ إِلَيۡهِ مِنۡ حَبۡلِ ٱلۡوَرِيدِ

Translation (50-16): And indeed We have created man, and We know whatever thoughts his inner self develops, and We are closer to him than (his) jugular vein, [16]

Commentary:

The preceding verses purported to quell the doubt of those who denied the possibility of Resurrection and who thought that raising the dead was inconceivable. As a result, the unbelievers drew a false analogy between their finite knowledge and power and the infinite knowledge and power of Allah. Therefore, the perplexity arose in their mind: 'after we die, disintegrate, with our organs torn apart, our bodies reduced to particles of dust and scattered or spread all over the world, how is it possible to gather them together and recompose them back into our original shape and bodies?'

The preceding verses responded that the Divine knowledge is all-encompassing and He knows every single particle of the universe, and therefore it is not difficult for Him to recollect these particles. The same subject has been further elaborated in the present verses by declaring that Allah not only has the complete knowledge of man's scattered particles, but He also has the full knowledge of all thoughts that cross the mind of man. The verse explains the reason for that: Allah is nearer to him than his jugular vein, on which is dependent his very life. Therefore, He knows man's conditions and circumstances more than man himself.

Allah is Nearer to Man than his Jugular Vein: An Analysis

The concluding part of verse [16] says: نَحۡنُ أَقۡرَبُ إِلَيۡهِ مِنۡ حَبۡلِ ٱلۡوَرِيدِ  (We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein). The 'closeness' in the verse, by consensus of scholars, refers to "nearness in terms of all-encompassing knowledge" not in terms of physical closeness. In this manner, the verse means that Allah's power and knowledge has so encompassed man from within and without that His power and knowledge is nearer to him than his own jugular vein.

The term warid [pl. awridah] in the Arabic language are animal veins which supply blood to the entire body. Medically, there are two types of veins: [1] the veins that emerge from the liver and supply pure blood to the entire human body. Medically, only these veins are referred to as warid [pl. awridah]; and [2] the veins that emerge from animal heart and supply the subtle vapor of blood to the entire human body which in medical terminology is referred to as ruh [soul]. These veins are called in Arabic shiryan [which actually refers to an artery]. The first type of veins is thick-walled and the second type is thin-walled.

The word warid in the above verse does not necessarily apply to the vein that comes from the liver in the medical sense. In fact it could well apply, in the literal sense, to the vein that comes from the heart because in that too a type of blood circulates. As the purport of this verse is to show that Allah possesses full knowledge of all thoughts that cross the mind of man, the literal sense of the term seems more appropriate. Nevertheless, whether the word ioarid is taken medically in the sense of a vein coming from the liver or in the sense of an artery coming from the heart is immaterial. In both cases the living creatures' life depends on it.

Ifthe veins or arteries are cut, they lose their soul and die. In short, Allah encompasses complete and full knowledge about everything of man, because He is 'closer to him than his neck-vein.

According to the Honourable Sufis, here the term qurb (closeness) goes beyond the concept of nearness in terms of knowledge. It is a special type of ittisal [contact or bond or relationship between Allah and His creation, including man who is placed at the centre of the wonderful universe], the reality and nature of which is not known to anyone, but it does necessarily exist bila kaif "without how" or indescribably. Various Qur'anic verses and authentic Prophetic Traditions bear ample testimony to this fact. For example, the Qur'an commands: وَٱسۡجُدۡ وَٱقۡتَرِب) (and bow down in sajdah, and come closer .... AI-'Alaq: 18) This is just like what the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is reported to have said: "The closest that a servant can be to his Lord is when he is in prostration. Therefore, make abundant supplications (i.e. while prostrating) ." Another Tradition reports that the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: "When My servant performs supererogatory prayers, he attains proximity to Me." On the occasion of migration to Madinah, the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said to Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) " إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَنَاAllah is with us. (9:40)" Holy Prophet Musa (AS) said to the children of Israel: إِنَّ مَعِىَ رَبِّى "My Lord is with me." (26:62)

This qurb [nearness or proximity to Allah], which man attains through nearness of obligatory and supererogatory works and through his efforts, is reserved exclusively for a believer. Such believers are called awliyaullah. [the friends of Allah: they are those whom Allah has chosen as His friends]. This special bond with Allah is different from the general relationship between Allah and man, whether believer or non-believer. In brief, the above verses and narrations bear testimony to the fact that man has a special type of proximity to his Creator and Master though its reality and nature cannot be perceived. Maulana Rumi (RA) has versified this concept thus:

The Lord of the people has a special contact with the people which is beyond one's perception and has no other example.

This nearness and proximity cannot be perceived by the ordinary sensation of physical sight, but it is attained through farasah of 'iman [perspicacity through faith]. Tafsir Mazhari interprets qurb and ittisal in this verse in the same sense. We have learnt earlier the interpretation of the majority of the commentators that it is not physical proximity, but rather the all-encompassing, full and complete knowledge of Allah. Apart from these two interpretations, Ibn-Kathir interprets it in a third way. He says that the pronoun "We" does not refer to the "Being" of Allah, but to His angels who are all the time with man. They know man's soul so closely that man himself is not so well aware of it. Allah knows best!

فَلَوۡلَآ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ ٱلۡحُلۡقُومَ (٨٣) وَأَنتُمۡ حِينَٮِٕذٍ۬ تَنظُرُونَ (٨٤) وَنَحۡنُ أَقۡرَبُ إِلَيۡهِ مِنكُمۡ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تُبۡصِرُونَ

Translation (56-83:85): So why (do you) not (interfere) when the soul (of a dying person) reaches the throat, [83] and you are watching? [84] And We are closer to him than you, but you do not perceive. [85]

Commentary:

The preceding verses proved two facts through rational arguments and by swearing an oath by the falling stars: [1] that the Holy Qur'an-is the word of Allah. Neither Jinn nor devil can ever tamper with it. Everything it contains is the truth; and [2] one of the most fundamental articles of faith enshrined in the Qur'an is the Day of Resurrection and Reckoning. Towards the end of the passage, it is mentioned that the infidels and idolaters, in spite of clear arguments and evidence, reject life after death.

Their denial of Resurrection by the unbelievers, in a way, amounts to a claim that their lives and souls are under their own control, and they have a say in the matter of life and death. In order to refute this assumption, the above verses give the example of a dying person. When the soul reaches his throat, all of his near and dear ones look at him and express their desire that he may live longer, but none of them is able to intervene and save his life. All the people around him seem absolutely helpless. However, Allah is nearer to the dying person than the people around him even though they are unable to see Him. In other words, that is, He is nearer to him in terms of knowledge and power. He is fully aware of the person's inner and outer conditions and has complete control over him.

In short, it is not within people's power to get together and save a soul or life. Allah is nearer to a dying person than his soul or life. Allah has pre-designated a particular time for the soul to be separated from the body. None can avert it. In view of this graphic picture, the disbelievers are reminded that if they think that they cannot be resurrected after death, and they are too strong to come under Allah's grasp, then they must restore the soul when it has reached the throat and is about to depart from the body or it has already departed and died. If it is not possible to do any of these, how illogical or irrational it is for man to think that he can escape the Divine grasp and reject life after death!

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Sun, 17 Jul 2016 08:32:52 +0000
Who or what are Ismaili Shias & the Aga Khanees? https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/aga-kahnees.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/aga-kahnees.html  forbes1

{jb_quote}O Allah! [1:5] You alone do we worship, and from You alone do we seek help. [1:6] Take us on the straight path.{/jb_quote}


Introduction

“Aga Khan” is nothing but an honorific title bestowed upon a person around 1818! This title and thereby the ascription (Aga Khanees) to the followers neither tells the full story nor gives enough of a background for a laymen (Muslim) to make up his (or her) mind about this group.

In order to understand this group we need to understand a brief synopsis of their history throughout the ages, examine their creed, acts (and methods of worship) in order to arrive at a reasonable conclusion about their place in Islam.

 


Imamah: A central concept of Shia religion:

The primary and fundamental split between Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah and Shia is over the concept of Imamah after the passing away of Nabi (Sallalaho Alaihe Wassallam).

Shaykh (Mufti) Taha Karaan (HA) on the concept of Imamah:

 In the English language we have found the most detailed and comprehensive Academic discussion on the subject to be from Shaykh (Mufti) Taha Karaan (HA) and we urge readers to review the material. He (HA) writes about the Shias:

Essentially, Imâmah is about leadership of the Ummah after the demise of Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam. The Shî‘ah believe that just as Allâh chose  Muhammad sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam as His Messenger to mankind, he chose  and appointed a line of twelve men to succeed him as the leaders of the Ummah in all matters, spiritual as well as temporal. The first of these leaders, or Imâms as they are called, was ‘Alî ibn Abî Tâlib radiyallâhu ‘anhu. He was succeeded by his eldest son Hasan, and he by his brother Husayn. After Husayn the Imâmah continued in his progeny until the year 260AH, when the twelfth Imâm, a child of five, disappeared upon the death of his father. He is believed to be the Awaited Mahdî who will return from occultation to establish justice upon the earth. To these twelve men from amongst the family of Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam alone belongs the right to assume leadership of the Ummah. There are two aspects to Imâmah that need to be looked at with attention. The first is the nature of the appointment of the Imâms, and the second is the nature of their office.

The nature of the appointment of the Twelve Imâms:

As far as the nature of their appointment is concerned, it is a matter of consensus amongst the Shî‘ah that the right of their twelve Imâms to lead the Ummah was bestowed by Allâh Ta‘âlâ Himself. No distinction is made between the appointment of Muhammad sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam as the Messenger of Allâh and the appointment of the twelve Imâms as his successors.

Underscoring this vital aspect of Imâmah, ‘Allâmah Muhammad Husayn Àl Kâshif al-Ghitâ, who was the most prominent Shî‘î ‘âlim of Najaf in Iraq during the seventies, writes in his book Asl ash-Shî‘ah wa-Usûluhâ: "Imâmah is a divine station, just like Nubuwwah. Just as Allâh chooses whomsoever He wants to for Nubuwwah and Risâlah ... similarly, for Imâmah too, He selects whomsoever He wishes."


The nature of the office of the Imâms:

On this point it would be sufficient to say that the Shî‘ah bestow upon their Imâms all the perfections and accomplishments of the Ambiyâ’, and even more. It would be impossible to document here all the narrations that deal with the status of the Imâms, but it might be just as informative to quote the chapters under which they have been documented in a source that is described as a "veritable encyclopaedia of the knowledge of the Imâms": Bihâr al-Anwâr of ‘Allâmah Muhammad Bâqir al-Majlisî (died 1111AH), widely reputed to be the greatest and most influential Shî‘î scholar of the Safawid era. During his lifetime he occupied the office of Shaykh al-Islâm in Isfahan, capital of the Safawids, and even to this day his works are indispensable to the Shî‘î clergy as well as their lay public. We quote here the name of the chapter, as well as the number of narrations he documents in each chapter:

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} The Imâms possess more knowledge than the Ambiyâ’ (13 narrations)

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} The Imâms are superior to the Ambiyâ’ and the entire creation. The Covenant of the Imâms was taken from them (the Ambiyâ’), the Malâ’ikah and the entire creation. The (major prophets called) ulul-‘Azm (Nûh, Ibrâhîm, Mûsâ and ‘Isâ ) attained the status of ulul-‘Azm on account of loving the Imâms. (88 narrations)

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc}The du‘âs of the Ambiyâ’ were answered because they invoked the wasîlah of the Imâms. (16 narrations)

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} The Imâms can bring the dead back to life. They can cure blindness and leprosy. They possess all the miracles of the Ambiyâ’ (4 narrations)

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Nothing of the knowledge of Heaven, Earth, Jannah and Jahannam is hidden from them. The Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth was shown to them. They know all that happened and that will happen upto the Day of Resurrection. (22 narrations)

 

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} The Imâms know the truth of a person's faith or hypocrisy. They possess a book that contains the names of the inmates of Jannah, the names of their supporters and their enemies. (40 narrations)

Ismaili Shia on the concept of Imamah:

The historical underpinning for this vision of Islam is based on the cardinal principle of Shiʿite belief that, after the death of the Prophet Moḥammad, his cousin and son-in-law, ʿAli (q.v.), became Imam following a specific designation (naṣṣ) made by the Prophet, based on divine command, before his death (see ḠADIR ḴOMM). Shiʿite historical understanding thus locates itself within a framework of interpretation supported by Qurʾanic verses and Prophetic Hadith.

The institution of the Imamate is to continue thereafter on a heredity basis through ʿAli and his wife, Fāṭema (q.v.), the Prophet’s daughter, succession being based on designation by the Imam of the time. Adherence to the doctrine of the Imamate as a pillar of faith meant not only acceptance of, but also devotion to, the legitimate successors of the Prophet. The Imamate is therefore linked to the concept of welāya, devotion to the Imams. The two major branches of the Ismaʿilis, the Nezāris and the Mostaʿlis, affirm a shared belief in the Imamate, but give allegiance to different lines of Imams.

The Nezāri Ismaʿilis believe in the physical presence of a living Imam, who for them today is Prince Karim Aga Khan IV, the 49th Imam in direct descent from the Prophet through ʿAli and Fāṭema.

The Mostaʿlis believe that their 21st Hidden Imam went into physical concealment around 524/1130; while the Imamate continues in his line, in his physical absence authority is fulfilled by a vicegerent who acts on his behalf. At present this role is held by the 52nd dāʿi (q.v.), Sayyednā Borhān-al-Din (b. 1333/1915) who leads the Dāʾudi Ṭayyebi Bohras, while a smaller Solay-māni Bohra community found in Yemen is headed by their 51st dāʿi, ʿAbdallāh b. Moḥammad (Daftary, pp. 353-57). We may analyse and contrast Bohras in a similar fashion at a later date, Insha'Allah.

From Shia to Ismaili Shia:

In order to eventually understand Aga Khanees you need to understand the splits within Shia'ism so here is a concise history:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} 1st Imam: Sayyidina Ali (RA) is considered to be the first Imam by the Shias.

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} 2nd Imam: Sayyidina Hasan (RA) is accepted by Twelver Shias as a permanent Imam while Ismaili (Aga Khanees & Bohras) consider him to be "operational Imam" while his brother Sayyidina Hussain (RA) to be the actual Imam. For the sake of brevity we will overlook the (minor)  creedal differences and accept him as the second Imam of the Shia.

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} 3rd Imam: Sayyidina Hussain (RA)

 

First Split in the Shias:

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Fourth Imam: Sayyidina Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (RA) who was the son of Sayyidina Hussain (RA) was accepted to be the Imam by a  group

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Fourth Imam: The Hashmi/Kaysani Shia group split up and declared the son of Sayyidina Ali (RA) from another wife Sayyidina Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (RA) to be their Imam. The Abbasid Caliphate comes from this blood lineage. However the Shias regard them to be traitors by accepting Sunni Islam and since they were Sunni Muslims the Shias remained bitterly at odds with them throughout their reign.

 

Second Split in the Shias:

 

Those who had elected Sayyidina Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (RA) as the 4th Imam split further after his death.

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Fifth Imam: A group elected Sayyidina Muhammad al-Baqir (RA) as their Imam.

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Fifth Imam: A splinter (violent) group elected his Brother Sayyidina Zayd ibn Ali (RA) as the Imam and these became the Zaydee Shias and their history takes a different course (i.e. different sets of Imams).

 

Third Split in the Shias:

 

Those who had elected Sayyidina Muhammad al-Baqir (RA) had a elected a sixth Imam:

 

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Sixth Imam: Sayyidina Ja`far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (RA)  Shias believe that Sayyidina Ja`far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (RA) had appointment his son Sayyidina Isma'il ibn Jafar (RA) to be his successor in his lifetime but as fate would have it, he died during the lifetime of Sayyidina Ja`far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (RA).

A group of Shias believe that Sayyidina Mûsâ ibn Ja‘far al-Kâdhim (RA) the third son was then appointed by Sayyidina Ja`far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (RA) as a successor. However a group of Shias believed that the original succession still held (valid) and therefore decided to accept the son of their Imam so here is the split on the seventh Imam: 

 

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Seventh Imam: Sayyidina Mûsâ ibn Ja‘far al-Kâdhim (RA) i.e. the successor after the death of Sayyidina Isma'il ibn Jafar (RA) was accepted as Imam and this group became Twelver Shias

 

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Seventh Imam: Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Ismail (RA) the minor (underage) son of  Sayyidina Isma'il ibn Jafar (RA) was then as the successor because this group of Shias believed that the Imams (due to being infallible) cannot make an error and if the father has passed away then the son must succeed him and the original order of succession cannot be rescinded and this group became Ismaili Shias (the sub group Aga Khanees of our time is from this group) since the split is over the 7th Imam this group is also called "Seveners". Politically this line gave rise to Fatimid Shia dynasty

The present day (Aga Khanees) consider Cairo to be settled by their ancstors through this link to Fatimid Shia dynasty. Here is an Interview with of Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV in which he asserts his (ancestral) connection to Cairo

{youtube}D1nyfzP-S7Y{/youtube}

Historical names for Ismaili Shia in Islam:

This sect/cult has been referred to with multiple names in classical Islamic literature as follows:

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Ismaili: This is due to the 3rd and one of the fundamental splits in Shia'ism over the appointment of Sayyidina Isma'il ibn Jafar (RA) the minor (underage) son of  Sayyidina Isma'il ibn Jafar (RA) as the successor and this group they became Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees of our time)

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Batiniyya: They also developed the concept that the Qur'aan has an overt and a covert (Batini) meaning which is only known to the Imam. They also gave Dawah towards their cult (whild hidden) and were also labelled as Batinees due to it

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Sab'iyya (Seveners): The number 7 occurs over and over in Ismaili and Aga Khanee belief system so they are also called this.

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Muhmara: When the Persians tried to revolt against Arabs under Babak Khorrami the Ismaili Shias joined him and used to wear RED during the rebellion hence also refereed to as Muhmara

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Qaramitah: Ismaili Shias had a particular beef with Abbasid Dynasty because they also had family relationship with Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) through Sayyidina Abbas (RA) but had become Sunni so Ismaili Shias continued to rebel against them. Hamdan Qarmat gained some power in parts of Iraq and Yemen and started spreading Ismaili Shia'ism therefore they are also known as Qaramitah.

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Maymoniah: The (persian) Iranees referred to  Qaramitah as Maymoniah.

 

From Ismaili Shia to (Imam) Prince Karim Aga Khan IV: Benevolence of the British Empire!

We have no mention of honorific titles of Aga Khan or Prince or His Highness throughout the Islamic history until the British colonial rule who deemed it prudent and pragmatic to invest in the Ismaili Shia sect to secure British interests in the subcontinent and the in the greater Muslim world. Here is a brief summary of how a little known cult in Islam became a global conglomerate:

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Aga Khan (I) [1804-1881]: When the Shia Mohammad Shah Qajar (1808-1848) ascended the throne of Iran he appointed him as the Governer of Kerman (Iran) in 1835. They fell out 2 years later and he escaped to (Kandahar) Afghanistan in 1840 where he developed relationship with the British Empire. Due to his Services to the British Empire during the 1st Anglo-Afghan War he was given the title "His Highness" by the British.

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Aga Khan (II) [1804-1881]: Aqa Ali Shah inherited the Shia Imamat from his father in 1881. By this time while residing in India the relations with British Empire had become stronger. On the recommendations of Sir James Fergusson he was awarded his father's title of "His Highness" by the British.

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Aga Khan (III) [1877-1957]: Sultan Muhammed Shah succeeded his father at the age of 8 as the 48th Imam in 1885. He married Shahzahdi Begum in 1897 and in the following year set out on his first European tour at the age of 21. During his visit to Britain he was received in audience by Queen Victoria and knighted with the K.C.I.E. At that time he also made the acquaintance of the Prince of Wales (later to become King Edward VII) and set the foundations of a lasting friendship. He was created G.C.I.E. on King Edward’s coronation in 1902 and in the following year was nominated a member of the Indian Legislative Council. In 1908 on a visit to France he married his second wife, Mlle. Theresa Magliano, and in the following year his first son, Mehdi Khan, was born. Mehdi Khan died two years later, a few months before Ali Khan was born. The Aga Khan set out upon a career of public service, spreading a message of both modernization and loyalty to the British Empire among his followers as well as to a wider colonial audience. In sociological terms, Aga Khan III was a key connector, a key maven and a key salesman, and was thereby perfectly placed to guide the rapid transformation and modernization of the Ismaili movement. The British authorities carefully nurtured and fostered these characteristics, and equipped him with the necessary status and information. 1914 (at the start of WWI) immediately Immediately the British groomed Shia Imam jumped to defend the British empire and when Turkey opposed Britain he became the official “spokesmen” for Muslims of India in London and articulated (as a Shia Imam) that the position of Turkey was taken as a personal preference and not due to Islam thus confusing the Indian Muslims (who had always supported Ottomans). In 1916 to reward his Services to the British Empire the title of "His Highness" by the British.

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Aga Khan (IV) [1936-]: The British Government was directly involved with the 49th Imam of the Shias. A letter dated 13 February 1955, from Mr Antrobus at the Foreign Office to K.W. Blaxter at the Colonial Office, we read:

{jb_bluebox}It has been agreed between our two Departments […] that the Colonial Office would be primarily responsible for advising on the affairs of the Aga Khan (III). In view of recent reports on the state of his health –though he made some remarkable recoveries in the past- it seems that one might expect to learn at any moment that he had a fatal seizure. Questions relating to the succession may, therefore, assume some degree of urgency at almost any time […]{/jb_bluebox}

To this the following handwritten text was added:

{jb_bluebox}‘We assume that if the Aga Khan should die the Colonial Office would assume responsibility for any messages of condolence from H.M. the Queen and from the U.K. Govt. You would no doubt keep in touch with us on this.’{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}In a typed note125 marked ‘personal’ from Sir G. Laithwate to Douglas Dodds-Parker, we read: ‘Mr. Mott Radclyffe, M.P., has had a fly dropped over him about the “succession” by the Aly Khan: will H.M.G. “recognise” him as Aga when the present Aga Khan dies, in view of his wild-oat-sowing?{/jb_bluebox}

Relevant research on this topic can be read in "Across the Threshold of Modernity : The Shi’a Imami (Nizari) Ismailis and British Foreign- and Colonial Policy In the period 1839 to 1969" with a small quotation from the book as follows:

{google_docs}http://freepdfhosting.com/a782718c20.pdf|width:850|height:350|link:yes|link_label:Shia-British|border:5{/google_docs}

{jb_bluebox}Here we see, gently and carefully phrased, British colonial diplomacy at its very best. High honours were bestowed, on which a reputation and indeed a worldly position rested in no small manner. But they were bestowed conditionally, with the hope held out that they might be renewed at some future date ‘once the (*) attitude of the Khoja’s was known’. Repeated attempts to make the title hereditary, or at least hereditary in a de facto manner by granting fiscal privileges which would put the title on a similar footing to those that were already hereditary, were ever so politely refused. The note also makes some interesting observations regarding the Aga Khan’s position since Indian independence. {/jb_bluebox}

Beliefs & Practises of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

Unlike the 5 Pillars of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah the Ismaili Shias atcually believe in 7 pillars. When asked in public they say that they believe in Shahadah (but due to their) Batini Aqeedah i.e. everything has an overt (obvious) as well as (covert) meaning their Shahadah is no way the same as the Shahadah of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah. They admit 7 pillars but actually believe that the root (internal meaning) is more important; the tree is as follows:

7 Pillars of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees):

tree

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 1 walāyah: The walāyah (sanctity, closeness, friendship) of the Prophets and Imāms refers to their spiritual status before God.  The souls of the Prophets and Imāms possess sanctity due to their proximity or closeness to the Divine.  In this context, walāyah refers to an exalted spiritual station – due to which the souls of the Prophets, Imāms and saints are pure and in turn reflect the radiance of the Divine Names and Attributes. “Walāya also denotes the essential nature of the figure of the imām, his ontological status.  Now, the imām/walī in the ultimate reality of his being, is the locus for the manifestation of God (mazhar, majla), the vehicle of the divine Names and Attributes. ‘By God’, Imam Ja‘far is said to have declared, ‘we (the imāms) are the Most Beautiful Names (of God).’  The imam reveals God, he provides access to what may be known of Him, the Deus Revelatus, the zahir of God.” - Mohammad Ali Amir Moezzi, (The Spirituality of Shi’i Islam, p. 249)  

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 2: Taharah "Purity": The Ismā'īlī lay special emphasis on purity and its related practices, and the Nizari consider this in a more esoteric sense too and apply it to purity of mind, soul and action, the Musta'lis also apply it to ritual practices related to prayer and cleanliness.

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 3 Salat "Prayer": Unlike Sunni and Twelver Muslims, Nizari Ismā'īliyya reason that it is up to the current imām to designate the style and form of prayer, and for this reason the current Nizari practices resemble dua and pray them three times a day.

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 4 Zakah "Charity": with the exception of the Druze, all Ismā'īlī Madh'hab have practices resembling that of Sunni and Twelver Muslims with the addition of the characteristic Shī'a khums: payment of 1/8th of one's unspent money at the end of the year to the imām. In addition to khums, Ismā'īlīs pay 12.5% of their monthly gross income to the imām, which goes to the central accounts and then spent on welfare of the humankind like education and health projects. One of the major examples of these projects is the Aga Khan Development Network, that is one of the biggest welfare networks of the world.:

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 5 Sawm “Fasting”: Nizari and Musta'lī believe in both a metaphorical and literal meaning of fasting. The literal meaning is that one must fast as an obligation, such as during the Ramadan and the metaphorical meaning being that one is in attainment of the Divine Truth and must strive to avoid worldy activities which may detract from this goal. In particular, Ismā'īlīs believe the real and esoteric meaning of fasting is avoiding devilish acts and doing the good deeds. Not eating during the month of Ramadan in conjunction with a metaphorical implementation of fasting.

 

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 6 Hajj “Pilgrimage”: For Ismā'īlīs, visiting the imām or his representative is one of the most aspired pilgrimages. There are two pilgrimages: Hajj-i-Zahiri and Hajj-i-Batini the first is the visit to Mecca, the second, being in the presence of the Imam. The Musta'lī maintain also the practice of going to Mecca. The Druze interpret this completely metaphorically as "fleeing from devils and oppressors" and rarely go to Mecca

 

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Pillar 7 Jihad "Struggle": The definition of jihad is controversial as it has two meanings: "the Greater Struggle" and the "The Lesser Struggle", the latter of which means a confrontation with the enemies of the faith. The Nizari are pacifist and interpret "adversaries" of the faith as personal and social vices (i.e. wrath, intolerance, etc.) and those individuals who harm the peace of the faith and avoid provocation and use force only as a final resort only in self-defense. Basically the first pillar (i.e. the Imam) gets to interpret what the rest of the religion is.

 

Aqeedah of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) believe that the words of Allah (SWT) and his Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is final. There are others who may be given temporary authority e.g. Ulama, Mashaykh, Ameers (in Jihad or other administrative matters) but they are only obeyed as long as they obey Allah (SWT) and his Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam). Where there is a disagreement then the final call is with Allah (SWT) and his Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam).

يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡ‌ۖ فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً

{jb_bluebox}[4:59] O you who believe, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then, if you quarrel about something, revert it back to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is good, and the best at the end.{/jb_bluebox}

The Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) believe the Imam to have the absolute authority to define, abrogate, add, amend and change Shariah as it is clearly stated on their site:

{jb_brownbox}The Imam’s word on the Faith is taken as an absolute rule. Every Ismaili is expected to accept it{/jb_brownbox}

Number of Prayers of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) pray 5 times a day as per the saying of Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) while Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) pray 3 times a day.

Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) actually mock the Hadeeth of Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and the incident of 50 Salah (reduced down to 5 due to Mercy of Allah (SWT))) as a pure fabrication!

Direction of Prayers of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) pray facing Makkah. Here is what the Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) have to say about direction of prayer and the Kabah:

{jb_brownbox}The following anecdote quoted by Nagib in another discussion, says it all. When I went to Karachi in 1981, I was told the following anecdote. Mowlana Shah Karim visited the Sulan Muhammad Shah Takri in Karachi with some leaders. From the top, he asked them where is the Qaba? The leaders started looking east and west, searching for direction but could not reply. One of the caretaker [he was from Hunza] was summoned and he was asked the same question. I felt at the feet of Hazar Imam and kissed-it. Crying loudly, he said Khudawind, here is the Qaba. Hazar Imam said, you are right.{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Yes..but the one thing that is common with all Ismailies regardless of creed, caste or geographical affiliation that you are failing to see...is that we are a BATINI FAITH...ESOTERIC..numerous farmans of the IMAM point to this..Wonder why other brethern from the other tariqahs are failing to see that... this isn't just a Khoja ideology..if it is..than all should adopt it...the idea of praying facing the Kaaba is a very exoteric thing..what is in the Kaaba..a meteorite..agreed the Kaaba was built by Hazrat Ibrahim and then cleansed by the Prophet..but since when did we become so physical.. the kaaba means house of god.i was always taught Jamat Khana is the House of Mowla Bapa..thus that's my Kaaba and unless MHI makes a farman telling me to face kaaba to say my dua...i am going to say it the same way i say it now...to me..Allah..the noor of Allah..is everywhere..so no matter where I face.. He is around me and within me...{/jb_brownbox}

Ramadhan Fasting of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) regard fasting in Ramadhan to be an obligation while Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) regard the word of the Imam to define the Qur'aan. The "Imam" regards their Sharia to be Dhahhir (external) and Baatin (internal) and he thinks that Baatin (internal) is more important so a person DOES NOT have to fast in Ramadhan at all! It is more important for them to do Baatin (internal) fasting i.e. be a person of good moral etc. The following discussion on their forum is relevant to the discussion and should be read for further insight into their fasting.

(Other) Mandatory Fasting of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

Some Imam (down the line) mandated two additional kinds of fasting of "Beej Shukarwari' and "Satima no Rozo". My understanding is that this has something to do with new moon being on a Friday. Again don't think of their fasting as (our fasting), the timings and the methodology are all different. The following discussion on their forum is relevant to the discussion and should be read for further insight into their fasting.

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) have nothing else which is mandatory besides Ramadhan.

Hajj of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) know what Hajj is and has to be performed in Makkah.

Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) mock the Ka'bah as nothing but a meteorite and believe that the real Hajj is DEEDAR (seeing) of the Imam). They believe that according to Baatin (internal) eyes everybody should be connected to the Imam but in DEEDAR (seeing) the Baatin (internal) attention to the Imam and Dhaahir (external) eyes are combined to create a most complete experience. This is Hajj.

{jb_brownbox}All believers are urged to come into the presence of the Imam and to see him with their own eyes. Thus, the esoteric (batini) vision, realized through pious works and the constant remembrance of God during the nightly vigil , as well as the exoteric (zaheri) vision, achieved by travelling to the Imam’s residence and beholding the gateway of God’s mercy, becomes the ultimate purpose of human life.{/jb_brownbox}

Repentance & Forgiveness of Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees) vs Islam:

We (Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaat) know what Hajj is performed for the pleasure of Allah (SWT) and to seek forgiveness from Allah (SWT). Ismaili Shias (and the sub cult Aga Khanees) peform Hajj to seek forgiveness from the Imam by using many duas with one of them being as follows:

{jb_brownbox}“Greetings! O Emperor of the realm of faith and world; I come from Khurasan to behold your face. No worship accompanies me as a companion that I may be worthy of pardon. All I have is a soul imperfect, sins and transgressions galore. Despite such worthless goods, I long for your grace, hoping that through me you may forgive the trespasses of your servants — one and all. As you are the sovereign and governor of all creation, this being testified to by the Quran itself, your proper name has been made manifest to all the faithful. You are Shah Gharib and Mustansir, the inheritor of Shah Salam!” –  The Ismailis in the Middles Ages, by Shafique Virani, p. 175.{/jb_brownbox}
 

 

Fatawa on Ismaili Shias (Aga Khanees):

Darul-uloom Deoband:

Q:) Are Agha Khani Ismaili Muslim?
 
{jb_dropcap}A{/jb_dropcap}gha Khani Ismaelis are out of the fold of Islam due to their kufriyah beliefs. In reply to a question regarding Agha Khani group Hadhrat Maulana Thanvi (رحمة الله عليه) has written a detailed fatwa, which is published in Jawahir al-Fiqh Vol. 1, under the title "Al Hukmul Haqqani Fil Hizbil Agha Khani". [Jawahirul Fiqh 1/64]

 

Allah (Subhana Wa Ta'ala) knows Best


Darul Ifta,
Darul Uloom Deoband

Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA):

Q:) If you could direct me to some literature on the subject. (online or off) it would be greatly appreciated thank you

Respected Brother-in-Islam

Assalaamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullaahi Wa Barakaatuhu

Kindly refer attached

{jb_dropcap}T{/jb_dropcap}he Bohri community is an off-shoot of the Ismaili sect – part of the Shi’a sect. Shi’as are not Muslims.

 

and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
FATWA DEPT.

Dear Brothers-Sisters

As-Salaamu Alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuhu

May I for the sake of Allah (swt), His Deen and the Muslim Ummaah, request you to please consider the following facts very carefully and decide on your responsibility before Allah (swt) in this matter.

I am a revert to Islam. I was an Ismaili before – a follower of the Aga Khan. And I perceive an important Da’wah responsibility which the majority of Muslims are for some reason or other are ignoring. I am not getting you into petty sectarian issues, but a very important matter – please judge for yourself:

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} The Ismailis (followers of the Aga Khan) all professedly believe that the Qur’an was time bound and was not meant to be a Universal message for all times. They believe that their spiritual leader, Karim Aga Khan, is the “walking – talking Qur’an” and his “religious pronouncements”, whatever they may be, are the “guidance” for the present times. The fundamental article of faith that there will not be any NEW revelations or “wahy” after the Qur’an, is being completely violated by the Ismailis.

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} The Aga Khan has officially Declared himself, before his followers, as the “Mazhar of Allah on earth”. The word “mazhar” means “copy” or “manifest”. Consequently, these Ismailis who call themselves Muslims do “sujood” before him. So even the primary axiomatic principle of Tawheed is being fundamentally and formally violated by them.

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} The Ismailis are not instructed to offer the Islamic Salaah, observe Saum or perform Hajj. They have replaced Salaah with certain shirk-infested Dua’as (thrice a day). They are told that their Hajj is a personal “Glimpse” (Deedaar) of Karim Aga Khan.

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} The Aga Khan and his appointees ‘forgive the sins’ of the followers on regular basis. Ismailis are misled into believing that they will not be questioned on the Day of Judgment for the sins that are already forgiven in their Jamatkhanas (community centers). Forgiving of sins is the exclusive prerogative and privilege of Allah (swt) alone. Qur’an 3:135.

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Against this backdrop, most of the poor (spiritually poor) Ismailis who are not introduced to al-Furqan are confused and misguided. Hence, Ismailis are very easy prey to missionary efforts by various Christian groups and Baha’is. I have known a couple of young ex-Ismailis who are today preaching “Pauline Christianity” to Ismailis as evangelical missionaries.

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Karim Aga Khan’s own daughter Zahra having married a practising Christian has opened the gates for young Ismailis girls to follow the footsteps of a family member of their beloved Imam-e-Zaman. The parents of the Ismaili girls who wish to marry outside of Islam have no recourse but to let them go.

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} The Aga Khan has made Halaal for the Ismailis that which Allah has made Haraam for the humans. Taking of interest (usury) is not forbidden by the religious instruction classes run by the “Tariqaah” board of the Ismailis. As a matter of fact, the much publicized “Venture Capital” program (details on the website of FORBES Magazine – search under “Aga Khan”), of loaning funds on interest by the AKFED (Aga Khan Fund & Economic Development), has been a great success. Similar entrepreneurial projects are now being actively promoted and introduced to poor Muslims of Tajikistan and neighboring areas.

{jb_bluedisc}8{/jb_bluedisc} The Muslim Ummaah and the various Muslim leaders are not fully aware of these Un-Islamic acts and beliefs of this community of less than two million members, who claim to be the Ismaili Muslims. Surprisingly, their leader Aga Khan claims himself to be a spiritual leader of 15 million Muslims and a Direct Descendant of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam).

{jb_bluedisc}9{/jb_bluedisc} Earlier, one did not have authentic books on Ismailism, but it is not so anymore. There are two authentic books as well as one comprehensive web site exposing the inner practices of the Ismailis and the Proclamations (Farmans) of the Aga Khans. Hence, now you have no “hujjah” argument or excuse left before Allah (swt) for not taking up the task of inviting the misguided “Ismaili Muslims” towards the Deen of Allah (swt) and not safeguarding them from committing unpardonable sin of Shirk.

{jb_bluedisc}10{/jb_bluedisc} The Aga Khan in collaboration with so many Western powers and aid, has set up the world-wide Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) which runs several institutions and service companies both in the profit and not for profit sectors. This network is very actively operating in Pakistan, India, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Bangladesh, and has now started concentrating its efforts in Tajikistan and the neighbouring areas where there is a concentration of Muslims who have not known or openly practised Islam for the decades. By taking up economical, social, educational and rural development efforts through NGOs (Non-Govt. Organizations) within the AKDN, the Ismailis and the Aga Khan have gained wide acceptance amongst these countries and masses. Hence this urgent appeal.

{jb_bluedisc}11{/jb_bluedisc} Now all these beneficiaries are “obliged and grateful” to the Aga Khan and his followers and his organizations for the much-needed schools, medical centers, hospitals, various projects and programmes. In this manner they are penetrating and infiltrating the support system – and one fine day, the Muslim Ummaah will wake up to the unexpected realization that they have a community of so called Muslims, practicing the Un-Islamic Tariqaah, in charge of all core and support activities. Each of these much-needed projects will have the photos of Aga Khan decorating the walls.

 

In the name of Allah (swt) and Islam, kindly urge our Brothers and Sisters to do Da’wah to the Ismailis, who otherwise will, on the day of judgement, hold us responsible for not conveying the Revealed Truth to them. Dear Brother/Sister, you know much more on the subject than what little I have learnt since reverting to the Deen of Allah (swt). It hurts to see the misguided simple minded people die on SHIRK because we did not amply warn them before their deaths.

I am aware of your stature as a religious leader of repute, respectability and acceptance among Muslim Masses, and hence have sought to put this appeal to you. I request you to seriously consider this request and initiate all steps that you consider Wajib and appropriate. To spread the “Truth” and eradicate “Tagoot” is a significant, major Sunnah of the prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam).

May I also request you to please forward this e-mail to at least five (if not all) of your Muslim friends and activists so that greater awareness of this issue is created, and this request reaches a wider audience. Please do so. JazakAllah.”

In case you wish to seek any further clarification please feel free to e-mail a message. I will Insh’allah respond. I apologize in advance, if this happens to be a repeat message.

May Allah (swt) shower His Choicest Blessings on the entire Muslim Ummah. May Almighty Allah bless you and keep you in the service of Islam and Muslims. Aameen.

Jazak’Allah and Was Salaam,

Yours in the Service of Islam,

Akbarally Meherally

Shaykh (Mufti) Mohammed Sajjad (HA):


Q:) Are aga khani muslims or not (-) can a sunni muslim marry aga khani girl who is ready to read kalima but not ready to change her beleifs?

{jb_dropcap}I{/jb_dropcap}t is not sufficient to be considered a Muslim to say the Kalima and at the same time hold the beliefs of the Aga Khani sect. The followers of this sect are undoubtedly disbelievers and it would be a heinous sin to marry from any of them. The following are some of their deviations:

 

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} They worship the picture of their Imam Aga Khan.

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Their Bismillah is different to the Bismillah of the Muslims.

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} The method of performing their Salah has no basis in the Qur'an and Hadith but rather is in violation of the sacred sources.

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Fasting is restricted to fasting of the eyes, mouth and hands.

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Haj is for them is to visit their Imam.

 

These and other beliefs and practices are a denial of that which is firmly established in the Religion of Islam, as taught and transmitted by the last Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and consequently leave a person a disbeliever. Fataawa Haqaniyya, vol.1 p.385.

Mufti Mohammed Sajjad
Wallahu Aalam bis-sawab
As-Suffa Institute

Follow-up: I would like to correct you on a Q&A regarding Aga Khani's, aka Ismaili MUSLIMS. Yes, Aga Khani's are pure Shia Muslims and this has been proven in history. I would appreciate if you could please remove your answer regarding Aga Khani's not being Muslims, as they also follow the Shahadah, Allah (SWT), Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)and the Holy Qur'an. We are no one to judge who are and who are not Muslims?

{jb_dropcap}P{/jb_dropcap}lease note that just because a person says the Shahadah does not gaurantee that he/she is a Muslim, just as, for example, person who upholds justice but practices all forms of injustice, to continue to call him a just person, even if he proclaims to the world that he is just, is making a mockery of language and the intelligence. Shahadah does tell us that a person is a Muslim, but only as long as he/she does not uphold beliefs and ideas that negate it. If one were to uphold the view you seemingly do, then you would not be able declare anyone a disbeliever no matter how anti-Quranic and opposed to the clear teachings of the Messenger of Allah (SAW) they are. You would have to concede that even the Qadianis are Muslim as too are the Kharijis for they both pronounce the Shahadah, yet about the latter the Prophet (SAW) himself said, they would leave the Deen just as an arrow goes through its target (Sahih Muslim).

Furthermore, this is not and never has been the approach of the best of generations and the Muslim scholars for the last 1400 years. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) with all the companions fought and killed those who denied Zakah, even though they would recite the Shahadah. The companions did this because these people had apostated from Islam, which is why those wars are known in Islamic History as the Riddah Wars (Apostasy wars).Similarly Islamic History testifies that Muslim scholars, in order to protect the pure Deen from corruption and the Ummah from misguidance, often declared as apostates or disbelievers individuals who held views that could not be reconciled in any way with the very teachings of the two entities found in the Shahadah.

It will be clear to see for any objective person that this internal mechanism Islam has had to protect it from corruption is such a distinction that it helps prove its being the true Religion and divinely revealed. All other religions did, as you wish for Muslims to do, namely they let whatever erroneous baseless heresies reared their heads amongst them to take shelter under the name of the religion. Yet do you not see the absurdity of this, that something that is not only not revealed, but is in fact contrary to what is revealed, is somehow to be made equal to real revelation? Would we be so accommodating in worldly matters? If someone wished to buy another’s car and pulled out a pile of monopoly money, according to your principle the seller should happily accept the payment. But obviously you would never allow this, then why is it that when it comes to the most important of things: the Deen, upon which clings our eternal salvation or ruin we are prepared to make anything and everything the Religion of God.

The Deen of Islam is that which the Holy Messenger (SAW) brought. Allah taala said: "Today I have perfected for you your Deen and completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your Religion" (Sura al-Maidah:3). This verse was revealed right at the end of the Messenger of Allah’s (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) mission. Thus when we look to the teachings of the Aga Khanis we find clear violations of this and other sacred texts.

To elaborate, when a person adopts a symbol of disbelief, it is sufficient for his/her leaving Islam. For example were a person to wear a cross around his neck, it would take him out of Islam. For this visual expression of Kufr is equivalent to a verbal or written expression of kufr.

Now, it is from the practices of this sect that they worship the picture of Aga Khan and have it in their places of worship. Just as wearing a cross takes a person out of Islam so too would this act. Similarly the belief that Allah taala is dwelling within their leader, is also sufficient for Takfir. There are many other grave deviances found in this sect that take them out of the fold of Islam such as changes in the way they offer prayer. (See Jawaahir al-Fiqh, Mufti Muhammad Shafi, vol.1 p.70). Thus it is not permitted to marry into them, eat their slaughtered meat and generally mix with them.

Mufti Mohammed Sajjad
Wallahu Aalam bis-sawab

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:58:08 +0000
Al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/belieftahawiyyah.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/belieftahawiyyah.html  

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{jb_quote}The creed of Ahlus Sunnah Wal-Jama'ah according to Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (RA).{/jb_quote}


Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi:

Text & Translation

Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (239-321) can be said to represent the creed of both Ash`aris and Maturidis, especially the latter, as he was also following the Hanafi madhhab. We have therefore chosen to include the entire translated text of his Statement of Islamic Doctrine commonly known as the `aqida tahawiyya. This text, representative of the viewpoint of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs, of which the text below is a complete English translation.

Imam Abu Ja`far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Azdi, known as Imam Tahawi after his birthplace in Egypt, is among the most outstanding authorities of the Islamic world on hadith and jurisprudence (fiqh). He lived at a time when both the direct and indirect disciples of the Four Imams of law were teaching and practicing. This period was the greatest age of Hadith and fiqh studies, and Imam Tahawi studied with all the living authorities of the day. Al-Badr al-`Ayni said that when Ahmad died, Tahawi was 12; when Bukhari died, he was 27; when Muslim died, he was 32; when Ibn Majah died, he was 44; when Abu Dawud died, he was 46; when Tirmidhi died, he was fifty; when Nisa'i died, he was 74. Kawthari relates this and adds the consensus of scholars that Tahawi allied in himself completion in the two knowledges of hadith and fiqh, a consensus that included, among others, al-`Ayni and al-Dhahabi, with Ibn Taymiyya singling himself out in his opinion that Tahawi was not very knowledgeable in hadith. This is flatly contradicted by Ibn Kathir who says in his notice on Tahawi in al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya: "He is one of the trustworthy narrators of established reliability, and one of the massive memorizers of hadith." Kawthari calls Ibn Taymiyya's verdict "another one of his random speculations" and states: "No-one disregards Tahawi's knowledge of the defective hadith except someone whose own defects have no remedy, and may Allah protect us from such."

Tahawi began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Imam Shafi`i. However, Tahawi felt instinctively drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifa's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny issues of fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Abu Hanifa's two leading companions, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf, who had codified Hanafi fiqh. This led him to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school. He now stands out not only as a prominent follower of that Hanafi school but, in view of his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. His monumental scholarly works, such as Sharh ma`ani al-athar and Mushkil al-athar, are encyclopedic in scope and have long been regarded as indispensable for training students of fiqh. He was in fact a mujtahid across the board and was thoroughly familiar with the fiqh of all four schools, as stated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and related by Kawthari, and as shown by Tahawi's own work on comparative law entitled Ikhtilaf al-fuqaha'.

Tahawi's "Doctrine" (al-`Aqida), though small in size, is a basic text for all times, listing what a Muslim must know and believe and inwardly comprehend. There is consensus among the Companions, the Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as the four Imams and their authoritative followers on the doctrines enumerated in this work, which are entirely derived from the undisputed primary sources of Religion, the Holy Qur'an and the confirmed Hadith. Being a text on Islamic doctrine, this work sums up the arguments set forth in those two sources to define sound belief, and likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunna.

As regards the sects mentioned in this work, familiarity with Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful. More or less veiled references to sects such as the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Karramiyya, the Qadariyya, and the Jabariyya are found in the work. It also contains allusions to other views considered unorthodox and deviant from the way of Ahl al-Sunna. There is an explicit reference in the work to the controversy on the creation of the Qu'ran in the times of al-Ma'mun and others.

While the permanent relevance of the statements of belief in the `Aqida are obvious, the historical weight and point of certain of these statements can be properly appreciated only if the work is used as a text for study under the guidance of some learned person able to elucidate its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Since the present book is intended exactly as one such aid towards understanding the details of Islamic belief with clarity, it is hoped that the quotation of the entire text of Tahawi's "Doctrine," which we consider as the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, will be of benefit to the reader. And may Allah grant us a true understanding of faith and count us among those described by the Prophet as the Saved Group.

Aqeedah Tahawiyyah

Commentary

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds.

هَذا ما رَواهُ الإْمامُ أَبو جَعْفَرٍ الطَّحاوِيُّ في ذِكْرُ بَيانِ اعْتِقادِ أَهْلِ السُّــنَّةِ وَالجَماعَةِ عَلى مَذهَبِ فُقَهَاءِ المِلَّةِ أَبي حَنيفَةَ النُّعْمانِ بْنِ ثابـِتٍ الكُوفِيِّ، وَأَبي يُوسُفَ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ إِبْراهيمَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، وَأَبي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَسَنِ الشَّيْبانِيِّ ـ رِضْوَانُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ أَجْمَعين، وَمَا يَعْتَقِدُونَ مِنْ أُصُولِ الدِّينِ وَيَدِينُونَ بـِهِ لِرَبَّ العَالَمِينَ.

The great scholar Hujjat al-lslam Abu Ja'far al-Warraq al-Tahawi al-Misri, may Allah have mercy on him, said: This is a presentation of the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, according to the school of the jurists of this religion, Abu Hanifa al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Kufi, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari and Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani, may Allah be pleased with them all, and what they believe regarding the fundamentals of the religion and their faith in the Lord of the worlds.

نَقُولُ في تَوْحيدِ اللَّهِ مُعْتَقِدينَ، بـِتَوْفيقِ

We say about Allah's unity, believing by Allah's help that:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى وَاحِدٌ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ،

1. Allah is One, without any partners.

وَلا شَيْءَ مِثْلُهُ،

2. There is nothing like Him.

وَلا شَيْءَ يُعْجِزُهُ،

3. There is nothing that can overwhelm Him.

وَلا إِلهَ غَيْرُهُ،

4. There is no god other than Him.

قَدِيْمٌ بـِلا ابْتِدَاءٍ، دَائِمٌ بـِلا انْتِهَاءٍ،

5. He is the Eternal without a beginning and enduring without end.

لا يَفْنَى وَلا يَبـِيدُ،

6. He will never perish or come to an end.

وَلا يَكُونُ إِلا مَا يُرِيدُ،

7. Nothing happens except what He wills.

لا تَبْلُغُهُ الأَوْهامُ، وَلا تُدْرِكُهُ الأَفْهامُ،

8. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him.

وَلا تُشْبـِهُهُ الأَنامُ

9. He is different from any created being.

حَيٌّ لا يَمُوتُ، قَيُّومٌ لا يَنامُ،

10. He is living and never dies and is eternally active and never sleeps.

خَالِقٌ بـِلا حَاجَةٍ، رَازِقٌ لَهُمْ بـِلا مُؤْنَةٍ،

11. He creates without His being in need to do so and provides for His creation without any effort.

مُمِيتٌ بـِلا مَخَافَةٍ، بَاعِثٌ بـِلا مَشَقَّةٍ.

12. He causes death with no fear and restores to life without difficulty.

مَازالَ بـِصِفَاتِهِ قَدِيماً قَبْلَ خَلْقِهِ. لَمْ يَزْدَدْ بـِكَوْنِهِمْ شَيْئاً لَمْ يَكُنْ قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ صِفَاتِهِ، وَكَما كَانَ بـِصِفَاتِهِ أَزَلِيَّاً كَذلِكَ لا يَزَالُ عَلَيْهَا أَبَدِيَّاً.

13. He has always existed together with His attributes since before creation. Bringing creation into existence did not add anything to His attributes that was not already there. As He was, together with His attributes, in pre-eternity, so He will remain throughout endless time.

لَيْسَ مُنْذُ خَلَقَ الخَلْقَ اسْتَفَادَ اسْمَ الخَالِقِ، وَلا بـِإِحْدَاثِهِ البَرِيَّةَ اسْتَفَادَ اسْمَ البارِي

14. It was not only after the act of creation that He could be described as "the Creator" nor was it only by the act of origination that He could he described as "the Originator."

لَهُ مَعْنى الرُّبوبـِيَّةِ وَلا مَرْبوبٌ، وَمَعْنى الخَالِقِيَّةِ وَلا مَخْلوقٌ،

15. He was always the Lord even when there was nothing to be Lord of, and always the Creator even when there was no creation.

وَكَمَا أَنَّهُ مُحْيِـي المَوْتَى بَعْدَما أَحْيَاهُمْ، اسْتَحَقَّ هَذا الاسْمَ قَبْلَ إِحْيائِهِمْ، كَذلِكَ اسْتَحَقَّ اسْمَ الخَالِقِ قَبْلَ إِنْشَائِهِمْ،

16. In the same way that He is the "Bringer to life of the dead," after He has brought them to life a first time, and deserves this name before bringing them to life, so too He deserves the name of "Creator" before He has created them.

ذلِكَ بـِأَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ، وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ إِلَيْهِ فَقِيرٌ، وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ عَلَيْهِ يَسيرٌ، لا يَحْتَاجُ إِلَى شَيْءٍ

لـــَيْسَ كَمِثـــْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

17. This is because He has the power to do everything, everything is dependent on Him, everything is easy for Him, and He does not need anything. "There is nothing like Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer." (al-Shura 42:11)

خَلَقَ الخَلْقَ بـِعِلْمِهِ،

18. He created creation with His knowledge.

وَقَدَّرَ لَهُمْ أَقْداراً،

19. He appointed destinies for those He created.

وَضَرَبَ لَهُمْ آجالاً،

20. He allotted to them fixed life spans.

لَمْ يَخْفَ عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ مِنْ أَفْعَالِهِمْ قَبْلَ أَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ، وَعَلِمَ مَا هُمْ عَامِلُونَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَهُمْ،

21. Nothing about them was hidden from Him before He created them, and He knew everything that they would do before He created them.

وَأَمَرَهُمْ بـِطَاعَتِهِ وَنَهَاهُمْ عَنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِ،

22. He ordered them to obey Him and forbade them to disobey Him.

وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ يَجْرِي بـِقُدْرَتِهِ وَمَشِيئَتِهِ. وَمَشِيئَتُهُ تَنْفُذُ، وَلا مَشِيئَةَ لِلْعِبَادِ إِلاَّ مَا شَاءَ لَهُمْ، فَمَا شَاءَ لَهُمْ كَانَ وَمَا لَمْ يَشَأْ لَمْ يَكُنْ.

23. Everything happens according to His degree and will, and His will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He wills for them. What He wills for them occurs and what He does not will, does not occur.

يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَعْصِمُ وَيُعَافِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ فَضْلاً، وَيُضِلُّ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَخْذُلُ وَيَبْتَلِي عَدْلاً

24. He gives guidance to whomever He wills, and protects them, and keeps them safe from harm, out of His generosity; and He leads astray whomever He wills, and abases them, and afflicts them, out of His justice.

وَ کُلھم مُتَقلبونَ فِی مَشِیئتھ ، بَین فَضلھ وَعَدلھ

25. All of them are subject to His will either through His generosity or His justice.

وَهُوَ مُتَعَالٍ عَنِ الأَضْدَّاد وَالأَنْدَاد

26. He is Exalted beyond having opposites or equals.

لا رَادَّ لِقَضَائِهِ، وَلا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكْمِهِ، وَلا غَالِبَ لأَمْرِهِ،

27. No one can ward off His decree or delay His command or overpower His affairs.

آمَنَّا بِذلِكَ كُلِّهِ، وَأَيْقَنَّا أَنَّ كُلاًّ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ.

28. We believe in all of this and are certain that everything comes from Him.

وَإِنَّ مُحَمَّداً صلى الله عليه وسلم عَبْدُهُ المُصْطَفَى، وَنَبـِيُّهُ المُجْتَبَى، وَرَسُولُهُ المُرْتَضَى،

29. And we are certain that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is His chosen Servant and elect Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well pleased,

خَاتِمُ الأَنْبـِيَاءِ وَإِمَامُ الأَتْقِياءِ، وَسَيِّدُ المُرْسَلِينَ، وَحَبـِيبُ رَبِّ العَالَمِينَ،

30. And that he is the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the godfearing and the most honored of all the messengers and the Beloved of the Lord of all the worlds.

وَكُلُّ دَعْوَةِ نُبُوَّةٍ بَعْدَ نُبُوَّتِهِ فَغَيٌّ وَهَوَى؛

31. Every claim to Prophet-hood after Him is falsehood and deceit.

وَهُوَ المَبْعُوثُ إِلى عَامَّةِ الجِنِّ وَكَافَّةِ الوَرَى، المَبْعُوثِ بـِالحَقِّ وَالهُدَى

32. He is the one who has been sent to all the jinn and all mankind with truth and guidance and with light and illumination.

وَإِنَّ القُرْآنَ كَلامُ اللَّهِ تَعَالى، بَدَأَ بـِلا كَيْفِيَّةٍ قَوْلاً، وَأَنْزَلَهُ عَلَى نَبـِيِّهِ وَحْياً، وَصَدَّقَهُ المُؤْمِنُونَ عَلَى ذلِكَ حَقَّــاً، وَأَيْقَنُوا أَنَّهُ كَلامُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بـِالحَقِيقَةِ. لَيْسَ بـِمَخْلُوقٍ كَكَلامِ البَرِيَّةِ، فَمَنْ سَمِعَهُ فَزَعَمَ أَنَّهُ كَلامُ البَشَرِ فَقَدْ كَفَرَ، وَقَدْ ذمَّهُ اللَّهُ تَعالَى وَعَابَهُ، وَأَوْعَدَهُ عَذابَهُ، حَيْثُ قَالَ:

سَأُصْلِيهِ سَقَرَ

فَلَمَّا أَوْعَدَ اللَّهُ سَقَرَ لِمَنْ قَالَ:

إِنْ هَذَا إِلَّا قَوْلُ الْبَشَرِ

عَلِمْنا أَنَّهُ قَوْلُ خَالِقِ البَشَرِ، وَلا يُشْبـِهُ قَوْلَ البَشَرِ،

33. The Qur'an is the word of Allah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allah. It is not created as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: "I will burn him in the Fire." (al-Muddaththir 74:26) When Allah threatens with the Fire those who say "This is just human speech" (74:25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind.

وَمَنْ وَصَفَ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى بـِمَعْنَىً مِنْ مَعَانِي البَشَرِ فَقَدْ كَفَرَ، فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ هَذا اعْتَبَرَ، وَعَنْ مِثْلِ قَوْلِ الكُفَّارِ انْزَجَرَ، وَعَلِمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى بـِصِفَاتِهِ لَيْسَ كَالبَشَرِ.

34. Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings.

وَالرُّؤْيَةُ حَقٌّ لأَهْلِ الجَنَّةِ بـِغَيْرِ إِحَاطَةٍ وَلا كَيْفِيَّةٍ، كَمَا نَطَقَ بـِهِ كِتَابُ رَبِّـنَا حَيْثُ قَالَ:

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نــَّاضِرَةٌ - إِلَى رَبـِّها نَاظِرَةٌ

وَتَفْسِيرُهُ عَلَى مَا أَرَادَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى وَعَلِمَهُ، وَكُلُّ مَا جَاءَ فِي ذلِكَ مِنَ الحَدِيثِ الصَّحِيحِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَعَنْ أَصْحَابـِهِ رِضْوانُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ أَجْمَعِينَ فَهُوَ كَمَا قَالَ، وَمَعْنَاهُ وَتَفْسِيرُهُ عَلَى مَا أَرَادَ، لا نَدْخُلُ فِي ذلِكَ مُتَأَوِّلِينَ بـِآرائِنَا وَلا مُتَوَهِّمِينَ بـِأَهْوَائِنا، فَإِنَّهُ مَا سَلِمَ فِي دِينِهِ إِلاَّ مَنْ سَلَّمَ لِلَّهِ تَعَالى وَلِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ; وَرَدَّ عِلْمَ مَا اشْتَبَهَ عَلَيْهِ إِلَى عَالِمِهِ،

35. The Seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is true, without their vision being all-encompassing and without the manner of their vision being known. As the Book of our Lord has expressed it: "Faces on that Day radiant, looking at their Lord." (al-Qiyama 75:22-3) The explanation of this is as Allah knows and wills. Everything that has come down to us about this from the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in authentic traditions, is as he said and means what he intended. We do not delve into that, trying to interpret it according to our own opinions or letting our imaginations have free rein.

No one is safe in his religion unless he surrenders himself completely to Allah, the Exalted and Glorified and to His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and leaves the knowledge of things that are ambiguous to the one who knows them.

وَلا يَثْبُتُ قَدَمُ الإِسْلامِ إِلاَّ عَلَى ظَهْرِ التَّسْليمِ وَالاسْتِسْلامِ، فَمَنْ رَامَ عِلْمَ مَا حُظِرَ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَمْ يَقْنَعْ بـِالتَّسْليمِ فَهْمُهُ، حَجَبَهُ مَرَامُهُ عَنْ خَالِصِ التَّوْحيدِ، وَصَافِي المَعْرِفَةِ، وَصَحِيحِ الإِيمَانِ، فَيَتَذبْذبُ بَيْنَ الكُفْرِ وَالإِيْمَانِ، وَالتَّكْذِيبِ، وَالإِقْرَارِ وَالإِنْكَارِ، مُوَسْوَسَاً تَائِهَاً، زَائِغَاً شَاكَّــاً، لاَ مُؤْمِنَاً مُصَدِّقاً، وَلاَ جَاحِداً مُكَذِّباً.

36. A man's Islam is not secure unless it is based on submission and surrender. Anyone who desires to know things which it is beyond his capacity to know, and whose intellect is not content with surrender, will find that his desire veils him from a pure understanding of Allah's true unity, clear knowledge and correct belief, and that he veers between disbelief and belief, confirmation and denial and acceptance and rejection. He will he subject to whisperings and find himself confused and full of doubt, being neither an accepting believer nor a denying rejector.

وَلا يَصِحُّ الإِيمَانُ بـِالرُّؤْيَةِ لأَهْلِ دَارِ السَّلامِ لِمَنْ اعْتَبَرَهَا مِنْهُمْ بـِوَهْمٍ، أَوْ تَأَوَّلَهَا بـِفَهْمٍ، إِذا كَانَ تَأْوِيلُ الرُّؤْيَةِ وَتَأْوِيلُ كُلِّ مَعْنىً يُضَافُ إِلَى الرُّبُوبـِيَّةِ تَرْكَ التَأْويلِ وَلُزُومَ التَّسْلِيمِ، وَعَلَيْهِ دِينُ المُرْسَلينَ وَشَرَائِعُ النَّبـِيِّـينَ. وَمَنْ لَمْ يَتَوَقَّ النَّفْيَ وَالتَّشْبيهِ زَلَّ، وَلَمْ يُصِبِ التَّنْزِيهَ؛ فَإِنَّ رَبَّنا جَلَّ وَعَلا مَوْصُوفٌ بـِصِفَاتِ الوَحْدَانِيَّةِ، مَنْعُوتٌ بـِنُعُوتِ الفَرْدَانِيَّةِ، لَيْسَ بـِمَعْناهُ أَحَدٌ مِنَ البَرِيَّةِ،

37. Belief of a man in the seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is not correct if he imagines what it is like or interprets it according to his own understanding, since the interpretation of this seeing or indeed, the meaning of any of the subtle phenomena which are in the realm of Lordship, is by avoiding its interpretation and strictly adhering to the submission.

This is the religion of Muslims. Anyone who does not guard himself against negating the attributes of Allah, or likening Allah to something else, has gone astray and has failed to understand Allah's glory, because our Lord, the Glorified and the Exalted, can only possibly be described in terms of oneness and absolute singularity and no creation is in any way like Him.

تَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَنِ الحُدُودِ وَالغَاياتِ، وَالأَرْكانِ وَالأَدَواتِ، لا تَحْوِيهِ الجِهَاتُ السِّتُّ كَسَائِرِ المُبْتَدَعاتِ.

38. He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created things are.

وَالمِعْرَاجُ حَقٌّ. وَقَدْ أُسْرِيَ بـِالنَّبـِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَعُرِجَ بـِشَخْصِهِ فِي الْيَقَظَةِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ، ثُمَّ إِلَى حَيْثُ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى مِنَ العُلَى، وَأَكْرَمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بـِمَا شَاءَ،

فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَا أَوْحَى (مَا کذب الفواد ما رای) فصلی اللھ علیھ وسلم فِی الاخرۃ والاولی

39. Al-Mi`raj (the Ascent through the heavens) is true. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was taken by night and ascended in his bodily form, while awake, through the heavens, to whatever heights Allah willed for him. Allah ennobled him in the way that He ennobled him and revealed to him what He revealed to him, "and his heart was not mistaken about what it saw" (al-Najm 53:11). Allah blessed him and granted him peace in this world and the next.

وَالْحَوْضُ الَّذِيْ أَكْرَمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بـِهِ غِيَاثَاً لأُمَّتِهِ حَقٌّ

40. Al-Hawd, the Pool which Allah has granted the Prophet as an honour to quench the thirst of his Community on the Day of Judgement, is true.

وَالشَّفَاعَةُ الَّتِي ادَّخَرَهَا اللَّهُ لَهُمْ كَمَا رُوِيَ فِيْ الأَخْبَارِ

41. Al-Shafa`a, the intercession which is stored up for Muslims, is true, as related in the hadiths.

وَالْمِيْثَاقُ الَّذِيْ أَخَذهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى مِنْ آدَمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ حَقٌّ.

42. The covenant which Allah made with Adam and his offspring is true.

وَقَدْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى فِيْمَا لَمْ يَزَلْ عَدَدَ مَنْ يَدْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ، وَيَدْخُلِ النَّارَ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً، لا يُزَادُ فِيْ ذلِكَ العَدَدِ وَلا يَنْقُصُ مِنْهُ؛

43. Allah knew, before the existence of time, the exact number of those who would enter the Garden and the exact number of those who would enter the Fire. This number will neither be increased nor decreased.

وَكَذلِكَ أَفْعَالَهُمْ، فِيْمَا عَلِمَ مِنْهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ يَفْعَلُونَهُ. وَكُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ لِمَا خُلِقَ لَهُ. ۔ وَالاعمال بالخواتیم۔ والسعید من سعد بقضاءاللھ ، الشقی من شقی بقضاءاللھ

44. The same applies to all actions done by people, which are done exactly as Allah knew they would be done. Everyone is eased towards what he was created for and it is the action with which a man's life is sealed which dictates his fate. Those who are fortunate are fortunate by the decree of Allah, and those who are wretched are wretched by the decree of Allah.

وَأَصْلُ الْقَدَرِ سِرُّ اللَّهِ فِي خَلْقِهِ، لَمْ يَطَّلِعْ عَلَى ذلِكَ مَلَكٌ مُقَرَّبٌ، وَلا نَبـِيٌّ مُرْسَلٌ. وَالتَّعَمُّقُ وَالنَّظَرُ فِيْ ذلِكَ ذرِيْعَةُ الخِذلانِ، وَسُلَّمُ الْحِرْمَانِ، وَدَرَجَةُ الطُّغْيَانِ. فَالْحَذَرَ كُلَّ الْحَذَرِ مِنْ ذلِكَ نَظَراً أَوْ فِكْراً أَوْ وَسْوَسَةً؛ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَىْ طَوَىْ عِلْمَ الْقَدَرِ عَنْ أَنَامِهِ، وَنَهَاهُمْ عَنْ مَرَامِهِ، كَما قالَ في كِتابـِهِ:

لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يـَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يـُسْأَلــُوْنَ

. فَمَنْ سَأَلَ: لِمَ فَعَلَ؟ فَقَدْ رَدَّ حُكْمَ كِتابِ اللَّهِ، وَمَنْ رَدَّ حُكْمَ كِتابِ اللَّهِ تَعالى كَانَ مِنَ الكافِرينَ.

45. The exact nature of the decree is Allah's secret in His creation, and no angel near the Throne, nor Prophet sent with a message, has been given knowledge of it. Delving into it and reflecting too much about it only leads to destruction and loss, and results in rebelliousness. So be extremely careful about thinking and reflecting on this matter or letting doubts about it assail you, because Allah has kept knowledge of the decree away from human beings, and forbidden them to enquire about it, saying in His Book, "He is not asked about what He does, but they are asked" (al-Anbiya' 21: 23).

Therefore, anyone who asks: "Why did Allah do that?" has gone against a judgement of the Book, and anyone who goes against a judgement of the Book is an unbeliever.

فَهذا جُمْلَةُ ما يَحْتاجُ إِلَيْهِ مَنْ هُوَ مُنَوَّرٌ قَلْبُهُ مِنْ أَوْلِياءِ اللَّهِ تَعالى، وَهِيَ دَرَجَةُ الرَّاسِخينَ في العِلْمِ؛ لأَنَّ العِلْمَ عِلْمانِ:
عِلْمٌ في الخَلْقِ مَوْجودٌ، وَعِلْمٌ في الخَلْقِ مَفْقودٌ؛ فَإِنْكارُ العِلْمِ المَوْجودِ كُفْرٌ، وَادِّعاءُ العِلْمِ المَفْقودِ كُفْرٌ.
وَلا يَصِحُّ الإِيمانُ إِلاَّ بـِقَبولِ العِلْمِ المَوْجودِ، وَتَرْكِ طَلَبِ العِلْمِ المَفْقودِ.

46. This in sum is what those of Allah's Friends with enlightened hearts need to know and constitutes the degree of those firmly endowed with knowledge. For there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge which is accessible to created beings, and knowledge which is not accessible to created beings. Denying the knowledge which is accessible is disbelief, and claiming the knowledge which is inaccessible is disbelief. Belief can only be firm when accessible knowledge is accepted and the inaccessible is not sought after.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بـِاللَّوْحِ، وَالقَلَمِ، بـِجَميعِ ما فيهِ قَدْ رُقِمَ. فَلَوِ اجْتَمَعَ الْخَلْقُ كُلُّهُمْ عَلى شَيْءٍ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ فيهِ أَنَّهُ كائِنٌ لِيَجْعَلوهُ غَيْرَ كائِنٍ لَمْ يَقْدِروا عَلَيْهِ. جَفَّ القَلَمُ بـِما هُوَ كائِنٌ إِلى يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ. وَما أَخْطَـأَ العَبْدَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُصيبَهُ، وَما أَصابَهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُخْطِئَهُ.

47. We believe in al-Lawh (the Tablet) and al-Qalam (the Pen) and in everything written on the former. Even if all created beings were to gather together to make something fail to exist, whose existence Allah had written on the Tablet, they would not be able to do so. And if all created beings were to gather together to make something exist which Allah had not written on it, they would not be able to do so. The Pen has dried having written down all that will be in existence until the Day of Judgement.Whatever a person has missed he would have never got, and whatever he gets he would have never missed.

وَعَلى العَبْدِ أَنْ يَعْلَمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ سَبَقَ عِلْمُهُ في كُلِّ شَيْءٍ كائِنٍ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، وَقَدَّرَ ذلِكَ بـِمَشيئَتِهِ تَقْديراً مُحْكَماً مُبْرَماً، لَيْسَ فيهِ ناقِضٌ وَلا مُعَقِّبٌ، وَلا مُزيلٌ وَلا مُغَـيِّرٌ، وَلا مُحَوِّلٌ، وَلا زَائِدٌ وَلا ناقِصٌ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ في سَماواتِهِ وَأَرْضِهِ. وَذلِكَ مِنْ عَقْدِ الإِيمانِ وَأُصولِ المَعْرِفَةِ، وَالاعْتِرافِ بـِتَوْحيدِ اللَّهِ وَرُبوبـِيَّتِهِ؛ كَما قالَ تَعالى في كِتابـِهِ العَزيزِ:

وَخَلَقَ كــُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تــَقْدِيــْرَاً

وَقالَ تَعالى:

وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللهِ قَدَرَاً مَقْدُورَاً

. فَوَيْلٌ لِمَنْ صارَ لَهُ اللَّهُ في القَدَرِ خَصيماً، وَأَحْضَرَ لِلنَّظَرِ فيهِ قَلْباً سَقيماً، لَقَدِ الْتَمَسَ بـِوَهْمِهِ في مَحْضَ الْغَيْبِ سِرَّاً كَتيماً، وَعادَ بـِما قَال فيهِ أَفَّـاكاً أَثيماً.

48. It is necessary for the servant to know that Allah already knows everything that is going to happen in His creation and has decreed it in a detailed and decisive way. There is nothing that He has created in either the heavens or the earth that can contradict it, or add to it, or erase it, or change it, or decrease it, or increase it in any way. This is a fundamental aspect of belief and a necessary element of all knowledge and recognition of Allah's oneness and Lordship. As Allah says in His Book: "He created everything and decreed it in a detailed way." (al-Furqan 25: 2) And He also says: "Allah's command is always a decided decree." (al-Ahzab 33: 38) So woe to anyone who argues with Allah concerning the decree and who, with a sick heart, starts delving into this matter. In his deluded attempt to investigate the Unseen, he is seeking a secret that can never be uncovered, and he ends up an evil-doer, telling nothing but lies.

وَالعَرْشُ وَالكُرْسِيُّ حَقٌّ

49. Al-`Arsh (the Throne) and al-Kursi (the Chair) are true.

وَهُوَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مُسْتَغْنٍ عَنِ العَرْشِ وَما دونَهُ،

50. He is independent of the Throne and that which is beneath it.

مُحيطٌ بـِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَبـِما فَوْقَهُ، قَدْ أَعْجَزَ عَنِ الإِحاطَةِ خَلْقَهُ.

51. He encompasses all things and that which is above it, and what He has created is incapable of encompassing Him.

وَنَقولُ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ اتَّخَذ َ إِبْراهيمَ خَليلاً، وَكَلَّمَ موسى تَكْليماً، إِيماناً وَتَصْديقاً وَتَسْليماً.

52. We say with belief, acceptance and submission that Allah took Ibrahim as an intimate friend and that He spoke directly to Musa.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بـِالمَلائِكَةِ وَالنَّبـِيِّـينَ، وَالكُتُبِ المُنْزَلَةِ عَلى المُرْسَلينَ. وَنَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُم كانوا عَلى الحَقِّ المُبينِ.

53. We believe in the angels, and the Prophets, and the books which were revealed to the messengers, and we bear witness that they were all following the manifest Truth.

وَنُسَمِّي أَهْلَ قِبْلَتِنا مُسْلِمينَ مُؤْمِنينَ ما دامُوا بـِما جاءَ بـِهِ النَّبـِيُّ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ مُعْتَرِفينَ، وَلَهُ بـِكُلِّ ما قالَ وَأَخْبَرَ مُصَدِّقينَ غَيْرَ مُكَذبِّينَ.

54. We call the people of our qibla Muslims and believers as long as they acknowledge what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought, and accept as true everything that he said and told us about.

وَلا نَخوضُ في اللَّهِ،  وَلا نُماري في دينِ اللَّهِ تَعالى.

55. We do not enter into vain talk about Allah nor do we allow any dispute about the religion of Allah.

وَلا نُجادِلُ في القُرْآنِ؛ وَنَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ كَلامُ رَبِّ العالَمينَ، نَزَلَ بـِهِ الرُّوحُ الأَمينُ، فَعَلَّمَهُ سَيِّدَ المُرْسَلينَ، مُحَمَّداً صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلى آلِهِ وَصَحْبـِهِ أَجْمَعينَ. وَكلامُ اللَّهِ تَعالى لا يُساويهِ شَيْءٌ مِنْ كَلامِ المَخْلوقينَ. وَلا نَقولُ بـِخَلْقِ القُرْآنِ؛ وَلا نُخالِفُ جَماعَةَ المُسْلِمينَ.

56. We do not argue about the Qur'an and we bear witness that it is the speech of the Lord of all the Worlds which the Trustworthy Spirit came down with and taught the most honoured of all the Messengers, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the speech of Allah and no speech of any created being is comparable to it. We do not say that it was created and we do not go against the Congregation (jama`a) of the Muslims regarding it.

ولا نكفرأحداً من أهل القبلة بذنب ، ما لم يستحله

57. We do not consider any of the people of our qibla to be unbelievers because of any wrong action they have done, as long as they do not consider that action to have been lawful.

ولا نَقولُ: لا يَضُرُّ مَعَ الإِسْلامِ ذنْبٌ لِمَنْ عَمِلَهُ؛

58. Nor do we say that the wrong action of a man who has belief does not have a harmful effect on him.

وَنَرْجو لِلْمُحْسِنينَ مِنَ المُؤْمِنينَ، وَلا نَأْمَنُ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَلا نَشْهَدُ لَهُمْ بالجَنَّةِ، وَنَسْتَغْفِرُ لِمُسيئِهمْ. وَنَخافُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا نُقَنِّطُهُمْ.

59. We hope that Allah will pardon the people of right action among the believers and grant them entrance into the Garden through His mercy, but we cannot be certain of this, and we cannot bear witness that it will definitely happen and that they will be in the Garden. We ask forgiveness for the people of wrong action among the believers and, although we are afraid for them, we are not in despair about them.

وَالأَمْنُ وَالإِياسُ يَنْقُلانِ عَنِ المِلَّةِ؛ وَسَبيلُ الحَقِّ بَيْنَهُما لأَهْلِ القِبْلَةِ،

60. Certainty and despair both remove one from the religion, but the path of truth for the People of the Qibla lies between the two.

وَلا يَخْرُجُ العَبْدُ مِنَ الإِيمانِ إِلاَّ بِجُحودِ ما أَدْخَلَهُ فيهِ.

61. A person does not step out or belief except by disavowing what brought him into it.

وَالإِيمانُ هُوَ الإِقْرارُ بِاللِّسانِ وَالتَّصْديقُ بِالجَنانِ،

62. Belief consists of affirmation by the tongue and acceptance by the heart.

وَأَنَّ جَميعَ ما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ في القُرْآنِ، وَجَميعَ ما صَحَّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنَ الشَّرْعِ وَالبَيانِ كُلُّهُ حَقٌّ.

63. And the whole of what is proven from the Prophet, upon him be peace, regarding the Shari`a and the explanation (of the Qur'an and of Islam) is true.

وَالایمان واحد واھلھ فَی اصلھ سواء۔ والتفاضل بینھم بالتقوی ومخالفۃ الھوی و ملازمۃ الاولی

64. Belief is, at base, the same for everyone, but the superiority of some over others in it is due to their fear and awareness of Allah, their opposition to their desires, and their choosing what is more pleasing to Allah.

وَالمُؤْمِنونَ كُلُّهُمْ أَوْلِياءُ الرَّحْمنِ، وَأَكْرَمُهُمْ أَطْوَعُهُمْ وَأَتْبَعُهُمْ لِلْقُرْآنِ

65. All the believers are Friends of Allah and the noblest of them in the sight of Allah are those who are the most obedient and who most closely follow the Qur'an.

وَالإِيمانُ: هُوَ الإِيمانُ باللَّهِ وَمَلائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبهِ وُرُسُلِهِ وَاليَوْمِ الآخِرِ، وَالبَعْثِ بَعْدَ المَوْتِ، وَالقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ؛ وَحُلْوُهِ وَمُرُّهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ تَعالى.

66. Belief consists of belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, and belief that the Decree -- both the good of it and the evil of it, the sweet of it and the bitter of it -- is all from Allah.

وَنَحْنُ مُؤْمِنونَ بذلِكَ كُلِّهِ، وَلا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ رُسُلِهِ، وَنُصَدِّقُهُمْ كُلَّهُمْ عَلى ما جاءوا بهِ.

67. We believe in all these things. We do not make any distinction between any of the messengers, we accept as true what all of them brought.

وَأَهْلُ الكَبائِرِ مْنْ أُمَّةِ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم في النَّارِ لا يُخَلَّدونَ إِذا ماتوا، وَهُمْ مُوْحِّدونَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكونُوا تائِبينَ بَعْدَ أَنْ لَقُوا اللَّهَ عارِفينَ مُؤْمِنينَ، وَهُمْ في مَشيئَتِهِ وُحْكْمِهِ إِنْ شاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُمْ، وَعَفا عَنْهُمْ بفَضْلِهِ، كَما قالَ تَعالى في كِتابهِ العَزيزِ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بهِ وَيغْفِرُ مَا دُوْنَ ذلكَ لِمَنْ يشَاءُ

وَإِنْ شاءَ عَذبَّهُمْ في النَّارِ بقَدْرِ جنايَتِهِمْ بعَدْلِهِ، ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنْها برَحْمَتِهِ وَشَفاعَةِ الشَّافِعينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ طاعَتِهِ، ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُهُمْ إِلى جَنَّتِهِ، وَذلِكَ بأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلى أَهْلِ مَعْرِفِتِهِ، وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْهُمْ في الدَّارَيْنِ كَأَهْل نُكْرَتِهِ الَّذينَ خابُوا مِنْ هِدايَتِهِ، وَلَمْ يَنالُوا مِنْ وِلايَتِهِ. اللَّهُمَّ يا وَلِيَّ الإِسْلامِ وَأَهْلِهِ مَسِّكْنا بالإِسْلامِ حَتَّى نَلْقاكَ بهِ.

68. Those of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who have committed grave sins will be in the Fire, but not forever, provided they die and meet Allah as believers affirming His unity even if they have not repented. They are subject to His will and judgement.

If He wants, He will forgive them and pardon them out of His generosity, as is mentioned in the Qur'an when He says: "And He forgives anything less than that (shirk) to whomever He wills" (al-Nisa' 4: 116); if He wants, He will punish them in the Fire out of His justice, and then bring them out of the Fire through His mercy, and for the intercession of those who were obedient to Him, and send them to the Garden.

This is because Allah is the Protector of those who recognize Him and will not treat them in the hereafter in the same way as He treats those who deny Him, who are bereft of His guidance and have failed to obtain His protection. O Allah, You are the Protector of Islam and its people; make us firm in Islam until the day we meet You.

ونری الصلاۃ خلف کل بر وفاجر من اھل القبلۃ ، ونصلی من مات منھم

69. We agree with doing the prayer behind any of the People of the Qibla whether rightful or wrongful, and doing the funeral prayer over any of them when they die.

ولا ننزل احداً منھم جنۃ ولا ناراً ، ولا نشھد علیھم بکفر ولا شرک ولا نفاق مالم یظھر منھم من ذلک شیء ، و نذر سراءرھم الی اللہ تعالی

70. We do not say that any of them will categorically go to either the Garden or the Fire, and we do not accuse any of them of kufr (disbelief), shirk (associating partners with Allah), or nifaq (hypocrisy), as long as they have not openly demonstrated any of those things. We leave their secrets to Allah.

ولا نری السیف علی احداً من امۃ محمد الا من وجب علیھ السیف

71. We do not agree with killing any of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, unless it is obligatory by Shari`a to do so.

ولا نری الخروج علی ائمتنا و ولاۃ امورنا وان جاروا ولا ندعو علی احداً منھم ، ولا ننزع یدا من طاعتھم من طاعۃ فریضۃ مالم یامروا بمعصیۃ وندعو لھم بالصلاح والمعافاۃ

72. We do not accept rebellion against our Imam or those in charge of our affairs even if they are unjust, nor do we wish evil on them, nor do we withdraw from following them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah, the Glorified, and therefore obligatory as long as they do not order to commit sins. We pray for their right guidance and ask for pardon for their wrongs.

وَنَتَّبعُ السُّنَّةَ وَالجَماعَةَ، وَنَجْتَنِبُ الشُّذوذ َ وَالخِلافَ وَالفُرْقَةَ

73. We follow the Sunna of the Prophet and the Congregation of the Muslims, and avoid deviation, differences and divisions.

وَنُحِبُّ أَهْلَ العَدْلِ وَالأَمانَةِ، وَنُبْغِضُ أَهْلَ الجَوْرِ وَالخِيانَةِ

74. We love the people of justice and trustworthiness, and hate the people of injustice and treachery.

ونقول اللھ اعلم فیما اشتبھ علینا علمھ

75. When our knowledge about something is unclear, we say: "Allah knows best."

وَنَرى المَسْحَ عَلى الخُفَّيْنِ في السَّفَرِ وَالحَضَرِ، كَما جاءَ في الأَثَرِ

76. We agree with wiping over leather socks (in ablution) whether on a journey or otherwise, just as has come in the hadiths.

وَالحَجُّ وَالجهادُ فَرْضانِ ماضِيانِ مَعَ أُوْلي الأَمْرِ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ المُسْلِمينَ بَرِّهِمْ وَفاجرِهِمْ لا يُبْطِلُهُما شَيْءٌ، وَلا يَنْقُضُهُما.

77. Hajj and jihad under the leadership of those in charge of the Muslims, whether they are right or wrong-acting, are continuing obligations until the Last Hour comes. Nothing can annul or controvert them.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بالكِرامِ الكاتِبينَ، وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ جَعَلَهُمْ حافِظينَ

78. We believe in the the noble angels who write down our actions, for Allah has appointed them over us as two guardians.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بمَلَكَ المَوْتِ المُوَكَّلِ بقَبْضِ أَرْواحِ العالَمينَ.

79. We believe in the Angel of Death who is in charge of taking the spirits of all the worlds.

وَبعذابِ القَبْرِ لِمَنْ كانَ لَهُ أَهْلاً.
وَبسُؤالِ مُنْكَرٍ وَنَكيرٍ لِلمَيِّتِ في قَبْرِهِ عَنْ رَبِّهِ وَدينِهِ وَنَبيِّهِ، عَلى ما جاءَتْ بهِ الأَخْبارُ عَنْ رَسولِ رَبهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، وَعَنِ الصَّحابَةِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَجْمَعينَ.

80. We believe in the punishment in the grave for those who deserve it, and in the questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakir about one's Lord, one's religion and one's prophet, as has come down in the hadiths from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and in reports from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.

وَالقَبْرُ رَوْضَةٌ مِنْ رِياضِ الجَنَّةِ أَوْ حُفْرَةٌ مِنْ حُفَرِ النَّارِ.

81. The grave is either one of the meadows of the Garden or one of the pits of the Fire.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بالبَعْثِ وَبجزاءِ الأَعْمالِ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ، وَالعَرْضِ وَالحِسابِ، وَقِراءَةِ الكِتابِ، وَالثَّوابِ وَالعِقابِ، وَالصِّراطِ.
وَالميزانِ يُوزَنُ بهِ أَعْمالُ المُؤْمِنينَ مِنْ الخَيْرِ وَالشَّرِّ وَالطَّاعَةِ وَالمَعْصِيَةِ.

82. We believe in being brought back to life after death and in being recompensed for our actions on the Day of Judgement, and the exhibition of works, and the reckoning, and the reading of the book, and the reward or punishments, and the Bridge, and the Balance; and the deeds of the Muslims, good evil obedient and disobedient are weighed by it.

وَالجَنَّةُ وَالنَّارُ مَخْلوقَتانِ لا يَفْنَيانِ، وَلا يَبيدانِ.
وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى خَلَقَ الجَنَّةَ وَالنَّارَ، وَخَلَقَ لَهُما أَهْلاً.
فَمَنْ شاءَ إِلى الجَنَّةِ أَدْخَلَهُ فَضْلاً مِنْهُ، وَمَنْ شاءَ مِنْهُمْ إِلى النَّارِ أَدْخَلَهُ عَدْلاً مِنْهُ.
وَكُلٌّ يَعْمَلُ لِما قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْهُ، وَصائِرٌ إِلى ما خُلِقَ لَهُ.

83. The Garden and the Fire are created things that never come to an end and we believe that Allah created them before the rest of creation and then created people to inhabit each of them. Whoever He wills goes to the Garden out of His bounty and whoever He wills goes to the Fire through His justice. Everybody acts in accordance with what is destined for him and goes towards what he has been created for.

وَالخَيْرُ وَالشَّرُ مُقَدَّرانِ عَلى العِبادِ،

84. Good and evil have both been decreed for people.

وَالاسْتِطاعَةُ الَّتي يَجبُ بها الفِعْلُ مِنْ نَحْوِ التَّوْفيقِ الَّذي لا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُوْصَفَ المَخْلوقُ بها تَكونُ مَعَ الفِعْلِ، وَأَمَّا الاسْتِطاعَةُ مِنَ الصِّحْةِ وَالْوُسْعِ وَالتَّمَكُّنِ، وَسلامَةِ الآلاتِ فَهِيَ قَبْلَ الفِعْلِ، وَبها يَتَعَلَّقُ الخِطابُ، وَهُوَ كَما قالَ اللَّهُ تَعالى:

لاَ يكَلفُ الْلَّهُ نفْسَاً إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا

85. The capability in terms of divine grace and favor which makes an action certain to occur cannot be ascribed to a created being. This capability is integral with action, whereas the capability of an action in terms of having the necessary health and ability, being in a position to act, and having the necessary means, exists in a person before the action. It is this type of capability which is the object of the dictates of the Shari`a. Allah the Exalted says: "Allah does not charge a person except according to his ability." (al-Baqara 2: 286)

وَأَفْعالُ العِبادِ هِيَ بخَلْقِ اللَّهِ تَعالى وَكَسْبٍ مِنَ العِبادِ.

86. People's actions are created by Allah but earned by people .

ولم يكلفهم الله تعالى إلا ما يطيقون ، ولا يطيقون إلا ماكلفهم . وهو تفسير لا حول ولا قوة الا بالله ، نقول : لا حيلة لأحد ، [ ولا تحول لأحد ] ، ولا حركة لأحد عن معصية الله ، الا بمعونة الله ، ولا قوة لأحد على إقامة طاعة الله والثبات عليها إلا بتوفيق الله .

87. Allah, the Exalted, has only charged people with what they are able to do and people are only capable of doing what Allah has granted them to do. This is the explanation of the phrase: "There is no power and no strength except by Allah." We add to this that there is no stratagem or way by which anyone can avoid or escape disobedience to Allah except with Allah's help; nor does anyone have the strength to put obedience to Allah into practice and remain firm in it, except if Allah makes it possible for him to do so.

وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ يَجْري بمَشيئَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَعِلْمِهِ وَقَضائِهِ وَقَدَرَهِ.
غَلَبَتْ مَشيئَتُهُ المَشيئاتِ كُلَّها، وَغَلَبَ قَضاؤُهُ الحِيَلَ كُلَّها، يَفْعَلُ ما شاءَ وَهُوَ غَيْرُ ظالِمٍ أَبَداً.
تَقَدَّسَ عَنْ كُلِّ سُوءٍ، وَتَنَزَّهَ عَنْ كُلِّ عَيْبٍ وَشَيْنٍ،

( لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يسْأَلوْنَ (

88. Everything happens according to Allah's will, knowledge, predestination and decree. His will overpowers all other wills and His decree overpowers all stratagems. He does whatever He wills and He is never unjust. He is exalted in His purity above any evil or perdition and He is perfect far beyond any fault or flaw. "He will not be asked about what He does, but they will be asked." (al-Anbiya' 21: 23)

وَفي دُعاءِ الأَحْياءِ للأَمْواتِ وَصَدَقَتَهِمْ مَنْفَعَةٌ لِلأَمْواتِ

89. There is benefit for dead people in the supplication and alms-giving of the living.

وَاللَّهُ تَعالى يَسْتَجيبُ الدَّعَواتِ، وَيَقْضي الحاجاتِ،

90. Allah responds to people's supplications and gives them what they ask for.

وَيَمْلِكُ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ، وَلا يَمْلِكُهُ شَيْءٌ

وَلا يُسْتَغْنى عَنِ اللَّهِ تَعالى طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ، وَمَنِ اسْتَغْنَى عَنِ اللَّهِ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ فَقَدْ كَفَرَ، وَصارَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الخُسْرانِ.

91. Allah has absolute control over everything and nothing has any control over Him. Nothing can be independent of Allah even for the blinking of an eye, and whoever considers himself independent of Allah for the blinking of an eye is guilty of unbelief and becomes one of the people of perdition.

وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى يَغْضَبُ وَيَرْضَى لا كَأَحَدٍ مِنَ الوَرَى

92. Allah is angered and He is pleased but not in the same way as any creature.

وَنُحِبُ أَصْحابَ النَّبيِّ وَلا نُفَرِّطُ في حُبِ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ، وَلا نَتَبَرَّأُ مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ. وَنُبْغِضُ مَنْ يُبْغِضُهُمْ، وَبغَيْرِ الْحَقِ لا نَذكُرُهُمْ؛ وَنَرى حُبَّهُمْ ديناً وَإِيماناً وَإِحْساناً، وَبُغْضَهُمْ كُفْراً وَشِقاقاً وَنِفاقاً وَطُغْياناً.

93. We love the Companions of the Messenger of Allah but we do not go to excess in our love for any one individual among them; nor do we disown any one of them. We hate anyone who hates them or does not speak well of them and we only speak well of them. Love of them is a part of Islam, part of belief and part of excellent behavior, while hatred of them is unbelief, hypocrisy and rebellion.

وَنُثْبتُ الخِلافَةَ بَعْدَ النَّبيِّ أَوَّلاً لأَبي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ تَفْضيلاً وَتَقْديماً عَلَى جَميعِ الأُمَّةِ، ثُمَّ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، ثُمَّ لِعُثْمانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، ثُمَّ لِعَلِيٍّ بْنِ أَبي طالِبٍ رِضْوانُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ أَجْمَعينَ. وَهُمُ الخُلَفاءُ الرَّاشِدونَ، وَالأَئِمَّةُ المَهْدِيُّونَ، الَّذينَ قَضَوْا بالحَقِّ وَكانُوا بهِ يَعْدِلونَ.

94. We confirm that, after the death of Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, the caliphate went first to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, thus proving his excellence and superiority over the rest of the Muslims; then to `Umar ibn al-Khattab; then to `Uthman; and then to `Ali ibn Abi Talib; may Allah be well pleased with all of them. These are the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and upright leaders.

وَإِنَّ العَشَرَةَ الَّذينَ سَمَّاهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ . نَشْهَدُ لَهُمْ بالجَنَّةِ كَما شَهِدَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ. وَقَوْلُهُ الحَقِّ، وَهُمْ: أَبو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ وَعُثْمانُ وَعَلِيٌ وَطَلْحَةُ وَالزُّبَيْرُ وَسَعْدٌ وَسَعيدٌ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ وَأَبو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الجَرَّاحِ، وَهُوَ أَمينُ هذِهِ الأُمَّةِ رِضْوانُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ أَجْمَعينَ.

95. We bear witness that the ten who were named by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and who were promised the Garden by him, will be in the Garden, as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, whose word is truth, bore witness that they would be. The ten are: Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Talha, Zubayr, Sa`d, Sa`id, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, and Abu `Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah whose title was the Trustee of this Community, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنَ القَوْلَ في أَصْحابِ النَّبيِّ وَأِزْوَاجهِ وَذرِّيَّاتِهِ فَقَدْ بَرِئَ مِنَ النِّفاقِ

96. Anyone who speaks well of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wives and offspring, who are all pure and untainted by any impurity, is free from the accusation of hypocrisy.

وَعُلَماءُ السَّلَفِ مِنَ الصَّالِحينَ وَالتَّابعينَ وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الخَيْرِ وَالأَثَرِ، وَأَهْلِ الفِقْهِ وَالنَّظَرِ، لا يُذكَرُونَ إِلاَّ بالجَميلِ، وَمَنْ ذكَرَهُمْ بسوءٍ فَهُوَ عَلى غَيْرِ السَّبيلِ.

97. The learned men of the Predecessors, both the first community and those who immediately followed: the people of virtue, the narrators of hadith, the jurists, and the analysts-- they must only be spoken of in the best way, and anyone who says anything bad about them is not on the right path.

وَلا نُفَضِّلُ أَحَداً مِنَ الأَوْلِياءِ عَلى أَحَدٍ مِنَ الأَنْبياءِ. وَنَقولُ: نَبيٌّ واحِدٌ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ جَميعِ الأَوْلِياءِ،

98. We do not prefer any of the saintly men among the Community over any of the Prophets but rather we say that any one of the Prophets is better than all the awliya' put together.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بما جاءَ مِنْ كَراماتِهِمْ، وَصَحَّ عَنِ الثِّقاتِ مِنْ رِوايَتِهِمْ

99. We believe in what we know of the karamat or marvels of the awliya' and in the authentic stories about them from trustworthy sources.

وَنُؤْمِنُ بأَشْراطِ السَّاعَةِ مِنْها: خُروجُ الدَّجَّالِ، وَنُزولُ عيسى عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنَ السَّماءِ، وَبطُلوعِ الشَّمْسِ مِنْ مَغْرِبها، وَخُروجِ دَابَّةِ الأَرْضِ مِنْ مَوْضِعِها.

100. We believe in the signs of the Hour such as the appearance of the Antichrist (dajjal) and the descent of `Isa ibn Maryam, peace be upon him, from heaven, and we believe in the rising of the sun from where it sets and in the emergence of the Beast from the earth.

وَلا نُصَدِّقُ كاهِناً وَلا عَرَّافاً، وَلا مَنْ يَدَّعي شَيْئاً بخِلافِ الكِتابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ وَإِجْماعِ الأُمَّةِ.

101. We do not accept as true what soothsayers and fortune-tellers say, nor do we accept the claims of those who affirm anything which goes against the Book, the Sunna, and the consensus of the Muslim Community (umma).

وَنَرى الجَماعَةَ حَقَّاً وَصَواباً، وَالفُرْقَةَ زَيْغاً وَعَذاباً.

102. We agree that holding together is the true and right path and that separation is deviation and torment.

وَدِينُ اللَّهِ في السَّماءِ وَالأَرْضِ واحِدٌ وَهُوَ دِينُ الإِسْلامِ، كَما قالَ اللَّه تَعالى:

إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِنْدَ الْلَّهِ الإِسْلامُ

، وَقالَ تَعالى:

وَمَنْ يبْتغِ غَيْرَ الإِسْلامِ دِينَاً فَلَنْ يقْبَلَ مِنْهُ

، وَقالَ تَعالى:

وَرَضِيْتُ لكُمُ الإِسْلامَ دِينَاً

103. There is only one religion of Allah in the heavens and the earth and that is the religion of Islam ("submission"). Allah says: "Surely religion in the sight of Allah is Islam." (Al `Imran 3: 19) And He also says: "I am pleased with Islam as a religion for you." (al-Ma'ida 5: 3)

وَهُوَ بَيْنَ الغُلُوِّ وَالتَّقْصيرِ، وَالتَّشْبيهِ وَالتَّعْطيلِ، وَالجَبْرِ وَالقَدَرِ، وَالأَمْنِ وَاليَأْسِ.

104. Islam lies between going to excess and falling short, between the likening of Allah's attributes to creation (tashbih) and divesting Allah of attributes (ta`til), between determinism and freewill, and between sureness and despair.

فَهذا دِينُنا وَاعْتِقادُنا، ظاهِراً وَباطِناً.
وَنَحْنُ نَبْرَأُ إِلى اللَّهِ تَعالى مِمَّنْ خالَفَ الَّذي ذكَرْناهُ، وَبَيَّناهُ.

105. This is our religion and it is what we believe in, both inwardly and outwardly, and we renounce any connection, before Allah, with anyone who goes against what we have said and made clear.

وَنَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ تَعالى أَنْ يُثَبِّتَنا عَلَيْهِ وَيَخْتِمَ لَنا بهِ، وَيَعْصِمَنا مِنَ الأَهْواءِ المُخْتَلِطَةِ وَالآراءِ المُتَفَرِّقَةِ، وَالمَذاهِبِ الرَّدِيَّةِ، كَالمُشَبِّهَةِ وَالجَهْمِيَّةِ وَالجَبْرِيَّةِ وَالقَدَرِيَّةِ وَغَيْرِهِمْ مِمَّنْ خالَفَ السُّنَّةَ وَالجَماعَةَ، وَاتَّبَعَ البدْعَةَ وَالضَّلالَةَ، وَنَحْنُ مِنْهُمْ بَراءٌ، وَهُمْ عِنْدَنا ضُلاَّلٌ وَأَرْدِياءُ.
وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بالصَّوابِ، وَإِلَيْهِ المَرْجعُ وَالمَآبُ.

We ask Allah to make us firm in our belief and seal our lives with it and to protect us from variant ideas, scattering opinions and evil schools of view such as those of the Mushabbiha, the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Jabriyya, the Qadariyya, and others like them who go against the Sunna and Jama`a and have allied themselves with error. We renounce any connection with them and in our opinion they are in error and on the path of destruction. We ask Allah to protect us from all falsehood and we ask His Grace and Favour to do all good.

 

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Thu, 05 Sep 2013 10:27:21 +0000
Is Allah Everywhere or is He on His Throne? https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/is-allah-everywhere-or-is-he-on-his-throne.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/is-allah-everywhere-or-is-he-on-his-throne.html  

allah

{jb_quote}[42:11]...Nothing is like Him (SWT). And He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.{/jb_quote}


The True Creed of the Salaf

Shaykh (Maulana) Mohammad Yasir (HA)

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Is Allah Everywhere or is He on His Throne?

By Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Q:) Some people say Allah is everywhere, some say He is above the heavens, some say He is on His throne; and everyone seems to present tons of evidences to prove their point. I am so confused about the whole issue. Where is Allah? Please explain!

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

{jb_dropcap}T{/jb_dropcap}he short and simple answer to your question is that Allah Most High exists beyond time, space, location and 'physical' direction; He is where He has always been.

Before detailing the above answer, it is important to realize that the issue 'where is Allah?' was never debated or made a matter of great dispute by the Companions (sahaba) and early Muslims (salaf). We seldom find within classical teachings of mainstream Muslim scholars that people went around asking and debating where Allah Most High is! And aside from the hadith of Sahih Muslim in which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked the slave-girl (jariya) "Where is Allah?", there seems to be no other text of the Qur'an and Sunna in which this question is asked. As for the hadith of the slave-girl, it has its own specific context, which will be explained later on, insha 'Allah.

The reason for this is simple: We have not been commanded to identify the exact 'physical location' of Allah; rather our responsibility is to recognize Allah (ma'rifa), build a strong relationship with Him, affirm His exaltedness (tanzih), affirm His Oneness (tawhid), learn about His attributes (sifat), worship Him, obey His commands and abstain from His prohibitions. Beyond that, there is no Islamic obligation to know where Allah Almighty exactly is; neither is it possible for the meager intellects of us created beings to fully grasp the reality and majesty of our Creator. We have not even fully understood the reality of our souls, bodies, the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the sky, and so forth; then how are we expected to comprehend the essence (kunh) of the Almighty.

As such, it is important to note – at the outset – that we should avoid:

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} arguing about this topic,

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} considering it a fundamental part of belief (aqida), and

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} being hasty in declaring others as disbelievers or deviants if they happen to hold a different viewpoint. We should steer clear from trying to grasp the reality of Allah, and suffice by understanding that the human intellect is very limited in its reach.

 

We must see our inability to fully understand Allah as being from our weakness and imperfection as humans. This will bring about a deeper sense of slave-hood and neediness towards the One who is in need of no one.

Sadly, however, we live in a time where some Muslims constantly debate this issue and behave as though it is a fundamental part of one's faith. They waste theirs and others' precious time arguing for long periods about an issue that will not be questioned about on the Day of Judgment. As a result, much more important aspects of deen are neglected. Islamic forums and discussions are filled with arguments, counter-arguments, refutations, attacks and never ending debates about this one topic. Many are left confused and bemused with the whole experience, and some have even left Islam altogether due to their inability to fully comprehend this issue.

As such, the first advice for my dear brothers and sisters – of whichever persuasion – is to take a step back, relax and not become over emotional about the issue at hand. Thereafter, with cool headedness, realize that this issue is not a foregone conclusion and that there is room for 'valid' disagreement and thus 'agree to disagree'. By doing so, we would save ourselves and others from falling into major sins and even disbelief.

To proceed with the answer: The central point of belief (aqida) with respect to Allah Most High – alongside affirmation of His Oneness (tawhid) – is His transcendence (tanzih), which has a clear Qur'anic basis and is unanimously agreed upon. Tanzih refers to affirming, in absolute and emphatic terms, that there is no similitude between Allah and His creation. Allah does not resemble His creation in any way, and there is no creation that is similar to Him in any way. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him, as He is different from all created beings.

{jb_bluebox}Allah Most High says about Himself, "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him." (Qur'an 42:11){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}And He Most High says in Surat al-Ikhlas, "And there is none like unto Him." (Qur'an 112: 4){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_brownbox}This central belief has been outlined in almost all of the classical manuals on Islamic Creed. For example, Imam al-Nasafi (Allah have mercy on him) states, "He [Allah] is not a body (jism), nor an atom (jawhar), nor is He something formed (musawwar), nor a thing limited (mahdud), nor a thing numbered (ma'dud), nor a thing portioned or divided, nor a thing compounded (mutarakkab), and nor does He come to end in Himself. He is not described by quiddity (al-mahiyya), or by quality (al-kayfiyya), nor is He placed in a space (al-makan); and time (al-zaman) does not affect Him. Nothing resembles Him; that is to say, nothing is like unto Him." (See: Sa'd al-Din al-Taftazani & Najm al-Din al-Nasafi, Sharh al-Aqa'id al-Nasafiyya, P: 92-97){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}To believe that Allah Most High resembles His creation in any way, or attribute human forms and qualities to Him (anthropomorphism/tashbih) constitutes disbelief (kufr). Imam al-Tahawi (Allah have mercy in him) states in his famous reference work on Muslim beliefs, "Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings." (Al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya, article 34){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (Allah have mercy on him) states, "Whosoever thinks that Allah has a body made of organs is an idol-worshipper... Whosoever worships a body is considered a disbeliever by the consensus of all the scholars – both the early scholars (salaf) as well as the late ones (muta'akhirun)." (Iljam al-Anam an ilm al-Kalam, P: 6-8){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary of Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, "We are unable to comprehend Allah Most High. Whatever occurs in one's mind [regarding Allah's appearance], Allah is other than that, for Allah says: 'But they shall not encompass Him with their knowledge.'" (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 117){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Abu 'l-Fadl al-Tamimi al-Hanbali says, "Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) condemned those who said that Allah is a body (jism)... since the term jism/body linguistically is used to indicate things that have length, width, depth, and a compound nature. (See the footnotes to Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 118){/jb_brownbox}

As such, this basic and central aqida in Allah's transcendence is the only requirement from a believer (along with general affirmation of all of Allah's attributes), and would be sufficient for one's salvation. Thereafter, there is no need for a simple believer to scrutinize the technical details of Allah's attributes, and there is definitely no need for disputes and arguments. Most Muslims – if not all – deny that Allah resembles His creation, thus argumentation and haste in declaring others as disbelievers must be avoided. Yes, if one clearly believes that Allah is 'physically' in a location or that He has organs – such as hands, feet, face, etc – that are similar to His creation, or one gives Allah attributes of created things, then that would entail disbelief.

Beyond Time and Space

Part of this central point of aqida is recognizing that Allah Most High is not confined to time (zaman) and space (makan), since He is the creator of both and absolutely free from needing anything (ghaniyy) that He has created. "Surely Allah is independent of all the worlds." (Qur'an 29:6) He is not to be described with having a form, body, limits, directions and a material existence that occupies a particular space or location. Limiting Allah to time and space implies likening Him to His creation, because the one who exists in a physical place would, by nature, be a body; thus attributing a body to Allah.

{jb_bluebox}Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) says, "Allah existed when there was no place, and He is now where He has always been [i.e. without place]." (Al-Farq bayna al-Firaq, P: 333){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_brownbox}Imam al-Tahawi (Allah have mercy on him) states, "He (Allah) is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions like all the created things." (Al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya, Point: 38){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}It is stated in Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, attributed to Imam Abu Hanifa, "Allah is an entity unlike any other entity. The meaning of [Allah being a] entity [unlike any other] is that He is without body (jism), substance (jawhar), or accident (arad). He has no definition/limit, no opposite, no equal, and no peer..." (See: Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 117-120){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah be pleased with him) also states in his Al-Fiqh al-Absat, "If it is asked, 'Where is Allah?' It will be said to him that Allah Most High existed when there was no place, before creating the creation. And Allah Most High existed when there was no 'where', no creation, nothing; and He is the Creator of everything." (Al-Fiqh al-Absat, P: 21){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary of Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, "Allah Most High does not reside in a place from the places and neither in a time from the times, because place and time are from the created things whilst Allah Most High has existed eternally when nothing from the created things were in existence with Him." (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 117){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Qadi Abu Ya'la al-Hanbali says, "Indeed, Allah Most High is not to be described with [residing in a] place." (Daf' Shubah al-Tashbih, P: 43){/jb_brownbox}

Based on this, it is erroneous to say that Allah Most High is 'physically' in the sky or above the heavens on His Throne. Likewise, it is wrong to say that He Most High is 'physically' everywhere and in everything. The reason, as explained above, is that these things are created and limited. The Throne and heavens are restricted entities, and space is an area restricted within six dimensions. Allah Most High cannot be confined to things He has created, such as the heavens and the Throne. He is the creator of time and space, and thus is exalted beyond both.

{jb_brownbox}Furthermore; sitting, standing, rising over, ascending, descending, climbing, etc are all characteristics of created bodies, whilst Allah is pure from having any attributes of created things attributed to Him. Allah is not in need of a place in order to exist. Imam al-Tahawi sums this up by saying, "He [Allah] is independent of the Throne and that which is beneath it." (Al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya, Point: 50){/jb_brownbox}

Dealing with texts whose meanings are not decisively known (mutashabihat)

There are certain texts in the Qur'an and Sunna which indicate that Allah Most High is in the sky or above the heavens upon his Throne. For example:

 

{jb_bluedisc}a{/jb_bluedisc} "The All-Merciful istawa [literal meaning: positioned Himself] upon the Throne." (Qur'an 20:5)

 

{jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} "Have you become fearless of Him who is in the sky if He makes you sink into the earth, and it starts trembling at once?" (Qur'an 67:17)

 

{jb_bluedisc}c{/jb_bluedisc} Mu'awiya ibn al-Hakam relates, as part of a long hadith, that he came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and asked various questions about hispractices before Islam. From among the questions he said that he had slapped his slave girl, and whether he should free her. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked that she be brought before him, and then asked her, "Where is Allah?" She replied, "In the sky (fi 'l-sama)." The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked, "Who am I?" She replied, "You are the Messenger of Allah." The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, "Free her, for she is a believer." (Sahih Muslim 537 and others)

 

{jb_bluedisc}d{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, "Our Lord 'yanzilu [literal meaning: descends]' every night to the closest heavens..." (Sunan Tirmidhi 2414)

 

Conversely, there are other texts which indicate that Allah Most High is everywhere and All-Encompassing. For example:

 

{jb_bluedisc}e{/jb_bluedisc} "No secret consultation takes place between three, but He [Allah] is fourth of them; nor between five, but He is sixth of them; nor between fewer than that or more, but He is with them wherever they may be..." (Qur'an 58:7)

 

{jb_bluedisc}f{/jb_bluedisc} "Indeed, We have created man, and We know whatever thoughts his inner self develops, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein." (Qur'an 50:16)

 

{jb_bluedisc}g{/jb_bluedisc} "When My servants ask you about Me, then [inform them that] I am near. I respond to the call of one when he prays to Me..." (Qur'an 2:186)

 

{jb_bluedisc}h{/jb_bluedisc} "Allah encompasses everything." (Qur'an 4:126)

 

{jb_bluedisc}i{/jb_bluedisc} "He is with you wherever you are..." (Qur'an 57:4)

 

These types of texts are known as mutashabihat i.e. their meanings are not decisively known by us. Their outward apparent meanings indicate location for Allah Most High or a similitude between Allah and His creation, and thus they go against the fundamental 'agreed-upon' belief in Allah's transcendence (tanzih), mentioned in unequivocal verses such as "There is nothing like unto Him."

The question that arises, then, is how do you deal with such texts?

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} The most precautious and mainstream position in this regard is of the early Muslims (salaf), which includes the majority of the Companions, their followers (tabi'un), the majority of hadith scholars (muhaddithun), the four main Imams and the major scholars of their schools (Allah be pleased with them all). Their view is that the outward purport of such texts is not intended, and only Allah knows the real meanings of such texts; thus they consign their meanings completely to Allah Most High without attempting to interpret them – either literally or figuratively. This is known as the position of tafwid.

 

It means that we fully believe in the texts, but owing to the fact that their meanings have not been decisively established and that they apparently contradict the decisive texts, we consign the knowledge of their reality to Allah Most High, and avoid delving into them. We understand that they have meanings befitting Allah, but it is impossible that they would have physical meanings, since they do not befit Allah; such as places, shapes, limbs, movements, sitting, colors, directions, smiling, laughter, and other meanings which are not permissible to be attributed to Allah.

As such; we affirm the words indicating location and Throne for Allah, and also those which indicate Him being everywhere. However, we cannot comprehend the reality of Allah being on his Throne and neither can we comprehend the reality of Him being everywhere – although we fully negate that Allah is 'physically' in the heavens/on his Throne (tashbih), and also negate that He is 'physically' everywhere in everything (hulul). This is what the early scholars meant when they said regarding such texts, "Pass them by as they are, without asking how" (amirruha bi la kayf). (Some of the scholars from this group, however, interpret the second type of texts which indicate that Allah Most High is everywhere by saying, He is everywhere by His Knowledge, His Seeing, His Hearing and His Power).

This position of tafwid is based on the following verse of the Qur'an:

{jb_bluebox}"He [Allah] is the One who has revealed to you the Book [the Qur'an]. Out of it there are verses that are muhkamat [of established meaning], which are the principal verses of the Book, and some others are mutashabihat [whose definite meanings are unknown]. Now those who have perversity in their hearts go after the mutashabih of it, seeking [to create] discord, and searching for its interpretation [that meets their desires], while no one knows its interpretation except Allah; and those well-grounded in knowledge say: We believe therein; all is from our Lord. Only the men of understanding observe the advice." (Qur'an 3:7){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_brownbox}Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary of Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, "Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) said in his Kitab al-Wasiyya, 'We agree that Allah performed istiwa [literal meaning: positioned Himself] upon the Throne without Him having any need for it or resting on it. He is the Guardian of the Throne and all besides the Throne. If He were in need [of the Throne], He would not have been capable of bringing the universe into existence and administrating over its affairs, like the created beings [for created things are in need, and the one in need of others cannot create the universe]. If He [Allah Most High] was in need of sitting or settling [on the Throne], then before the creation of the Throne, where was He Most High? In effect, He is transcendent of all of this.' (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar P: 126-127){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Mulla Ali al-Qari further states, "How fitting is the response of Imam Malik (Allah have mercy on him) when he was asked about istiwa. He said, 'istiwa is known [i.e. we know and accept that it has been mentioned in the Qur'an, because in another narration Imam Malik said, 'istiwa is not unknown'], the 'how' (kayf) is unknown [this has also been transmitted as 'the how is not comprehensible'], asking about it is an innovation, and belief in it [i.e. accepting it to be part of revelation] is obligatory.' This is the way of the early scholars (salaf) and the safest path, and Allah knows best." (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar P: 127){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) said, when asked about Allah's istiwa on the Throne, "He performs istiwa upon the Throne, however He wills and as He wills, without any limit or any description that can be made by any describer." (Daf' Shubah al-Tashbih, P: 28){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Imam Shafi'i (Allah have mercy on him) would simply say regarding the mutashabihat texts, "I believe in what has come from Allah as it was intended by Allah, and I believe in what has come from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) as it was intended by the Messenger of Allah." (Ibn Qudama, Dhamm al-Ta'wil){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Imam Sufyan ibn Uyayna (Allah have mercy on him) says, "All that Allah has described Himself with in His Book; its explanation is its reciting and keeping silent about it." (Bayhaqi, Al-Asma' wa 'l-sifat 2/158){/jb_brownbox}

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} The second position concerning such texts is of some later scholars; such as Imam Ibn Taymiya, Imam Ibn al-Qayyim and others (Allah have mercy on them). They also consign the knowledge of what is meant to Allah, but in a slightly different manner. They are of the opinion that we must affirm the apparent literal meaning that has been expressed in the text (tathbit), but then consign its details to Allah Most High. So for example, in relation to the verse of 'istiwa', we must believe in and affirm the apparent meaning which is 'elevation' and 'rising over the Throne'. However, the modality (kayfiyya) of this 'elevation' or 'rising' is unknown, but it is certainly not like the rising of created things. (As for the second type of texts, they clearly interpret them by saying that Allah is everywhere by His Knowledge, His Seeing, His Hearing and His Power).

 

The key difference between this position and the previous one is that in the case of the former, one recites the mutashabih text, accepts it to have been revealed by Allah, believes in it and affirms 'whatever' is intended by Allah through it, and then remains silent about it without saying whether the literal or figurative meaning is meant (pass them by as they are without asking how). In the latter position, however, after recital and acknowledgement of the text, one affirms that the apparent literal meaning is what is meant, but the details of this apparent meaning is only known by Allah. There is a very subtle difference between the two viewpoints!

Even though this (latter) view – in of itself – can be considered acceptable, it can also potentially be highly dangerous, especially in our times. This is due to two reasons:

Firstly; the human intellect is very limited, and thus it is very difficult for it to comprehend Allah being above the heavens upon His Throne without some sort of bodily figure coming to mind. The early Muslims had strong faiths, and may have been equipped to negate any thought of a bodily figure occupying a throne. This cannot be said for every simple believer today. In life, we are accustomed to only experiencing created things; and thus it may be difficult to fully realize the transcendent nature and majesty of Allah Most High – if we were to say that He is upon His Throne.

{jb_brownbox}Imam Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani expresses this point in a very beautiful manner. He states that Allah's attributes of 'istiwa', 'elevation' and 'nuzul [descending] to the heavens' are all eternal (qadim), for He is eternal with all His attributes; whereas there is a consensus that the Throne and everything surrounding it is created. As such, Allah Most High had the attribute of 'istiwa' and 'nuzul' even before He created the Throne and the heavens. So where was His 'istiwa' before creating the Throne, and upon what did He do 'nuzul' before creating the heavens and the sky? Therefore, the way you envisage Allah's 'istiwa' upon the Throne and His 'nuzul' to the heavens before the creation of the Throne and the heavens, envisage it in the same manner after their creation. (Al-Yawaqit wa 'l-Jawahir){/jb_brownbox}

Secondly, the discourse of the early Muslims was mainly in the Arabic language. As such, both approaches in consigning the mutashabihat texts to the knowledge of Allah seemed similar. The advocates of the first approach would, for example, merely recite the word 'istawa' and say "I affirm this istiwa as intended by Allah" and leave it to that, whilst those who took the second approach would also recite 'istawa' and then say that the meaning of this is literal 'istiwa' but in a manner befitting Allah. The difficulty arises when the word 'istawa' is translated into another language. If the second approach is taken, then one would translate it in English by saying "the meaning of this is that Allah rose over the Throne" and the like. This is when the thought of a bodily figure and human-like attributes come to mind.

This also explains why the advocates of both approaches use the same evidences and statements of early Muslim scholars, such as the four Imams, in justifying their view. Using only the Arabic medium, it can be difficult to distinguish the clear difference between the two approaches.

{jb_brownbox}For example, Imam Abu Hanifa states in his Al-Fiqh al-Absat, "He who says that I do not know if my Lord is in the sky or the earth has indeed committed disbelief... Similarly, he who says that He is on His Throne, but I do not know whether the Throne is in the sky or the earth [has also committed disbelief]." (Al-Fiqh al-Absat, p: 14){/jb_brownbox}

This quote of Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) is misunderstood by some, and incorrectly used to prove that the Imam believed in affirming a direction and location for Allah! The reality is that Imam Abu Hanifa was amongst the very early Muslims (salaf), and his position was in harmony with the mainstream popular opinion of that time – which is ultimate tafwid, as it is clear from his statements quoted earlier; such as, "If He [Allah Most High] was in need of sitting or settling [on the Throne], then before the creation of the Throne, where was He Most High?" However, the Imam was also against figurative interpretation of the mutashabihat texts, and firm on the position of consigning the meaning to the knowledge of Allah.

As such, followers of Imam Abu Hanifa and commentators of his works have explained what he meant by the above text. They state that the reason why Imam Abu Hanifa declared a person who says these two phrases a disbeliever is because they contain attributing a direction and location for Allah. (See: Isharat al-Maram min Ibarat al-Imam, p: 168) Imam Izz al-Din ibn al-Salam says that the reason why Imam Abu Hanifa declared such a person a disbeliever is that by using such words, one suggests a place for Allah; and whosoever believes that Allah has a place is an anthropomorphist. (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar P: 115)

{jb_brownbox}Thus, Imam Abu Hanifa's intention is not to prove that the heavens and the Throne are places for Allah, and the clearest evidence for this is the aforementioned saying of the Imam himself, "If He [Allah Most High] was in need of sitting or settling [on the Throne], then before the creation of the Throne, where was He Most High? In effect, He is transcendent of all of this." And Allah knows best.{/jb_brownbox}

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} The third position in regards to these mutashabihat texts is that their apparent literal meaning is impossible for Allah; thus the texts will be interpreted figuratively/metaphorically in a manner befitting Allah, yet without affirming it with certainty since other meanings could also be correct. This position was held mainly by scholars of later generations (khalaf), who were forced to take this stance in order to safeguard the iman of the masses, since people were not satisfied with merely consigning the knowledge of mutashabihat texts to Allah, and thus began to understand them literally and read into meanings that do not befit Allah Most High.

 

This position is known as the position of ta'wil. Ta'wil means to interpret, make sense of, assign a meaning to, and give an interpretation or explanation to a particular text or phrase. For example, interpreting the saying "the King defeated the enemy" that the defeat occurred at the hands of the King's army and not the King himself.

This is also a valid and acceptable view according to the vast majority of scholars as long as it remains within the boundaries of the Arabic language and spirit of Shari'ah. Even some early Muslims (salaf), including some of the Sahaba such as Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him), made ta'wil in some of the Qur'anic verses and hadiths, and the reality is that at times we have no choice but to assign figurative meanings, otherwise they will contradict the decisive and emphatically established texts (muhkamat), leading to many contradictions in the Qur'an and Sunna.

{jb_brownbox}For example, Imam al-Bukhari (Allah have mercy on him) interprets the verse "There is no god but He. Everything is going to perish except His wajh [literal meaning: face]" (Qur'an 28:88) by saying that the word 'wajh' means 'mulk' or 'dominion.' He also quotes another interpretation, "that which was done solely for the sake of Allah [i.e. righteous actions]." Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in his Fath al-Bari, quotes Abu Ubayda as saying that the word 'wajh' in the verse means the 'majesty (jalal)' of Allah. (See: Fath al-Bari with Sahih al-Bukhari 8/641-642){/jb_brownbox}

{jb_brownbox}Similarly, in regards to the hadith of Bukhari and Muslim wherein the attribute of Allah 'dhik (literal meaning: laughing)' has been mentioned, Imam Bukhari is quoted as saying that it means, "Allah's mercy." (Bayhaqi, Kitab al-Asma' wa 'l-Sifat, p: 433){/jb_brownbox}

In Surat al-Qalam, Allah Most High says, "On the Day when the saq [literal meaning: shin] will be exposed..." (Qur'an 68:42) Likewise, in the hadith of Bukhari, it is stated, "Our Lord will expose his saq [literal meaning: shin]." Many scholars from the salaf and khalaf; such as Abdullah ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Qatada interpret the term 'saq' with various different explanations. (See: Imam al-Bayhaqi's Al-Asma' wa 'l-Sifat, p: 323)

{jb_brownbox}Imam Ibn Kathir (Allah have mercy on him) relates in his masterpiece Al-Bidaya wa 'l-Nihaya quoting Imam al-Bayhaqi from his Manaqib through a sound chain that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the verse, "And your Lord shall come" (Qur'an 89:22) to mean, "His recompense (thawab) shall come.' (Al-Bidaya wa 'l-Nihaya, 10/327){/jb_brownbox}

There are countless other examples of this, but the above should suffice, insha'Allah.

Accordingly, scholars of later generations interpreted the mutashabihat texts which indicate Allah's physical elevation above the heavens, and Allah being positioned in the sky or upon His Throne with various explanations. For example:

 

{jb_bluedisc}a{/jb_bluedisc} Imam Ibn Jarir al-Tabari states in his well-known exegesis (tafsir) of the Qur'an, "Allah made himself exalted over the heavens with the exaltation of sovereignty and power, not that of dislodgment and movement." (Tasir al-Tabari 1/430)

Others who interpret the verses of 'istiwa' figuratively include: Imam al-Bayhaqi, Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, Imam Raghib al-Isfahani, Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Imam Abu 'l-Faraj ibn al-Jazi al-Hanbali, Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Imam al-Baydawi, Imam al-Nasafi, Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki, Imam Ibn al-Humam al-Hanafi, Imam al-Suyuti and others (Allah have mercy on them all). They state that 'istiwa' does not mean Allah's physical elevation over the Throne; rather, it refers to elevation of rank, status and dominion, and Allah's subjugation of the Throne that is without a beginning like all of the attributes of Allah.

 

{jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} In regards to the verse of Surat al-Mulk ["Have you become fearless of Him who is in the sky..."], the great Maliki exegete (mufassir) Imam al-Qurtubi (Allah have mercy on him) says in his twenty-volume commentary of the Qur'an, Al-Jami' li ahkam al-Qur'an, "It is said that the meaning of the verse is, have you become fearless of Him whose power, authority, Throne and dominion is in the sky. The reason for specifying the sky – despite His authority being universal – is to assert that a God is One whose power is [also] manifest in the heavens, and not [only] one whom people venerate on the earth. Some others said that it refers to the angels, and some said that it refers to angel Jibra'il who is entrusted with punishing people. I [Qurtubi] say that the verse could mean, "Have you become fearless of the Creator of those in the sky..." (Al-Jami' li Ahkam al-Qur'an, tafsir of 67/17, 18/141)

 

{jb_brownbox}Imam al-Qurtubi further states in the commentary of the same verse, "The more exacting scholars hold that "in the heavens" is similar to Allah's statement "Journey in the earth", meaning over the heavens; but [not over it] by way of physical contact or spatialization, but by way of power (qahr) and control (tadbir). Another position is that it means, "Have you become fearless of Him who holds sway over (ala) the heavens" just as it is said, "So-and-so is over Iraq and the Hijaz", meaning that he is the governor and commander of them. The hadiths on this subject are numerous, rigorously authenticated (sahih), and widely known, and indicate the exaltedness of Allah; only an atheist or a stubborn ignoramus would deny them. Their meaning is to dignify Allah and exalt Him above what is base and low, and to characterize Him by highness and grandeur, not by being in places, particular directions, or within limits, for these are the qualities of physical bodies. The hands are only raised towards the heavens when one supplicates because the sky is from where divine revelation descends and rain falls, the place of purity and the wellspring of the purified ones from the angels, and that the deeds of servants are raised to it; and over it is His Throne and His Paradise; just as Allah has made the Ka'ba the direction (qibla) of supplication and prayer. And also because He has created all places and has no need of them. He was in His beginning-less eternality before creating space and time, when there was no place or time, and is now as He was." (Al-Jami' li Ahkam al-Qur'an, tafsir of 67/17, 18/141){/jb_brownbox}

 

{jb_brownbox}Similarly, Imam Nawawi (Allah have mercy on him) states in his commentary on Sahih Muslim, "Al-Qadi Iyad said, 'There is no disagreement among any of the Muslims – their jurists (fuqaha), their hadith scholars (muhaddithun), their theologians (mutakallimun), their polemicists (nuddhar) and their ordinary followers (muqallidun) – that the texts which outwardly indicate that Allah is in the sky – for example, the statement of Allah Most High, "Have you become fearless of Him who is in the sky if He makes you sink into the earth?" (Qur'an 67:17) – are not to be taken literally; rather, according to them all [that is, all the Muslims and experts of every field of Shari'ah as mentioned above], they are to be interpreted figuratively.'" (Al-Minhaj sharh Sahih Muslim){/jb_brownbox}

 

{jb_bluedisc}c{/jb_bluedisc} In regards to the hadith of the slave-girl whom the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked, "Where is Allah?", and she responded by saying, "In the sky", Imam Nawawi states, "This is one of the hadiths which deal with the attributes [of Allah]. There are two positions with regards to them, both of which have been discussed repeatedly in the chapter of faith (iman). The first position is to believe in them without delving into its meaning (tafwid); while maintaining categorically that there is nothing like unto Allah Most High, and that He transcends the attributes of created things. The second position is to interpret them figuratively (ta'wil) in a manner that befits Him. Those who hold this [latter] position [of figurative interpretation] say that [in the present hadith] the Messenger of Allah's (Allah bless him & give him peace) intention was to examine her to see whether or not she was one of those who worshiped idols that are before them, or one of those who believed in the Oneness of Allah and maintained that Allah alone is the creator, disposer, and one who effects [all things] – for He is the One that when a person supplicates to Him, he turns [his attention, or hands] towards the sky; just as when a person performs Salat, he faces the Ka'ba. [What is mentioned in the hadith] is not because Allah is restricted in the sky, just as He is not restricted in the direction of the Ka'ba. Rather, it is because the sky is the direction (qibla) for supplication (dua'), just as the Ka'ba is the direction (qibla) for the ritual prayer. So when she said that "He is in the sky", it became known that she was one of those who believed in the Oneness of Allah, and not a worshipper of idols." (Al-Minhaj sharh Sahih Muslim)

 

{jb_brownbox}Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary on Mishkat al-Masabih in relation to this hadith, "Al-Qadi Iyad al-Maliki said, 'By asking this question, the Messenger of Allah's (Allah bless him & give him peace) objective was not to ask about Allah's location (makan), for verily He is above and beyond space, as He is above and beyond time. Rather the intent of his question to her was to find out whether she was a believer in His oneness (muwahhida) or someone who associated partners with Allah (mushrika), because the unbelievers of the Arabs used to worship idols, and each tribe used to have a specific idol in its midst which it worshipped and aggrandized; and it may be that the simple-minded and ignorant ones among them did not know any other object of worship than that idol. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) meant to determine what she worshipped. When she said, 'In the heavens' – and another narration says that she made a sign towards the heavens – it was understood that she was a believer in tawhid. His objective by this line of questioning was the disowning of the gods of the earth, which are the idols; not the establishment of the heaven as a location for Allah. Allah is greatly exalted from the sayings of the wrong-doers.'" (Mirqat al-Mafatih){/jb_brownbox}

 

Furthermore; Imam al-Ubbiy in his commentary of Sahih Muslim, Shaykh Muhammad al-Shanqiti, Imam Abu Bakr ibn al-Furak in his Mushkil al-Hadith, Qadi Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi in his commentary of Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Imam Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanbali in his Daf' Shubah al-Tashbih, Imam Abu 'l-Walid al-Baji, Imam al-Baydawi, Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki and countless other classical scholars also state that the Messenger of Allah's (Allah bless him & give him peace) objective by the question was not to ask regarding the physical location of Allah (makan), but about His rank and status (makana); and the slave-girl's response was not intended to describe Allah physically being in the sky, rather to express His tremendousness (adhama), superiority, nobility and elevation of status and rank. There are so many quotes of the Imams in this regard such that it is difficult to reproduce them here.

As such, this group of scholars interpreted all such texts which indicate Allah's physical elevation over the heavens and Throne by giving figurative meanings. Similarly, many of them interpreted the second type of texts which indicate that Allah Most High is everywhere by saying, He is everywhere with His knowledge, assistance and the like. Interpreting both types of texts is acceptable and valid as long as it remains within the known parameters of language and Shari'ah. Just as it is valid to interpret texts indicating Allah being everywhere or with His creation, it is likewise permitted to interpret the texts indicating Allah being above the heavens on His Throne. Sadly, some people consider the interpretation of 'Allah above the heavens/upon His Throne' texts to be deviation, yet they see no problem in interpreting the 'Allah with His creation' texts! This is an unjust approach. If interpreting the second type of texts is not deviation, then interpreting the first type of texts is also not deviation. Consistency demands that we hold the same stance with both types of texts.

 

Conclusion and final thoughts

In conclusion, the central point of aqida which every Muslim must firmly believe is of Allah's transcendence (tanzih) – that is to say, Allah Most High is above and beyond having any resemblance with His creation. He Most High is not to be described with limits, organs and other such characteristics belonging to created things; and is not confined to time and space. "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him." (Qur'an 42:11) This much belief is sufficient for an average Muslim to attain salvation, insha Allah.

Thereafter; with regard to the texts describing Allah to be everywhere or with His creation, most classical and later scholars interpret them to mean that Allah is everywhere with His knowledge, seeing and hearing; and this is not the real point of contention. Accordingly, one may interpret these texts, or consign their meaning to the knowledge of Allah. However, one must not believe that Allah Most High is 'physically' everywhere, since space is created whereas Allah is pre-existent and eternal.

As for the texts describing Allah to be in the heavens/sky and above His Throne – which are the real point of contention, and apparently go against the above core belief in Allah's transcendence – one may adopt any of the following positions; and all of them are valid positions and none of them can be considered outright deviation:

 

{jb_bluedisc}a{/jb_bluedisc} Consigning their meanings and details completely to the knowledge of Allah. This position, known as tafwid, was chosen by the majority of early scholars (salaf), and by far the best and safest approach.

 

{jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} Affirming their literal meanings (tathbit) – with emphatic rejection of a similitude between Allah and His creation – and then consigning the modality (kayfiyya) of such texts to the knowledge of Allah. This position, chosen by scholars such as Imam Ibn Taymiya, can be risky for an average believer.

 

{jb_bluedisc}C{/jb_bluedisc} Interpreting such texts figuratively in a manner that befits Allah. This is known as ta'wil, and was chosen by some later scholars.

 

{jb_brownbox}None of the above three standpoints can be considered deviation or departure from the Ahl al-Sunna wa 'l-Jama'ah. One of my respected Shaykhs, Mufti Taqi Usmani (may Allah preserve him) states in his monumental commentary of Sahih Muslim, "All four positions [he mentioned one other position which can be incorporated in the three I have mentioned) are feasible. Large numbers of verifying scholars have taken every one of these positions, since the important thing in creed (aqida) is declaring Allah to be beyond having a similitude [with His creation], and not negating His attributes (ta'til); and every one of these four paths is firmly convinced of this. The difference between them is not a difference in creed, for indeed the creed is declaring Allah beyond tashbih and ta'til; it is only a difference of opinion in expressing that creed and basing them on the texts. So not one of these paths is entirely baseless or absolutely misguided, even if theoretical debates and arguments have not ceased to run between them for many centuries. Occasionally, exaggeration and excess occurred in them from the various sides, and occasionally one of them steered in the direction of trespassing the limits of moderation, but the truth is that the basis of the dispute is nothing but a judgmental (ijtihadi) dispute, akin to the differences of the jurists in juristic matters which are open to interpretation. For this reason, outstanding scholars of the Umma, adherent devotees to the Book and the Sunna, of whose being from the people of truth and from the Ahl al-Sunnah wa l-Jama'ah is not in doubt, took every opinion from these four opinions.{/jb_brownbox}

It is apparent that the path of the majority from the predecessors (salaf) was tafwid, and this is the safest, most prudent and most in accordance with His statement (Most High), "No one knows its interpretation except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: we believe therein'" (3:7) (Takmila Fath al-Mulhim 5/379-80)

{jb_brownbox}The famous late Jordanian scholar of immense knowledge and wisdom, Shaykh Nuh Ali Salman al-Qudat (Allah have mercy on him) expresses the same stance in his commentary of Jawharat al-Tawhid. He states that all the various positions of the scholars are close to one-another, since they all agree that Allah Most High does not possess human-like attributes. Thereafter, whether one consigns the meaning completely to the knowledge of Allah, or interprets the texts figuratively, or affirms the literal meaning but negates anthropomorphism (tashbih), it is all part of affirming Allah's transcendence. As such, there is no need to fuel hostility and enmity between Muslims – especially at a time when Muslims have to combat the enemies of Islam. (See: Al-Mukhtasar al-Mufid fi sharh Jawharat al-Tawhid, p: 91){/jb_brownbox}

As such, all classical scholars agree on ensuring that the basic doctrine of Allah's transcendence is preserved; they merely differ in the manner in which this is realized. Some perceive Allah's transcendence in absolute tafwid, whilst others see it in interpreting the texts figuratively, and some others see it in affirming the literal meaning but with 'emphatic rejection' of Allah being similar to His creation.

For example, Allah's attribute of 'yad' has been mentioned in various texts of the Qur'an and Sunna. 'Yad' linguistically, as we understand it, refers to the hand of a created being. However, all the groups agree and emphatically deny that Allah has a hand like that of a human, thus they all preserve the central belief in Allah's transcendence. Thereafter, whether we say "Allah knows best what 'yad' means" or "it refers to Allah's assistance, etc" or "it means a hand but certainly unlike the human hand", it does not undo the central aqida outlined in the verse, "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him." (Qur'an 42:11)

Therefore, debates and heated arguments about this issue must be avoided, and we should learn to 'agree to disagree'. No group should enforce their viewpoint on the other group, and no group has the right of claiming to be on the ultimate truth. Sadly, we live in a time of religious extremism and fanaticism. Some of us very easily term others as anthropomorphist (mushabbiha), whilst others consider tafwid, ta'wil and everything else besides affirming the literal meaning (tathbit) to be outright deviation and even disbelief! This implies declaring countless Imams and giants of this Umma as deviated, since most of them either chose the path of tafwid or ta'wil. May Allah protect us, Ameen.

Indeed, the following positions are absolute deviation and may well even take one out of the fold of Islam:

 

{jb_bluedisc}a{/jb_bluedisc} Believing (may Allah protect us) that Allah is 'physically' in the heavens or 'physically sitting' on His Throne like created beings, known as anthropomorphism (tashbih). Sitting, standing, coming into contact, separation, moving from one place to another, etc, are all characteristics of created bodies from which Allah is pure.

 

{jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} Believing that Allah Most High is 'physically' everywhere and 'physically' with His creation and in every space. This is known as hulul.

 

{jb_bluedisc}c{/jb_bluedisc} Rejecting and denying the non-decisive (mutashabihat) texts concerning the attributes of Allah altogether. This is known as ta'til.

 

The above is what I have learnt from my teachers, especially Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (may Allah preserve him). It is what I consider and accept as the truth in the matter, and feel is the most balanced observation, Insha Allah. May Allah protect us all and bring about harmony and love between us, Ameen Ya Rabb.

 

And Allah knows best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Darul Iftaa
Leicester , UK

 


 

Where is Allah (SWT)?

Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)  

 

Assalam u Alaikum warahmatullahi wabaraka thu.....Mufti Ibraheem Desahi..

Question: My question to you is.... Where is Allah swa? If you say everywhere then why did Allah say in the Quran that I am on the Arsh e Muallah.?

Mufti Ebrahim Desai says in his Istiftaa # 14455 on Askimam:

{jb_dropcap}I{/jb_dropcap}n the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Allah Ta’ala is pure and free from all similarities to human beings. By confining Allah to a specific place, like the Arsh, a form is automatically being attributed to Allah. Once a form/shape is attributed to Allah, a deficiency is being attributed to Allah Ta’ala. Since, time and place are both created things.

Allah was how He was and still is the same. He is not affected by the passing of time. It is, therefore, improper to say Allah is on the Arsh. Similarly, it is improper to say Allah is everywhere. The best and safest option is the stance adopted by our Salaf (pious predecessors), i.e. to believe in Allah as He is without delving into the details on these issues. (Al-Iemaanu billaah).

It is further mentioned in Istiftaa # 8290,

{jb_bluebox}Saadu-deen Taftazani rehma tAllah alayh has explained the aspect of 'Where is Allah' in the following words, 'And He is not at any place'. (Sharh Aqaaid){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}Imaam Maalik rehmat Allah alayh was asked about the Aayat in Surah Taaha, 'Allah is above His Ársh', he answered 'Being above (Istawaa) is known but the reality is unknown and - questioning that - is innovation.'{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}Jaaluddin Suyyuti rehmatallah alayh also comments on the Aayat saying, 'Istawaa (being above) according to whatever is appropriate for Allah. (Jalaalayn vol. 2 p. 260).{/jb_bluebox}

However, the verse does not speak about the Zaat of Allah Taãla being on the Ársh but it is to indicate the establishment and control of the Kingdom of Allah by Himself.

With regards to the view of Mufti Mahmood Hasan Saheb rehmatallah alayh, it is imperative to read the whole fatwa and understand it completely. For this reason we have reproduced the Fatwa below.

{jb_bluebox}"It is the Aqeeda of Ahl Sunnah Wal Jama'a that Allah is everywhere, knower of every aspect (big or small), and nothing is hidden from Him. It is established from the Explicit Sources and Fortified Proofs. Allah says,{/jb_bluebox}

"لا يعزب عنه مثقال ذرة فى السماوات و لا فى الارض ولا اصغر ولا اكبر الا فى كتاب مبين"

But unlike other things, Allah is not restricted to one specific place, because He is not voluminous entity. He is eternal and time and space are His creation. The how can He be restricted within the place?

ولا محدود ولا معدود ولا متبعض ولا متجز ولا شريك منها ولا يجرى عليه الزمان ( شرح عقائد نسفى صـ 32)

And in some texts where a specific place is mentioned, then there the intended meaning is not that place is restricted for Allah rather what is intended is that Allah’s attribute of knowledge or some other attribute empowers upon that place.” (Fatawa Mahmoodiya Vol.6 Pg.67)

From this text we understand that the statement “Allah is everywhere” has two aspects.

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} That its explanation according to Mufti Mahmood Saheb rehmatullah alayh is given as “knower of every aspect (big or small), and nothing is hidden from Him”.

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} And also that the above is substantiated by the last part of his fatwa where the attribute of Allah’s Knowledge empowers every bit of this universe and more.

 

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Wassalamu Alaykum

Darul Iftaa

 

 

]]>
globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Thu, 29 Aug 2013 17:19:43 +0000
Passing reward to others , living or deceased (Isaal-e-Thawab) https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/passing-reward-to-others-living-or-deceased-isaal-e-thawab.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/passing-reward-to-others-living-or-deceased-isaal-e-thawab.html pay it forward

{jb_quote} There is nothing wrong with passing the reward of good deeds to family, friends and other Muslims whether they are dead or alive and it is hoped in the Mercy of Allah (SWT) that they will Insha'Allah be benefitted.{/jb_quote}


 

Three specific scenarios which benefit:

Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) has specifically spoken about three specific scenarios by which the dead can benefit after their death.

حدثنا يحيى بن أيوب وقتيبة يعني ابن سعيد وابن حجر قالوا حدثنا إسمعيل هو ابن جعفر عن العلاء عن أبيه عن أبي هريرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إذا مات الإنسان انقطع عنه عمله إلا من ثلاثة إلا من صدقة جارية أو علم ينتفع به أو ولد صالح يدعو له

{jb_purplebox}Sayyidina Abu Huraira (RA) reported Allah's Messenger (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) as saying: When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but three, recurring charity, or knowledge (by which people) benefit, or a pious son, who prays for him (for the deceased). [Muslim]{/jb_purplebox}

Donating a garden in charity to the mother:

حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى أَخْبَرَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ أَنَّ ابْنَ جُرَيْجٍ أَخْبَرَهُمْ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي يَعْلَى أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عِكْرِمَةَ مَوْلَى ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ يَقُولُ أَنْبَأَنَا ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَخَا بَنِي سَاعِدَةَ تُوُفِّيَتْ أُمُّهُ وَهُوَ غَائِبٌ عَنْهَا فَأَتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمِّي تُوُفِّيَتْ وَأَنَا غَائِبٌ عَنْهَا فَهَلْ يَنْفَعُهَا شَيْءٌ إِنْ تَصَدَّقْتُ بِهِ عَنْهَا قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَإِنِّي أُشْهِدُكَ أَنَّ حَائِطِيَ الْمِخْرَافَ صَدَقَةٌ عَلَيْهَا

{jb_purplebox}Sayyidina Ibn 'Abbas (RA) narrated that mother of Sad bin 'Ubada (RA) died in his absence. He (RA) said, "O Allah's Apostle (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)! My mother died in my absence; will it be of any benefit for her if I give Sadaqa on her behalf?" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "Yes," Sad said, "I make you a witness that I gave my garden called Al Makhraf in charity on her behalf." [Bukhari]{/jb_purplebox}

Charity by children relieves the burden of sin of parents:

The earth is forbidden from decomposing the bodies of the prophets of Allah (AS).

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَعِيلُ وَهُوَ ابْنُ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ الْعَلَاءِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَجُلًا قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ أَبِي مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ مَالًا وَلَمْ يُوصِ فَهَلْ يُكَفِّرُ عَنْهُ أَنْ أَتَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ

{jb_purplebox}Sayyidina Abu Huraira (RA) reported that a person said to Allah's Apostle (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam): My father died and left behind property without making any will regarding it. Would he be relieved of the burden of his sin if I give sadaqa on his behalf? He Allah's Apostle (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: Yes.[Muslim]{jb_purplebox}

Performing Hajj on behalf of old Father :

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى قَالَ قَرَأْتُ عَلَى مَالِكٍ عَنْ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ كَانَ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَدِيفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَجَاءَتْهُ امْرَأَةٌ مِنْ خَثْعَمَ تَسْتَفْتِيهِ فَجَعَلَ الْفَضْلُ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهَا وَتَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ فَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَصْرِفُ وَجْهَ الْفَضْلِ إِلَى الشِّقِّ الْآخَرِ قَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ فَرِيضَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ فِي الْحَجِّ أَدْرَكَتْ أَبِي شَيْخًا كَبِيرًا لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ يَثْبُتَ عَلَى الرَّاحِلَةِ أَفَأَحُجُّ عَنْهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَذَلِكَ فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ

{jb_purplebox}Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) narrated that Al-Fadl (his brother) was riding behind Allah's Apostle (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and a woman from the tribe of Khath'am came and Al-Fadl started looking at her and she started looking at him. The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) turned Al-Fadl's face to the other side. The woman said, "O Allah's Apostle (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)! The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allah on His devotees has become due on my father and he is old and weak, and he cannot sit firm on the Mount; may I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) replied, "Yes, you may." That happened during the Hajj-al-Wida (of the Prophet ). [Muslim]{/jb_purplebox}

Reward of all beneficial and good deeds:

From the cross-section of Ahadeeth of Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) Scholars have concluded that there is no restriction on the nature, type and number of optional good deeds which can be performed with the intention of passing the reward to other Muslims and the reward of the doer is not diminished in the least. There is no restriction because no specific restriction has been placed by Allah (SWT) or by Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam).

 


 

Passing reward to others (Isaal-e-Thawab)

Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

 

Q) I am urgently in need of any articles regarding Esaalu Thwaab and the Virtues of Quran Recitation at graves. I was directed to your website and was informed i will find all the necessay information however to no avail. Therefore would be extremely grateful if i can be forwarded the articles or sent the links as a matter of urgency.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

Attached is a response to a similar query.

And Allah knows best
Wassalam
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

Q: Is there a narration, which documents that Rasulullah Sallallaahu Alayhi wasallam ever performed an Ibadat like reciting Qur'an, and asking Allah to forward the reward to any of his deceased relatives?

A: Isaal-e-Sawaab (to perform a virtuous act and grant the reward to any person, alive or deceased) is permissible and in fact (Mustahabb) meritorious.

There are basically 2 forms of Isaal-e-Sawaab:


{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} The conveying of the reward of charitable deeds.

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} The conveying of the reward of physical deeds that do not entail wealth, e.g. Salaat, fasting, Dhikr, recitation of the holy Qur'an, Tawaaf of the Ka'abah, etc.

 

The first form is unanimously acceptable by the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama'ah. The second form is correct according to the Hanafi and Hanbali Madhab and several Shaafi'ee and Maaliki scholars as well.

As for the reward of Du'aa (which is separate from the above), there is also unanimity of the scholars in its reward reaching and benefiting the deceased. (refer al-Azkaar of Imaam Nawawi)

{jb_bluebox}Hafiz ibnul Qayyim (RA) states that if one accepts the charitable form of Isaal-e-Sawaab and refutes the physical form, it would be said to him: 'What is the proof to show that the recitation of the holy Qur'aan does not reach the deceased?'{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}And Allamah Qurtubi states, 'Just as the reward of charitable deeds benefit the deceased, similarly, the recitation of the holy Qur'aan, Du'aa and Isghtifaar also do the same, because all of these are regarded as Sadaqah (charity) in Shari'ah.' (al-Tazkirah pg.71) {/jb_bluebox}

He, thereafter, mentioned 2 narrations recorded in Sahih Muslim which prove that even Salaat and Dhikr of Allah (Tasbeeh, Takbeer and Tahleel) were all classified as Sadaqah by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). Hence, there remains no dispute in whether the reward of Qur'aanic recital benefits and deceased or not.

Besides the above, we will now for academic reasons, mention some proofs that substantiate both forms of Isaal-e-Sawaab.

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) slaughtered sheep during his farewell Hajj and made intention for himself and all those (alive, deceased and to come) who bring faith on his prophethood. (SahihBukhari)

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Imaam Bukhari has reported on the authority of Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Anhu) that Sayyiduna Sa'ad ibn Ubaadah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) was away when his mother passed away. When he returned, he asked Rasulullah, 'Will it be of any benefit if I give charity on her behalf?' Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied in the affirmative. (Sahih Bukhari Hadith2762). Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (RA) states in his monumental commentary of Sahih Bukhari entitled, 'Fath al-Bari', 'This Hadith proves the permissibility of charity on behalf of the deceased and that the reward will reach him.' (Fath al-Baari vol.5 pg.477 Hadith2761)

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Anhu) reports a man once asked Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), 'O Prophet of Allah! My father has passed away and he did not perform Hajj, can I perform Hajj on his behalf?' Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) enquired of him, 'If your father had any debt, would you have paid it.?' The man replied, 'Yes.' Upon this, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'In that case, the Deen of Allah has more right.' (Sunan Nasaaie Hadith26331)

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} A separate incident of a similar nature has been recorded by Imaam Bukhari in his Sahih (Hadith6698). Hafiz ibn Qayyim (RA), the famous student of Hafiz ibn Taymiyah (RA), after quoting the above Ahaadith, states: 'These quotations all concur with the fact that when the living carry out any deed on behalf of the deceased, the reward will reach him (benefit him).' (Kitaab Ruh pg.161)

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna al-Lajlaaj (Radhiallaahu Anhu), a companion of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), had bequested his son that after he leaves this world, he should recite the beginning and end of Surah al-Baqarah at the head side of his grave. Sayyiduna al-Lajlaaj (Radhiallaahu Anhu) then mentioned that he heard this from Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). (al-Mu'jamul Kabeer of Imaam Tabrani; Hafiz Haythami has regarded the narrators of this tradition as reliable - refer Majmauz-zawaaid vol.3 pg.44)

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Such has also been recorded to be the practice of Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu). (Sunan al-Kubra of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.4 pg.56). This narration has been classified as Hasan (sound) by Imaam Nawawiy and Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA). (al-Azkaar pg.212 Hadith493; al-Futuhaat al-Rabbaaniyya vol.3 pg.194)

 

 


{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Allaamah al-Qurtubi [ra] states that, 'Some of our Ulama have based the permissibility of Isaal-e-Sawaab of the recitation of the Qur'aan on the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari (Hadith216, 1361) and Sahih Muslim wherein there is mention of Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] placing fresh branches on 2 graves and He [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] said, 'Perhaps their punishment will be lightened through it as long as the branches do not dry up.' (The Ulama explain the reason for this to be the Tasbeeh that those fresh branches will recite).

 

 

{jb_bluebox}Allaamah al-Qurtubi further states, 'If the Tasbeeh of trees can benefit the deceased, then why not the recitation of the Qur'aan by a believer in Allah?' (Al-Tazkirah pg.70) {/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) has mentioned in a reply to a query of whether the reward of recitation of the Qur'aan reaches the deceased, that; it is Mustahabb (meritorious) for one to do this form of (Isaal-e-Sawaab) abundantly. (refer Tawdehul Bayaan li wusooli thawaabil Qur'aan of Shaykh Abdullah Siddique al-Ghumariy pg.2) Besides these there are numerous other narrations of this nature.{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}It thus becomes abundantly clear through the abovementioned Ahaadith that Isaal-e-Sawaab is totally permissible in all it's forms and is in fact a very virtuous deed. This is the view of the overwhelming majority of the classical scholars (Muhadditheen and Fuqahaa) of Islam. (refer Kitaab al-Rooh of ibn Qayyim pg.153; Fathul Baari vol.5 pg.477 Hadith2761; Sharhus-Sudoor of Allamah Suyuti pgs.402, 403 Dar ibn Kathir; al-Hidaaya vol.1 pg.296-297; Fathul Qadeer vol.3 pg.65-66; Shaami vol.2 pg.243 - HM Saeed) {/jb_bluebox}

If after understanding the above, one still denies the validity of the physical form of Isaal-e-Sawab, then the following method can in no circumstance be refuted. And that is after one carries out a physical form of worship (i.e. Salat, fasting, recitation of the holy Qur'aan, etc.), he should make a Du'aa to Almighty Allah that Allah, firstly, accepts this noble deed and he should thereafter ask Allah to grant the reward to so and so person. In this way, if Allah accepts the Du'aa, the reward will automatically be conveyed to that specific person alive or deceased.

This method has been prescribed by great scholars like Imaam Nawawi and Hafiz ibn Hajar so as to remove all differences of opinion. We have already mentioned that there is no doubt in the deceased benefiting from the Du'aas of the living. In a narration of Sahih Muslim, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has mentioned that one the three things that will benefit the deceased is the Du'aa of his pious children. (Sahih Muslim pg.4199)

Lastly, we would like to mention that this Mas-alah (issue) is not something connect to beliefs, instead it is a Faraaidh (secondary) issue which entails a difference of opinion as well. (Fatawa ibnus salaah vol.1 pg.149). Hence, no one can claim that either part is guilty of perpetrating an act of Bid'ah (innovation), bearing in mind that the majority of the scholars accept all forms of Isaal-e-Sawaab. (refer Kitaab al-Ruh)

{jb_bluebox}The incident of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has been recorded by Imaam Abu Bakr al-Khallaal in his Kitaabul Jaami as well as in his booklet entitled, 'Amr bil Ma'roof Wa Nahy anil Munkar, and according to this, Imaam Ahmad had approved of the recitation of the beginning and end of Surah al-Baqarah (refer Atharul Hadith of al-Muhaddith Shaykh Muhammad Awwaamah pgs.162-163) {/jb_bluebox}

As for your specific query of the validity of reciting the Qur'aan from the homes, it will suffice to say that there is no difference - in this instance - between recital in the graveyard and in the homes, just as there is no difference in making Du'aa for the deceased in the graveyard or from the home. And allow us to ask the question, what is the proof for the act of reciting from home and dedicating its reward to the deceased being void and incorrect?

and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Moulana Muhammad ibn Moulana Haroon Abassommar

FACULTY OF SPECIALTY IN HADITH | CHECKED AND APPROVED: Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Q.) It is a very common tradition to have Khatam-e-Qur'an and food on the 40th day after a person's death with the intention of Isal-e-sawab for the deceased. However, I am also told that such a thing is an innovation (bid`ah), and should not be done. What is the correct thing? How best can we help the deceased's close family member (parents or wife/husband) in order to make him/her enter Jannah?

A.) Upon the death of a person, it is a common practice to make fateha. Contextually, fateha is the recitation of a few ayats of the Qur'an followed by a dua for the deceased.

There are innumerable number of ahadith expounding the virtues of reciting the Qur'an and making dua. There are also many ahadith on Isal-e-Sawab (sending reward to the deceased). Surely, the deceased eagerly waits for rewards from his beloved wife, parents and friends by them making dua for his forgiveness, and giving charity, etc. on his behalf.

However, in order for the deceased to benefit from the gifts of his beloved, they must be channeled to him in the correct way; the way of our beloved Prophet (Sall-Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam). During the time of the Prophet Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, many deaths occurred. It was his noble habit to comfort the bereaved families and widows. Many Sahaba, Radi-Allahu anhu, enquired from the Prophet Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam about Isal-e-Sawab. It is not proven on any one occasion that the Prophet himself practiced or ordered the customary practice of fateha (7 days, 40 days, and 100 days). Had the customary practice of fateha been of any significance, he surely would have at least practiced it or ordered its practice at least once in his lifetime.

To emphasize and carry out a particular practice not proven in Shari'ah, for example fateha, leads to distortion of deen. Many people may regard the practice as necessary and an integral part of deen as is the case among many unwary people today. Any practice that leads to a possible distortion of deen is prohibited and a major sin. Obviously, such a practice leading to sin invokes the anger of Allah. How can such a practice benefit the deceased?

The only way to benefit the deceased is to send sawab to him by carrying out acts of virtue, for example, reciting Qur'an, making dua for him, giving charity, etc. as advised by our beloved Rasul Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam. May Allah bless all our Marhooms and grant them Jannatul Firdaws.

Isaal-e-Sawaab (to perform a virtuous act and grant the reward to any person, alive or deceased) is permissible.

{jb_bluebox}On numerous occasions, Nabi Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam advised the Sahaba (Radhiyallaahu Anhum) to give charity on behalf of the deceased. One specific incident is of Syedna Abu Talha (Radhiallaahy Anhu) when the verse, 'You cannot attain virtue until you spend what is beloved to you…' (Nisaa 4) was revealed. Abu Talha gave his most valuable well and garden, Bi'r Haa as charity on behalf of his deceased mother. In fact, Rasulullah Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam slaughtered 100 sheep during his farewell Hajj and made intention for himself and all those (alive, deceased and to come) who bring faith on his prophethood. (Nasbur Raaya, Allama Zailee) {/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}Syedna Anas, Radi-Allahu anhu, reports that Rasulullah Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, 'Whosoever reads Yaseen at anybody's grave, Allah will decrease their punishment.' This proves that reading the Qur'an and conveying the rewards to the deceased, benefits the deceased. (Umdatul Qaari; Ahsanul Fataawa vol.4 pg.206){/jb_bluebox}

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

 

 

]]>
globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Sun, 12 May 2013 08:26:23 +0000
Academic exposition of Rafidhees (Shia’ism) and its dangers https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/academic-exposition-of-rafidhees-shia-ism-and-its-dangers.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/academic-exposition-of-rafidhees-shia-ism-and-its-dangers.html  shia

{jb_quote}Shia'ism is renowned for lies, (historical) forgery and (Hadeeth) fabrication and the following series of talks and booklet (English & Arabic) are one of the best detailed exposition of Shia'ism (also known as Rafidhi'ism) through its own sources by Shaykh (Mufti) Taha Karaan (HA) of South Africa.{/jb_quote}


 

Shaykh (Mufti) A. K. Hoosen (HA) visit to Iran (January 2013)

Iranian Geopolitics by (Maulana) Rafiek Mohamed (HA)

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/006%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20ml%20rafiq.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 1

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/008%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 2

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/009%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 3

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/010%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 4

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/011%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 5

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/012%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 6

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/013%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 7

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/014%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 8

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/015%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 9

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/016%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Part 10

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/017%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20mf%20a%20k.mp3{/mp3remote}

Q&A-Part 1

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/018%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20QA.mp3{/mp3remote}

Q&A-Part 2

 

{mp3remote}http://www.jamiat.org.za/media/019%20mf%20ak%20nmj%20iran%201-3-2013%20QA.mp3{/mp3remote}


Academic exposition of Shia’ism and its dangers

Shaykh (Mufti) Taha Karaan (HA)

Please send us an email if any of the Audios are out of sequence or don’t work. Jazakullah Khairun

 
{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Introduction to Shiasm – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/1%20Start.mp3{/mp3remote}
{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/2%20Introduction.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Imaamah – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/3%20Imaamah.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Imaamah in the light of the Quran – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/4%20Imaamah%20in%20the%20light%20of%20the%20Quran.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} History of Unity – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/5%20History%20of%20Unity.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} History of Shiasm – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/6%20History%20of%20Shi%27asm.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Leadership – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/7%20Leadership.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Battle of the Camel – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/8%20battle%20of%20the%20camel.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}8{/jb_bluedisc} Taqiyyah – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/9%20Tiqiya.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}9{/jb_bluedisc} Off the Cuff – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/10%20off%20the%20cuff.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}10{/jb_bluedisc} Ameerul mu’mineen Abubakr Ra – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/11%20Ameerul%20mu%27mineen%20Abubakr%20Ra.mp3{/mp3remote}


{jb_bluedisc}11{/jb_bluedisc} Ameerul mu’mineen Umar al Khatab Ra – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/12%20Ameerul%20mu%27mineen%20Umar%20al%20Khatab%20Ra.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}12{/jb_bluedisc} Ameerul mu’mineen Umar al Khatab Ra 2- Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/13%20Ameerul%20mu%27mineen%20Umar%20al%20Khatab%20Ra%202.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}13{/jb_bluedisc} Ameerul mu’mineen Uthmaan Ra – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/14%20Ameerul%20mu%27mineen%20Uthmaan%20Ra.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}14{/jb_bluedisc} The Fitnah – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/15%20the%20fitnah.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}15{/jb_bluedisc} Ameerul Mu`mineen Ali RA – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/16%20Ameerul%20mu%27mineen%20Ali%20Ra.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}16{/jb_bluedisc} Ameerul Mu’mineen Muawiyah Ra – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/17%20Ameerul%20mu%27mineen%20Muawiyah%20Ra.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}17{/jb_bluedisc} Dangers of Shiaism – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/18%20taha-karaan-muslimcentral.com-shiasm---18---dangers-of-shiaism.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}18{/jb_bluedisc} Shiaism – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/19%20taha-karaan-muslimcentral.com-shiasm---19---shiaism.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}19{/jb_bluedisc} Shiaism – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/20%20taha-karaan-muslimcentral.com-shiasm---20---shiaism.mp3{/mp3remote}

 

{jb_bluedisc}20{/jb_bluedisc} Shiaism – Mufti Taha Karaan

 

{mp3remote}https://ia601502.us.archive.org/6/items/ShiaHadeeth/21%20taha-karaan-muslimcentral.com-shiasm---21---shiaism.mp3{/mp3remote}

 


Imammah (English)

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SHĪʿA ḤADĪTHS: AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INCONSISTENCY THEREIN

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حديث الشيعة: ومدلول ظاهرة الاختلاف فيه

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Thu, 18 Apr 2013 15:20:47 +0000
Aqeedah Tahawiyyah (Commentaries) https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/aqeedah-tahawiyyah-commentaries.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/aqeedah-tahawiyyah-commentaries.html chain

{jb_quote}The creed of Ahlus Sunnah Wal-Jama'ah according to Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (RA).{/jb_quote}


Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (RA):

Dr. Mufti Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf Mangera (HA)

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Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (239-321) can be said to represent the creed of both Ash`aris and Maturidis, especially the latter, as he was also following the Hanafi madhhab. We have therefore chosen to include the entire translated text of his Statement of Islamic Doctrine commonly known as the `aqida tahawiyya. This text, representative of the viewpoint of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs, of which the text below is a complete English translation.

Imam Abu Ja`far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Azdi, known as Imam Tahawi after his birthplace in Egypt, is among the most outstanding authorities of the Islamic world on hadith and jurisprudence (fiqh). He lived at a time when both the direct and indirect disciples of the Four Imams of law were teaching and practicing. This period was the greatest age of Hadith and fiqh studies, and Imam Tahawi studied with all the living authorities of the day. Al-Badr al-`Ayni said that when Ahmad died, Tahawi was 12; when Bukhari died, he was 27; when Muslim died, he was 32; when Ibn Majah died, he was 44; when Abu Dawud died, he was 46; when Tirmidhi died, he was fifty; when Nisa'i died, he was 74. Kawthari relates this and adds the consensus of scholars that Tahawi allied in himself completion in the two knowledges of hadith and fiqh, a consensus that included, among others, al-`Ayni and al-Dhahabi, with Ibn Taymiyya singling himself out in his opinion that Tahawi was not very knowledgeable in hadith. This is flatly contradicted by Ibn Kathir who says in his notice on Tahawi in al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya: "He is one of the trustworthy narrators of established reliability, and one of the massive memorizers of hadith." Kawthari calls Ibn Taymiyya's verdict "another one of his random speculations" and states: "No-one disregards Tahawi's knowledge of the defective hadith except someone whose own defects have no remedy, and may Allah protect us from such."

Tahawi began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Imam Shafi`i. However, Tahawi felt instinctively drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifa's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny issues of fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Abu Hanifa's two leading companions, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf, who had codified Hanafi fiqh. This led him to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school. He now stands out not only as a prominent follower of that Hanafi school but, in view of his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. His monumental scholarly works, such as Sharh ma`ani al-athar and Mushkil al-athar, are encyclopedic in scope and have long been regarded as indispensable for training students of fiqh. He was in fact a mujtahid across the board and was thoroughly familiar with the fiqh of all four schools, as stated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and related by Kawthari, and as shown by Tahawi's own work on comparative law entitled Ikhtilaf al-fuqaha'.

Tahawi's "Doctrine" (al-`Aqida), though small in size, is a basic text for all times, listing what a Muslim must know and believe and inwardly comprehend. There is consensus among the Companions, the Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as the four Imams and their authoritative followers on the doctrines enumerated in this work, which are entirely derived from the undisputed primary sources of Religion, the Holy Qur'an and the confirmed Hadith. Being a text on Islamic doctrine, this work sums up the arguments set forth in those two sources to define sound belief, and likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunna.

As regards the sects mentioned in this work, familiarity with Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful. More or less veiled references to sects such as the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Karramiyya, the Qadariyya, and the Jabariyya are found in the work. It also contains allusions to other views considered unorthodox and deviant from the way of Ahl al-Sunna. There is an explicit reference in the work to the controversy on the creation of the Qu'ran in the times of al-Ma'mun and others.

While the permanent relevance of the statements of belief in the `Aqida are obvious, the historical weight and point of certain of these statements can be properly appreciated only if the work is used as a text for study under the guidance of some learned person able to elucidate its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Since the present book is intended exactly as one such aid towards understanding the details of Islamic belief with clarity, it is hoped that the quotation of the entire text of Tahawi's "Doctrine," which we consider as the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, will be of benefit to the reader. And may Allah grant us a true understanding of faith and count us among those described by the Prophet as the Saved Group.

Biography of Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (RA):

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Commentary of Aqeedah Tahawiyyah by Shaykh (Qari) Tayyab (RA)

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Commentary of Aqeedah Tahawiyyah by Shaykh (Maulana) Fahim Hoosen (RA)

{google_docs}http://www.croydonmosque.com/pdf/Tahawiyya.pdf|width:850|height:350|link:yes|link_label:Commentary of Aqeedah Tahawiyyah by Shaykh (Maulana) Fahim Hoosen (RA)|border:5{/google_docs}

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Wed, 16 May 2012 16:33:00 +0000
Who are Qadiyanees? https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/who-are-qadiyanees.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/who-are-qadiyanees.html Kafir

{jb_quote}Qadiyanees (Ahmadees/Lahorees) are Kafir (Non-Muslims) according to the unanimous opinion of all Muslims.{/jb_quote}


Qadiyanees are a sect, separate and distinct from Islam who believe in a liar and imposter by the name of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, who falsely claimed prophethood after Prophet Muhammad (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam). The founder of the sect Mirza Ghulam Ahmed was born in a village called “Qadiyan” in Indian Punjab, hence the founder and the group are known as Qadiyanees by association to the founder’s birth place.

Who or what are Ahmadees?

The same sect called Qadiyanees prefer to call themselves “Ahmadees”, in association with the name of the founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmed. The name Ahmadees is preferred to trick innocent Muslims into creating a link with the last prophet of Islam who also had the name of Ahmad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam), besides the commonly known name of Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam).

Who or what are Lahorees?

Lahorees (or Lahoris) are a splinter group of Qadiyanees who are eastablished as Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam (Lahore, Pakistan). The words of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed are just as binding upon the Lahoorees who try to trick simple Muslims into claiming that they regard Mirza Ghulam Ahmed as the promised Messiah. To regard an imposter, a liar and a false proclaimer of prophethood to be the promised Messiah is nothing but deceit and non-rejection of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed’s claims of prophethood similarly puts the Lahorees outside the fold of Islam.

Who is the last prophet of Islam?

Muslims believe that the last prophet of Islam is Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) and last revelation of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) the Holy Qur’an was revealed to him. The office (and station) of prophethood and revelation both ended with Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam).

What does the Qur’an say about Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) being the last prophet?

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ۬ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمۡ وَلَـٰكِن رَّسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمً۬ا


Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is ever Aware of all things. (33:40)

What does the Hadeeth say about Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) being the last prophet?

حدثنا ‏ ‏قتيبة بن سعيد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏إسماعيل بن جعفر ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبد الله بن دينار ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي صالح ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي هريرة ‏ ‏رضي الله عنه ‏  ‏أن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال إن ‏ ‏مثلي ومثل الأنبياء من قبلي كمثل رجل بنى بيتا فأحسنه وأجمله إلا موضع ‏ ‏لبنة ‏ ‏من زاوية فجعل الناس يطوفون به ويعجبون له ويقولون هلا وضعت هذه ‏ ‏اللبنة ‏ ‏قال فأنا ‏ ‏اللبنة ‏ ‏وأنا خاتم النبيين ‏


Narrated Abu Huraira (Radiya Allahu 'Anhu): Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "My similitude in comparison with the other prophets before me, is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for a place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: 'Would that this brick be put in its place!' So I am that brick, and I am the last of the Prophets." (Bukhari)

What is the unanimous belief of Muslims with regards to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) being the last prophet?


It is stated in Aqeedah Tahwiyyah which is the agreed upon creed of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah (all Muslims):

وَإِنَّ مُحَمَّداً صلى الله عليه وسلم عَبْدُهُ المُصْطَفَى، وَنَبـِيُّهُ المُجْتَبَى، وَرَسُولُهُ المُرْتَضَى،

And we are certain that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is His chosen Servant and elect Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well pleased,

خَاتِمُ الأَنْبـِيَاءِ وَإِمَامُ الأَتْقِياءِ، وَسَيِّدُ المُرْسَلِينَ، وَحَبـِيبُ رَبِّ العَالَمِينَ،


And that he is the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the godfearing and the most honored of all the messengers and the Beloved of the Lord of all the worlds.

وَكُلُّ دَعْوَةِ نُبُوَّةٍ بَعْدَ نُبُوَّتِهِ فَغَيٌّ وَهَوَى؛

Every claim to Prophet-hood after Him is falsehood and deceit.

What is the verdict of Muslim scholars on Mirza Ghulam Ahmed and his followers (both Qadiyanees & Lahorees)?

There is absolutely no disagreement amongst Muslims that anyone who claims prophethood after Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) is a liar and therefore is to be rejected. Therefore, there is no disagreement amongst Muslim scholars that Mirza Ghulam Ahmed and his followers (both Qadiyanees and Lahorees) are all outside the fold of Islam:

Fatwas of Muslim Scholars and Organizations Regarding the Qadiani (Ahmadiyya) Cult

Who was Mirza Ghulam Ahmed?

The liar and imposter, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed was born in Qaidyan (Indian Punjab) around 1839 or 1840. He received his education up to the Middle Class at home. He studied books on Grammar, Logic and Philosophy under the guidance of Maulavi Fazl-i-Ilahi, Maulavi Fazl-i- Ahmad and Maulavi Gul 'Ali Shah. He studied Medicine from his father who was an experienced physician. This, however, did not continue for long as under the insistent pressure of his father, Mirza had to engage himself in the endeavour to get back his ancestral landed property which subsequently led to litigation in law courts.

Mirza later took employment with the Deputy Commissioner of Sialkot for a small salary. He remained at this post for four years from 1864 to 1868 and during this period he also read one or two, books of English.  He also took the examination of Mukhtar but failed and subsequently resigned in 1868 he resigned this job and came back to his village (Qaidyan) and began to look after his ancestral property.

From his very-childhood, the Mirza was very simple. He was unaware of worldly matters and appeared to be a little absent-minded. He did not even know how to wind a watch." When he had to know time, he took out the watch from his pocket and began to count, starting from one. And even then, while he counted with his finger he also kept on counting the figures aloud lest he should forget." He could not just look at the watch and find out what time it was. Due to absent-minded- ness, it was difficult for him to differentiate between the shoes of the left and the right feet. Mirza Bashir Ahmad writes:

"Once someone brought for him gurgabi (a kind of shoes used in Punjab). He put them on, but could not distinguish between the right and the left. Often he used to wear them on the wrong feet, and then feel uncomfortable. Sometimes when he would be hurt by the use of the wrong shoe, he would get irritated and say that nothing of those people was good. Mother said that she had inscribed signs indicating right and left on the shoes for the sake of his convenience and yet' he used to put the shoes on the wrong feet. Hence she later removed the signs." Furthermore due to micturition (frequent urination) Mirza used to keep “earthen-marbles" in his pockets.

In his youth, the Mirza was so afflicted with hysteria that sometimes he used to fall down unconscious as a result of hysteric fits. The Mirza used to interpret these fits variously as hysteric and melancholia. He also suffered from diabetes and copious urination. Mentioning at one place that 'I am a permanently sick person,' he adds: "Headache and giddiness and insomnia and palpitation of the heart come by fits and the lingering ailment in the lower part of my body is that of diabetes. Often I urinate up to a. hundred times during the day or night. And all the other disorders of debility and exhaustion which, are the natural results of such excessive urination have also fallen to my lot."Mirza first married in 1852 or 1853 with one of his own relatives. This wife gave birth to two sons: Mirza Sultan Ahmad and Mirza Fazal Ahmad. In 1891, he divorced the lady. In 1884 he took another wife, the daughter of Nawab Nasir of Delhi. The rest of the offsprings of the Mirza were all from this wife. Three sons were born from her Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood, Mirza Bashir Ahmad (author of Sirat al-Mahdi) and Mirza Sharif Ahmad. When in 1891 Mirza declared that he was the “Promised Messiah” and later on in 1910, that he was a “prophet of God" the Muslim 'ulama began to refute and oppose him. Among those prominent in opposing him was Maulana Sana ullah Amritsari, the editor of Ahl-i-Hadith. On April 5, 1907, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad issued an announcement in which, while addressing the said Maulana, he wrote: "If I am such a big -liar and impostor as you portray me in each issue of your magazine, then I will die in your life-time, for I know that the life-period of a mischief- maker and liar is not very long and ultimately he dies an unsuccessful man, during the life of his greatest enemies and in a state of humiliation and grief. And if I am not a liar and impostor and have been honoured by God's communication and address to me, and if I am the Promised Messiah, then I hope that, with the grace of God and in accordance with God's practice you will not escape the punishment of the rejecters (of Truth). Thus, if that punishment which is not in man's but in God's hand, that is, fatal diseases like plague and cholera, do not afflict you during My life-time" 3 then I am not from God." One year after the publication of this announcement, on May 25th 1908, Mirza fell ill, being afflicted with diarrhea at Lahore. Along with loose motions, he also had vomiting. He was put under treatment at once, but weakness increased and his condition became critical. The next day, on May 26, he breathed his last in the forenoon. About his death his father- in-law Mir Nisar Nawab has stated: "The night on which Hazrat Mirza Sahib fell -ill, I was asleep at my place. When he felt very uncomfortable, I was awakened. When I went to Hazrat Sahib he addressed me and said, 'Mir Sahib I am ill with cholera'. After this, in my opinion, he did not speak a clear word till he died the next day after ten o'clock." ( Hayat-i-.Nasir, ed. Shaykh Yaqnb Ali Irfani.)The dead. body was carried to Qadian. On May 27, 1908 the burial took place and Hakim Nuruddin became his successor, the first Khalifah of the Qadiani movement.

What is the criteria to judge Mirza Ghulam Ahmed?

Apart from the explicit statements of Qur’aan & Hadeeth, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed himself stated:

The best criterion to evaluate my truth or falsehood is my foretelling”  (Aina-e-Kamalat Islam P.28: Roohani KhazainV.23 P.231)


If one is proved to be a liar in a matter, one should not be depended upon for other matters also.” (Chashm-e-Maarfat P.2 Roohani Khazain V.23: P.231)

State some of the false prophecies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed?

Death in Mecca or Madina:

I shall die either in Mecca or Medina. Tazkira Majmoo`a Ilhamat P.584)

This prediction proved false. Mirza died of Cholera in the Ahmedia Building, Brandreth Road, Lahore and his dead body was taken to Qadiyan via Goods Train fearing spread of epidemic.

Marraige with a widow:

It is God’s will that I will be married with two women; one of them will be a virgin and the other will be a widow. So, the prediction about the virgin has already come true and by the Grace of God I have four sons from this wife and I am waiting for the prediction about the widow.(Taryaqul Qalub P.73 Roohani Khazain V.15: P.201)

Mirza never married a widow and he died with the wish in his heart. This prediction was another bag of lies.

Death of Priest Athum:

Mirza Qadiyani made a dialect  with a Christian priest Athum that lasted for many days without any result. At last Mirza wrote in his paper that God has told him that priest Abdullah Athum  would die within fifteen months from the date of publishing of the paper, that is 5th June 1893. He stated in clears terms,

I acknowledge that if this prediction proves false or if the person who is a liar in God’s eyes does not die within fifteen months of this date, I am ready for any type of punishment and disgrace. I  am prepared even to be hanged . I swear that he will certainly die within this period. Come what may, this will happen…… If I am a liar, prepare a gibbet for me and consider me the worst of all the Satans and the wicked.” (Jang Muqaddas P.211: Roohani KhazainV.6:P.293)

At last the day of 5th of September 1894 passed. On September 6th, 1894 Abdullah Athum reached Amretsar, alive. The Christians welcomed him there whole heartedly and Mirza Qadiyani was disgraced every where.

Death of Dr Abdul Hakeem:

Dr. Abdul Hakeem Khan claimed that Mirza Qadiyani would die during his life time by August 4, 1908. At this Mirza predicted:

Dr. Abdul Hakeem has foretold that I will die during his life time by August 4, 1908, but against this prediction God has informed me that he himself will suffer and that God will cause his death and I will remain safe from his evil. So, this is the case whose decree will be made by God. There is no doubt in that God always helps a true person.(Chashm-e-Maarfat P.322: Roohani Khazain V.23: P.336-337)

According to the prediction of Dr. Abdul Hakeem, Mirza died on May 26, 1908 before August 4, 1908 and Dr. Abdul Hakeem lived another eleven years after it. Mirza Qadiyani's prediction proved false as per routine.

Marraige with Muhammadi Begum:

The story of Muhammadi Begum is also very famous. Mirza begged the hands of a good natured and good looking girl, Muhammadi Begum. His proposal was not accepted. Temptations, requests and flattery, all were tried. Threats were made and even the predictions of calamity and death were made.  Muhammadi Begum was engaged to Sultan Mehmood. Mirza threatened Sultan Mehmood with his foretelling that he would die and that his land would vanish from the earth. When all these tactics failed he started saying that God had wedded him with Muhammadi Begum in heavens and she would be married to him on earth also. Muhammadi Begum was married to Sultan Mehmood. Sultan Mehmood continued to live and Muhammadi Begum was also happy with him. Mirza Qadiyani used many tactics, throughout his life to get her, but he got nothing except disgrace as per routine.

Plague:

When Plague spread in India, Mirza Qadiyani said that it was in keeping with his prediction that was fulfilled and that the Plague had come for his enemies and would not enter Qadiyan and if a plagued person enters Qadiyan, he would be cured. After some time Plague entered Qadiyan.

Then Mirza predicted that it would not visit his house and his party men would remain safe and sound. But many of Mirza’s close companions died of it. Plague entered his house also and he had to leave his home for Bagh. This prediction met a similar fate as per routine. (Haqiqat-ul-wahee P. 220, Roohani Khazain V 22 P. 230)

Earthquake:

Mirza Qadiyani predicted that an earthquake would occur that would be like doomsday. Mirza named it “The earthquake doomsday” and issued many pamphlets for it. He wrote:

The prediction about the next earthquake is not an ordinary prediction. If it proves an ordinary thing or it does not occur in my life, it means that I have not been sent by God.” (Supplement Braheen Ahmed. Part 5. P. 92-93)

Birth of a Son:

Miran Manzoor Muhammad was a known figure in Qadiyan, Muhammadi Begum (not the famous one) was his wife. She got pregnant in 1906. Mirza wrote about her:

On 7th of June 1906, I was revealed that Muhammadi Begum would give birth to a son, who would have two names(1) Bashir-ud-Dola, (2) Alam Kabab.” (Tazkara Majmooya Ilahamat P. 615)

On 19th of June 1906 he claimed:

The son born to Mian Manzoor Muhammad who will be an indication from God will have the following names – (1) Kalmatul Aziz (2) Kalmatullah Khan (3) Word (4) Bashir-ud-Dola (5) Shadi Khan (6) Alam Kabab (7) Nasir-ud-Din (8) Fatehuddin (9) Haza Youme- Mubarak. (Tazkara Majmooya Ilahamat P. 620)

After 27 days of his revelation a daughter was born to Muhammadi Begum on July 17, 1906. After some days both the daughter and the mother died and the son with nine names never came. Another as per routine.

State some of the false claims of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed?

Mirza Qadiyani's claims are uncountable. He superceded all the false claimers of prophet hood in infidelity and falsehood. Because of excessive claims, even his followers could not determine him rightly. Some say that Mirza Qadiyani claimed of being a religious leader and guide of the time. Some say that he claimed of being the promised Christ. Some say that he claimed of being just a symbolic prophet ( the shadow of prophet). Some say that Mirza claimed to be a fully functional prophet. A few out of the hundreds of his claims are quoted below:

Revelations:

In the beginning Mirza Qadiyani in Braheen-Ahmadia claimed of having revelations. His claim is that God converses with him.
(Taryaq-ul-Quloob.P.155.Roohani khzain.V.15.P.283)

"Be and it is"

Mirza writes that God says whenever you intend a thing, it becomes a reality. (Haqeet-al-Wahi.P.105. Roohani Khazain.V.22.P.108)

Revelations as a Prophet:


Mirza claimed that he receives revelation and revelation has not come to an end. He says “whoever says that ‘revelation’ has exterminated in religion, I declare such religion false. (Braheen Ahmed.V.5.P.139.Roohani Khazain.V.21.P.206)

Named as House of God:

In revelations God named me Bait ullah (Margin Arbaeen number 4.P.15.Roohani Khazain.V.17.P.445)

Revivalist:

At the end of 13th century and at the beginning of 14th century God informed me through a revelation that I was the revivalist of the century (Kitab-al-Birea.P.168.Roohan-i-Khazain.V.13.P.201)

Harris:

There is a tradition in Abu Dawood- a Hadith book- that a person, Harris, will set off from Asia Minor with troops for the help of Imam Mehdi. Every muslim is bound to help him for his success.

In Azala Awham, page 79 and Roohani Khazain, V3.P140 Mirza Qadiyani writes “I am that Harris”. The Hadith clearly reveals that Harris will be for Imam Mehdi’s help. How a person can be Harris and Imam Mehdi both at the same time?

Likeness with Christ:

I, the humble, have just claimed the likeness with Christ, but simple fellows took it for the claim of promised Christ. This is not a new claim that I have made now, but it is the same old revelation from God that I have explained in detail in many places in “Brahen-e-Ahmedia”……. I did not claim at all that I am the Christ, son of Mary. Whoever alleges me of this, is a liar. From the past eight years I am continuously writing and publishing that I am like Christ.  (Azala Awham.P.190.Roohani Khazain.P.192.V3)

Being the promised Christ:

He is the Christ, son of Mary who was about to come and about whom people suspect. This is the reality and this is the man who was being waited for and suspicion is mare foolishness. (Kashti-e-Nooh.P.48.Roohani Khazain.P.52.v.19)

Being better than Christ:

Mirza Qadiyani says in a verse, "do not talk about the son of Mary. Ghulam Ahmed is better that him". (Daf-e-Albala.P.20, Roohani Khazain.V18.P.240)

He further writes “parallel to that Christ who was called God, God sent the promised Christ in this Ummah. He is better than that Christ in his glory. And he called the second Christ as Ghulam Ahmed.  (Daf-e-Albala.P.13 Roohani Khazain.V18.P.233)

State some of the absurdities of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed?

Pregnancy of promised Christ

About his pregnancy Mirza writes down in his book that:

“Like Maryam, Christ’s spirit was infused into me and metaphorically I was conceived. At last after several months, not more than ten months, through revelation that I have stated in the part four page. 556 of Braheen-e-Ahmedia, I was made Christ from Mary. In this way I am Ibn e Maryam (son of Mary).” (Kashti-e-Nooh. P.47. Roohani Khazain V.19. P.50)

Intercourse with God

No one has ever alleged God with so much a shameful allegation. The suppression of virility would have been made by Satan in the guise of spiritual being.
” The Promised Christ once stated his condition that under the feeling of revelation he felt as if he were a woman and God had intercourse with him.” (Islami Qurbani Tract No.34, by Qazi Yar Muhammad Qadiyani)

Being God

Mirza Qadiyani writes in his book (May God Forbid):
“I dreamt that I my self am God. I believed that I was God.” (Aina-e-Kamalat Islam. P.564, Roohani Khazain V.5 . P.564)


“In a revelation I saw that I was God and I believed that I was so.” (Kitab-el-Biria P.85,  Roohani Khazain V.3.P.103)

Being Mary

” And God named me Mary in the book Braheen-e-Ahmedia.” (Tazkara. P. 40)

Being the Black Stone

A man kissed my foot I said I am the Black Stone (Hajra-e-Aswad).” (Tazkara P. 36)

Champion of Abuses

More than 450 abuses are written in the books of Mirza Qadiyani. No other leader of  any other religion, true or false can compete Mirza Qadiyani in using abusive language. Even politicians find it difficult to match his abilities and admit his command on the subject.

Being Krishna

“I am the very Krishna.” (Tazkara P.381)

Being Ameenul-Mulk Jay Singh Bahadur

Mirza claimed of being Ameenul Mulk Jay Singh Bahadur. (Tazkara P. 472)

Being Heavenly

Mirza Qadiyani was obsessed by the love or lust of Muhammadi Begum and used different strange tactics to get her. Of these the most interesting claim was:

“God has wedded me with Muhammadi Begum in heavens and she must be mine”

But the marriage did not take place. She was married to Sultan Mehmood. She bore three sons.  Because Mirza Qadiyani is considered a Prophet by Qadiyanis, so in this connection Muhammadi Begum became their spiritual mother. The children from the “Mother” were of Sultan Mehmood instead of Mirza Jee. To escape from this disgrace and to get Muhammadi Begum, Mirza continued to threat from his revelations that Sultan Mehmood would die and his land, Patti, would be destroyed. But like his other hundreds of predictions, this prediction also turned out to be false.

Who am I?

An outstanding poet, Mirza introduces himself as follows:

I am neither made of clay nor I am any human being’s child
I am really a shame for human beings and I am worth hating. (Durre Sameen P.116)

State some of the blasphemies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed about the Qur’aan & Sunnah?


The Holy Quran is the last message from God. Till the Dooms Day, God Himself has taken the responsibility of its protection word by word. Parallel to this Holy Book Mirza Qadiyani put a hoax of feigned revelation. This manifestation, dreams and revelations were compiled in the form of a book called ‘Tazkara’. These revelations were brought by angels named teechi-teechi, Mithan Lal, Darshni,  etc. Mirza Qadiyani declared this book superior to Quran. After reading Tazkara one can easily make out the difference between divinity and psychological disease. Below are a few verses from Mirza's collection

Quran was revealed near Qadiyan. The detail of this revelation is "That in fact We revealed Quran close to Damascus on the eastern side on the white minaret' as I live on the eastern end of the river. (Tazkara Majmooa Ilhamat: P: 76, second edition)

We asked as to where Quran is?  Had there been any Quran, there would have been no need for another messenger. The problem is that Quran does not exist now. That is the cause of Muhammad (Sallallaho–Alaihe–Wassallam) (Mirza Qadiyani) being sent again as ‘Berozi’ in the world so that Quran may be revealed to him. (Kalmat ul Fasl: P: 173)

I swear upon God that I have so firm a faith in these revelations as I have faith in Quran and God’s other Books. And as I believe the Quran as the words of God, in the same way the words that are revealed to me I take them as God’s words or speech.  (Haqiqat Ul Wahi: P: 220, Roohani Khazain: V: 22, P: 220)

We also refer to those ‘Hadiths’ that confirm to the Quran and do not contradict my revelation. While to other sayings of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) (Hadiths) we throw them in dust bin.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 19, P: 140)

State some of the blasphemies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed about the Prophet Isa (Alayhis Salam)?

Before the advent of the Last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W), Jesus Christ (AS) was sent as Messenger of Allah for the guidance of mankind.  Following the instruction of Jews, Mirza Qadiyani indicted Christ and his virtuous Mother, Hazrat Maryam (AS). In his slandering he is even worse than Jews. We invite the Qadiyanis to go through his writings and revise their opinion about Mirza Qadiyani.

Christ had the habit of calling names and abusing. He got furious at petty things; he was a prey to his emotions. And often he used to tell a lie.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 11, P: 289)

It is a matter of shame that he stole the teachings of the mountain that is the crux of the Bible, from the Jews’ Book, Talmud. After this plagiarism he revealed them as his own teachings.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 11, P: 290)

The Christians have written much about Christ’s miracles, but the fact is that he had none. And when he abused people who were demanding miracles, the pious people broke all connections with him.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 11, P: 290)

Christ belonged to a very 'virtuous' family. Three of his maternal and paternal grandmothers were adulterers and prostitutes. He had the blood of these women in his veins, but perhaps this was also an eternal requirement.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 11, P: 291)

Taking wine has caused much loss to the Europeans. Perhaps they have the justification that Christ himself took wine; he took wine because of some disease or he was a habitual drinker as the case may be.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 19, P: 71)

Once a friend of mine suggested that opium is good for diabetics. So it is not bad to use it for the sake of treatment. I replied to him, “Thank you for your concern, but if I develop the habit of taking opium, I fear people will  laugh and say that the first Christ was a drunkard and the second one an opium-eater”. (Roohani Khazain: V: 19, P: 434-435)

God sent His Promised Christ (Masseah–e–Maud) towards the Ummah, who is superior to the first Christ in all respects. He named the second Christ as Ghulam Ahmed.  (Roohani Khazain: V: 18, P 233)

State some of the blasphemies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed about the Sahaba i.e. companions of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam)?

Some foolish ‘Sahaba’ could get (benefit) nothing from knowledge. (Roohani Khazain   V: 21 P: 285)

Who ever believes in Quran should throw away the sayings of Abu Hurerah like a useless thing. (Roohani Khazain V: 21 P: 410)

What was the status of Abu Bakar and Umar. They were not even worth of untying the laces Hazrat Ghulam Ahmed’s shoes. (Monthly Al Mehdi 3/2 1905    P: 157)

Do not dispute over caliphate. Now think about the new caliphate. You have a living Ali amongst you. You reject him and reach for the dead Ali. (Malfoozat-e-Ahmedia V: 1 P: 400)

A verse says’ I am always visiting Karbalah’. (Hundreds of Husseins are in my pocket) (Nuzool al Masih P. 99 Roohani Khazain V.18 P.477)

O Christian missionaries! Do not call Christ. Because there is one among you who is greater than Christ. And O Shia people! Do not insist on Hussein, I tell you truly that there is one among you greater than Hussein, (Roohani Khazain, v: 18 P: 233)

Whatever nonsense has Mirza Qadiyani written about the personality of Bibi Fatima (Razi-Allaho-Taala-Anha) that is not worth quoting. (Roohani Khazain v: 19 P: 213)


Introduction to Qadiyan'iism

Sheikh (Maulana) Mumtaz Ul Haq (HA)

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Clown of Qadiyan

Sheikh (Maulana) Ahmed Ali (HA)

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]]>
Beliefs Sat, 23 Jul 2011 17:13:03 +0000
Istighathah: Seeking aid from other than Allah is Impermissible https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/istighathah-seeking-aid-from-other-than-allah-is-impermissible.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/istighathah-seeking-aid-from-other-than-allah-is-impermissible.html  istigathah

{jb_quote}In modern times Istigatha (i.e. seeking Aid from other then Allah (SWT)) has become one of the key differentiators between "Traditional Islam" and Salafi Dawah with extensive debates and discussions. The truth of the matter is that firstly, there is no division in Islam along the lines of traditional, classical, orthodox etc and in the only "Islam" which was revealed by Allah (SWT) 1400+ years there is no room for the practise of Istigatha.{/jb_quote}


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Istighathah: Seeking aid from other than Allah

Du'a (supplication and invoking aid) is worship ('ibadah). Allah Most High says in the Qur'an,

{jb_bluebox}"And your Lord says, 'Call upon Me; I will respond to you'. Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible." (Al-Ghafir, 60){/jb_bluebox}

In this verse Allah has equated du'a to worship.

{jb_bluebox}The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) is reported to have said, "Du'a is worship, and then he recited the following verse of the Qur'an, 'And your Lord says, Call upon Me; I will respond to you. Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible'." (Sunan Al-Tirmidhi, 2:173; Sunan Abi Dawud, 1:208; Sunan Ibn Majah, p.208; Musnad Tayalisi, p.108; Al-Mustadrak, p.491; Al-Adab al-Mufrad, p.105; Tafsir Ibn Kathir; under 40:60){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}It also comes in another hadith, "Nothing is dearer to Allah than du'a." (Al-Mustadrak, p.490; Al-Adab al-Mufrad, p.105) It is mentioned in another narration, "The noblest act of worship ('ibadah) is du'a." (Al-Adab al-Mufrad, p.105) The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, "One who doesn't call (yad'u) Allah, He gets angry with him." (Al-Mustadrak, p.491) And it comes in another version, "Allah is angry with someone who does not ask (yus'al) of Him." (Al-Mustadrak, p.491){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}Yet in another narration it says, "Du'a is the weapon of the believer and the pillar of the religion." (Al-Mustadrak, p.492 – Al-Hakim and Al-Dhahabi have classified this narration as authentic){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}Sayyiduna 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The most excellent worship is du'a." (Al-Mustadrak, p.491 – classified as authentic by Al-Hakim and Al-Dhahabi){/jb_bluebox}

It is apparent from the clear verse of the Qur'an and authentic narrations mentioned above that to make du'a to the creation (i.e. istighathah) is not permissible, since to make du'a is worship and indeed worship is only the right of Allah. It is therefore clear that that Allah is the sole Being deserving of du'a and indeed all worship.

Thus the practice of istighathah – which is to call for such help from the creation, which is beyond their natural means – would be impermissible and a possible cause of shirk. And this is because asking such help from the creation, which is not in the ambit of natural means or proven through authentic texts, implicitly attributes such qualities to the creation that in reality solely belong to Allah.

'Allamah Sarfaraz Khan Safdar (d. 1430H / may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that seeking help is of two types:

 

{jb_bluedisc}a{/jb_bluedisc} Within the means (ma taht al-asbab) and

 

{jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} beyond the means (ma fawq al-asbab).

 

Regarding the difference between help which is within the normal means and beyond normal means, he explains that while the first type is established through the Qur'an, hadith, the Companions (Sahabah) and the Pious Predecessors (Salaf), the second type has no basis in Islam and has been declared haram and shirk in Shari'ah by jurists.[1] The seeking of the latter type of help is only restricted to Allah. (Guldastah Tawhid, p.135. Also see his Tafsir lecture of Surah Fatihah)

Similarly, Shaykh Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 'Ali Khawqir (d. 1349H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes, "Shirk is the belief that those besides Allah have an effect [ability] on things above the normal capabilities granted to them by Allah and also that something possesses a power which is beyond the capabilities of the normal creation." (Ma la Budda Minhu fi Umur al-Din, p .11, from Tanqid-i-Matin, Sarfaraz Khan Safdar)

Shaykh Khawqir has thus shown that shirk is the belief that something other than Allah has an effect beyond that which Allah has granted him from the apparent means, and that something possesses a power outside the realm of the abilities of created beings.

In this article we will address the claim of some of those who practice istighathah that they do not intend to attribute independence or the status of godhead to saints but rather to Allah. We will show that this in reality is not much different than the mentality of the idolaters of Makkah. They too did not attribute independence or status of deity to their idols but rather used them as a means to gain closeness to Allah.

We will secondly demonstrate that such calling on the deceased for help implies several forms of shirk such as assuming that they are present and seeing (hadhir and nadhir), possess knowledge of the unseen ('ilm al-ghayb), etc. – attributes that are unique to Allah and not established for anyone else. We will thirdly present the verdicts of some leading scholars on the practice of istighathah.

Lastly, we will conclude by exonerating Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir Jaylani from the claims of some that he permitted the practice of istighathah, and we will show that, to the contrary, he rather promulgated strict tawhid.

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc}  Imam Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dahlawi (d. 1174H / may Allah have mercy on him) has extensively refuted the practice of istighathah in his numerous works. He writes while distinguishing between ma taht al-asbab and ma fawq al-asbab, "He [Allah] is Everlasting, All-Hearing, All-Seeing;[2] He has no match and peer. He has no partner in necessary per se (wujub al-wujud) neither in deserving worship nor in creating and managing (tadbir), so none deserves worship, i.e. highest reverence, but He, and none cures an ill, supplies livelihood, removes distress, but He, in a sense that He addresses the thing with kun fayakun (Be! and it becomes). This is different than in the sense of usual causation (tasbib), as it is said that the physician cured the patient, the emir gave livelihood to the soldiers; so this is different though they are similar in wording." (Tafhimat al-Ilahiyyah, 1:145)

 

'Allamah Sarfaraz Khan Safdar writes in Tanqid-i-Matin bar Tafsir Na'im al-Din, p.25, while explaining the above quote, that it is clear that seeking outward help with means is lawful, as [is shown] when Sayyiduna Dhu 'l-Qarnayn (may Allah be pleased with him) approached the place of the dam, he heard people complaining about the destruction by Gog and Magog and was requested to build a dam across the pass so that they could be protected against their plundering. They offered him financial help as well. Sayyiduna Dhu 'l-Qarnayn said he did not need money; Allah had given him plenty. Rather he asked them to provide him with physical help. This is not the [type of] help that those who perform istighathah seek from the prophets, saints and martyrs, who are neither alive in this world nor near. He further says that it is not befitting for scholars to use such examples to prove istimdad since such examples involve asking for help from the living which is within the normal means of the creation.

Many among the proponents of calling the dead for help believe or unintentionally imply that the prophets and saints have the power of kun fayakun (Be! and it becomes) and ask them for help with this belief. Imam Shah Waliullah Dahlawi writes in refutation of these extremists, "Shirk is to affirm the special attributes of Allah (Exalted is He) for [those] beside Him, such as free-disposal (tasarruf) in the affairs of the universe with the intention expressed as kun fayakun... [The polytheists] used to ask those close (mutaqarribin) to Allah for help in important matters under the power (qudrah) of kun fayakun and the polytheists used to carve their images from stone, copper, glass, etc. and make the souls of the dead the focus of their deep attention." (Al-Fawz al-Kabir fi-Usul al-Tafsir, p.3-4)

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Imam Ahmad bin Idris Shihab al-Din Qarafi al-Maliki (d. 684H / may Allah have mercy on him) has also refuted those Sufis who assign the power of kun fayakun to the creation. He writes, "The second type is that a person making du'a (supplication) is extremely stupid and daring, leading him to ask Allah to grant him special powers for running the universe which are exclusively under the power and will of Allah, such as creation, annihilation, and predestination. Common sense and logic indicate that it is impossible for these divine powers to be for anyone besides Allah. This means that such a request is in fact asking for partnership with Allah in his kingdom and this is akin to disbelief (kufr). Many ignorant Sufis have fallen into this trap and they claim that so-and-so was given the word 'kun' (Be!) and they ask to be given this divine command, which Allah mentions in the Qur'an, 'Our command for a matter when we will it is to say to it 'be' and it becomes'. They do not understand the meaning of this phrase in the speech of Allah and they also do not understand the meaning of this divine phrase being 'given' to someone, if that could be possible. This is a matter that is impossible to achieve according to the qualified scholars, let alone the concocting Sufis. This causes these Sufis to be destroyed in a way that they do not even realize. They believe that they are among those close to Allah, when in reality they are far from Him. May Allah save us from evil trials and those things that lead up to them. May Allah save us from ignorance and that which leads to it." (Anwar al-Buruq fi Anwa' al-Furuq, 4:446)

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc}  It may be said that those who perform istighathah do not consider the power and ability of the saints from whom du'a is sought to be equal to Allah, but rather they believe that their ability is given to them by Allah. This claim is not sufficient to justify istighathah since the polytheists of Makkah also never held their deities as equal to Allah. They too believed that the power of their deities was bestowed to them by Allah.

 

Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 606H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes regarding this notion, "Know that there is no one in the whole universe who ascribes a partner with Allah who is at the same level with Allah in existence (wujud), power (qudrah), knowledge ('ilm), or wisdom (hikmah). Not one person until today has been found [who believes that anyone is on the same level as Allah] except the Zoroastrians..." (Tafsir al-Kabir, 2:112, from Itmam al-Burhan fi Rad Tawdih al-Bayan, Sarfaraz Khan Safdar)

Imam Shah 'Abd al-'Aziz Dahlawi (d. 1239H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes, "It should be kept in mind that there is not one person in the universe who associates anyone with Allah at the same level in existence (wujud), knowledge ('ilm), power (qudrah), and wisdom (hikmah)." (Tasfir-i-'Azizi, p.162)

Imam Shah Waliullah Dahlawi writes in his magnum opus Hujjat Allah al-Balighah, chapter 74 titled "The explanation of what had been the condition of the People of Jahiliyyah which the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) reformed", "Among the principles agreed upon among them [the people of the Ignorant Age] was the belief that God, may He be exalted, had no partner in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the substances in them, and that He had no partner in managing the great affairs and that no one could reject His order nor frustrate His decree once it had become settled and decided, and this is [proven by] His saying, may He be exalted, 'If you asked them who created the heavens and the earth they would answer Allah', [31:25], and His saying, 'If God's chastisement comes upon you, will you call upon any other than God, if you speak truly? No; upon Him you will call, and He will remove that for which you call upon Him if he wills, and you will forget whatever partners you associated with Him,' [6:41-42], and His saying, 'All upon whom you call for help lose their way except Allah.' [That is, these others fail in times of crisis or disaster] but it was due to their deviance in religion that they held that there were personages among the angels and the sprits who could manage [the affairs of] the people of the earth, except for the major matters..."[3]

Shah Waliullah further writes about the beliefs of early polytheists in chapter 37 titled Tawhid, "[The second group] are polytheists... They also said that these beings [righteous servants of God] hear, see, intercede for their worshippers, manage their affairs, and give them help; and they carved stones in their names and made the stones a focus for directing their worship towards these beings."[4]

Hafiz Ibn Kathir (d. 774H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes, "And yet, they have associated partners with Him in divinity (ilahiyyah), so they worshiped others with Him in spite of their admission that those whom they worshiped will not be able to create a thing, they do not own anything and do not domineer anything, but they believed that these idols take them closer to Him." (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 5:488)

'Allamah Muhyi al-Din Shaykh Zadah (d. 951H / Allah have mercy on him) writes, "I.e. the idols are not equal to Allah, neither in reality which is obvious, nor according to their beliefs; since they believe that these [idols] are intermediaries taking them nearer to Allah as per their belief, not that they are adversary equals [to Allah]." (Hashiyyah 'ala al-Baydawi, 1:383)

According to Islamic theologians, the polytheists of Makkah didn't believe that idols were gods but merely referred to them as such. Imam al-Mutakallimin 'Allamah Sayyid Sharif Jurjani al-Hanafi (d. 816H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes, "Know that there is no opposition regarding this issue except that of the sanawiyyah (Zoroastrian dualists), not the wasniyyah (idol-worshipers). Verily they [the polytheists] do not believe that there are two necessarily-existent deities, nor do they ascribe the attributes of divinity (ilahiyyah) to the idols even though they referred to them with the word 'aalihah' (deities), rather they adopted them as statues of the Prophets or the pious or the angels or the celestial objects, and adopted revering them in a manner of worship, using them as a means of reaching the One who is actually Divine [Allah]." (Sharh al-Mawaqif, p.580)

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} 'Allamah 'Abd al-Hayy Lakhnawi[5] (d. 1304H / may Allah have mercy on him) was asked, "What is the ruling regarding that person who thinks that saints know and hear the call from far and near and [he] seeks their help with the wording which are used for those present and make vows for them and says that my vow is for them?"

 

He replied, "The belief of this person is corrupt (fasid) and there is fear of disbelief (kufr) of that person because the hearing of saints from far is not proven [in Shari'ah]. And knowledge of all of the matters (juziyat) at all times is only specific to Allah Most High. It is stated in Fatawa Bazzaziyyah that whoever says that souls of the pious (mashayikh) are hadhir is a disbeliever (kafir), and it is written in the same book that whoever performed nikah by making Allah and His Messenger to be witnesses become kafir. [This is] because he assumed that the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is knower of the unseen..." (Majmu'ah al-Fatawa, 1:46-47)

It was further asked, "It is the practice of the general public of this city that in the time of distress they call upon the prophets and saints for help (madad) from far, and believe that they are hadhir and nadhir, and when we call them they hear us and make du'a concerning our needs. Is this [type of istimdad] permitted or not?"

At this the reply came, "This type [of seeking aid] is not merely haram but also shirk as in this [asking for such help] is considered [i.e. implied] that those besides Allah have knowledge of the unseen ('ilm al-ghayb) and this belief is manifest shirk. Because in Shari'ah, shirk is to associate anyone with Allah in His essence (dhat) and specific attributes (sifat), and knowledge of the unseen ('ilm al-ghayb) is the specific attribute of Allah as it is mentioned in the books of 'Aqa'id..." (Majmu'ah al-Fatawa, 1:45-46)

Another such query stated, "If a person believes that Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir Jaylani (may Allah have mercy on him) has the power to hear anyone who calls him from anywhere and turns his attention towards his [the caller's] situation. How is this belief according to the principles of Shari'ah?"

The answer came, "This belief is not only against the 'aqa'id of the people of Islam but leads to shirk..." (Majmu'ah al-Fatawa, 1:73)

And he wrote in a reply to a question regarding seeking aid with the wording, "Ya Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir shayy'an lillah",

"It is binding and necessary (wajib) to abstain from these sort of recitations. Firstly, [because] this recitation consist of the wording 'shayy'an lillah' and certain jurists consider these wording disbelief (kufr)...

Secondly, such recitation consists of calling on the dead from a distance and it is not established from the Shari'ah that saints have the power to listen to a call from far distance. However, it is established [from Shari'ah] that the people of the grave hear the salam of the visitors to their graves. But to consider that anyone beside Allah is hadhir nadhir at all times and is aware of the evident and hidden, is shirk... And our 'ulama have said that anyone who believes that the souls of the saints are hadhir and 'alim (knowing), is a kafir. Although, Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir Jaylani (may Allah have mercy on him) is one of the great luminaries of the Ummah al-Muhammadiyah (Allah bless him and give him peace) and his virtues and excellent qualities are innumerable, but it is not established that he hears the distressed caller from a distance. And to hold a belief that he is aware of his disciple's affairs all the time and hear their calls, is shirk." (Mujmu'ah al-Fatawa, 2:189-190)

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Hakim al-Ummah Mawlana Shah Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (d. 1362H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes in Bawadir al-Nawadir, p.706, his last book, "The detail [with regards to this issue] is that tawassul through a creation was explained in three ways: First is to make du'a and seek aid (istighathah) in the way that it is in the religions of the polytheists. This is forbidden by consensus (ijma'). As to whether it is manifest (jali) shirk or not, then its criterion is [that if] the person doing it has the belief that the person being called upon has istiqlal in bringing about an effect, then this is shirk that constitutes kufr...

 

And second is to request him [the person being called upon to make du'a to Allah], and this is permissible through those from whom it is possible to seek for du'a, but such possibility is not proven through any evidence for those who have passed away. So we shall restrict this type of tawassul to those who are alive.

And the third is to make du'a to Allah through the blessing (barakah) of an accepted (maqbul) creation and this is allowed according to the majority of scholars..."

From the above it is clear that according to Mawlana Thanawi istighathah from the creation is, at minimum, haram by consensus under all circumstances, and disbelief with the belief of istiqlal. It is a clear rebuttal of those circles who try in vain to highjack the verdicts of righteous scholars to suit their fancies.

Explaining istiqlal, 'Allamah Sarfaraz Khan Safdar writes in Izalat al-Rayb 'an 'Aqidah 'Ilm al-Ghayb from Fatawa Rashidiyyah, "Knowledge of the unseen sometimes is available to the prophets, it is also from the same kind, i.e. it is not derived from any power and ability gifted to these holy men, rather it is an effect of the exclusive attribute of Allah that He manifested there, like the movement of the pen is due to the movement of the writer." (Fatawa Rashidiyyah, 3:23)

He adds from Fatawa Rashidiyyah, "As far as terms like 'personal knowledge' ('ilm al-dhati) and 'free choice' (tasarruf istiqlal), etc. in relation to the disbelievers in the writings of scholars like Shah Waliullah Dahlawi and Shah 'Abd al-'Aziz Dahlawi are concerned, this usage was to relay that the disbelievers used to establish the same power and choice (for the idols) through Allah which was the causative factor of their polytheism; otherwise the Arab polytheists believed that the idols and their attributes were created by Allah, and they were granted power and choice from Him, as we have elaborated before. As far as using the word 'free choice' is concerned it is obvious that the polytheists, due to their belief in the entrusting of power and choice, maintained that these acts of divine characteristic are included in actions and matters coming under one's power, and that the self-determined actions of servants come under the regulation of freewill and thus they deserve praise and criticism, though all actions of servants are based upon the power gifted by Allah." (Fatawa Rashidiyyah, 3:24)

'Allamah Sarfaraz writes while explaining the above quotes, "It is very clear that by 'personal' and 'independent' it is meant that human beings have independent power on good and bad, belief and disbelief, obedience and disobedience, etc. on which they deserve praise and condemnation as well as reward and punishment. Likewise, the polytheists believed that Allah Most High grants attributes of ghayb (unseen) to some of his servants and they are independent in acting freely therein just like the self-determined actions (af'al ikhtiyariyyah)." (Izalat al-Rayb, p.33)

He further writes distinguishing between istiqlal and ghayr istiqlal, "By given (a'tai) and dependent (ghayr mustaqil), they mean that like mu'jizaat and karamaat, they need the power of Allah in partial matters as well; even in these matters they do not have such a power as they have in the normal actions of the servants (af'al ikhtiyariyyah). For example, a pen writes in the hand of a writer, but it requires the movement of the writer in writing each single word. In other words, it can be said that the writer has manifested his action of writing through the pen, not that the pen has got power of writing like a man; since a pen cannot be a writer unless it carries the human characteristics... Except human actions, since human beings have independent (mustaqil) and inherent power, though this power and choice is gifted by Allah." (Izalat al-Rayb, p.34)

It is clear that mustaqil (istiqlal) is used in the same sense as normal everyday actions (af'al ikhtiyariyyah) while ghayr mustaqil for mu'jizaat and karamaat in the statements of scholars.

Zameelur Rahman writes, "The meaning of "mustaqill," 'Allamah Sayyid Murtada Hasan Chandpuri explains, is a continuous ability in which one has volition and free choice, just as healthy animals have the continuous ability to see, hear, eat, drink and touch. This ability can either be believed to be intrinsic – i.e. not granted by Allah – or extrinsic – i.e. granted by Allah. Since even the mushrikun did not believe their idols to be intrinsically mustaqill, but mustaqill by the granting of Allah, the intent here is granted istiqlal, just as living human beings have been granted volition in for example, choosing to see what they want to see and avoid seeing what they do not want to see.

Thus, here, the intent is the belief that these souls that are asked for help were granted continuous powers of discretion to grant what is asked or withhold from granting in just the same way healthy animals have been granted continuous powers of discretion to see what they want and avoid seeing what they want. If this doubt even comes to the mind of the mushrikun regarding the object of isti'anah, that isti'anah constitutes shirk according to Imam Shah 'Abd al-'Aziz. Moreover, Mawlana Chandpuri quotes a passage from Shaykh 'Abd al-Haqq Muhaddith al-Dahlawi (d. 1052 H) which illustrates many Muslims believe in istiqlal of the saints and prophets who were asked for help, let alone the mushrikun. This clearly proves therefore that there is certainly a presumption and doubt of istiqlal of the prophets and dead saints when they are called for help, and for this reason, according to Shaykh 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Dihlawi, such isti'anah is shirk. Although such istiqlal of powers over the cosmos when believed to be granted by Allah is not a direct ascription of divinity to them, but this leads to giving reverence to these beings in the manner of worship (i.e. utmost reverence), having full reliance and fear of them, instead of directing these to Allah, because these objects are now believed to have full authority and discretion. Furthermore, such istiqlal is negated for all creation in the Qur'an as 'Allamah Zafar Ahmad 'Uthmani shows in his Maqalat (2:282-5)."

Some circles, in desperation, use poetry as their last resort to prove or disprove 'aqa'id. Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi was asked about a qasidah by Mawlana Ilahi Bakhsh Kandhalwi (d. 1245H / may Allah have mercy on him), produced in the book Shiyam al-Habib fi Zikr Khasa'is al-Habib, which innovators use to prove istimdad, etc. Mawlana Thanwi replied about this notion, "[Uttering such statements] with the intention of isti'anat and istighathah or with the belief of hadhir nadhir is impermissible. And without any of these [above mentioned] beliefs if it is solely to display one's desire and delight it is permissible. This permissibility is granted because the purpose of reading poetry is usually to display one's desire and delight. However, in places where things are seen contrary to it, this permissibility will cease." (Imdad al-Fatawa, 5:385)

 

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc}  Mufti Muhammad Shafi' (d. 1396H / may Allah have mercy on him) has refuted the practice of seeking aid from the creation at numerous places in his marvellous tafsir, Ma'arif al-Qur'an. He has equated istighathah with prostrating (sajdah) to the creation. Under the verse – "And that masajid (mosques) belong to Allah; so, do not invoke anyone along with Allah." (72:18) – he writes, "And therefore we are not permitted to call on anyone for help beside Allah, like the Jews and Christians [who] commit shirk in their places of worship... The word masajid could also have another sense. It could be the plural of masjad, with the letter jim carrying fath, in which case it would be masdar mimi (a type of infinitive) and means 'to prostrate or prostration'. The verse in this sense would signify that worship is reserved exclusively for Allah. It is not permitted to prostrate to anyone, and if he calls on anyone else besides Allah for help (i'anat), it is as though he is prostrating to him which must be avoided."

 

 

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc}  'Allamah Ahmad bin 'Abd al-Qadir al-Rumi (d. 1041H / may Allah have mercy on him), an erudite scholar from the people of Akhisar in present-day Turkey, also addressed this issue in Majalis al-Abrar wa Masalik al-Akhyar.[6] He writes in chapter three concerning how Satan tricks those who ask the creation for help, "...And there are those people who perform istighathah from the creation, regardless of whether they are alive or dead, Muslim or non-Muslim. And Satan takes the form of the person whose help has been sought and fulfils the need of the person who has sought help. So, these Muslims think that Satan is the same person who they called for help. However, it is not as they believe. In reality, it is Satan who misguides them when they assign a partner to Allah. For, Satan leads astray the children of Adam (may the peace of Allah be upon him) according to his ability. So, when Satan helps them according to their needs, he is harming them much more than he can benefit them. Hence, that person who is a Muslim, when he seeks aid from those mashayikh who he believes in, Satan comes to him in the shape of that shaykh because Satan often takes the forms of the pious but he does not have the power to take the form of the Prophet of the Cherisher of the Worlds (Allah bless him and give him peace). Then, indeed that shaykh whose help has been sought, if he is from among those of knowledge then the Satan will not inform him of the saying of his companions who sought his help. And if he is from those who have no knowledge he informs him [the shaykh] of what they said and he [Satan] relays to them the shaykh's speech. So those ignorant people think that indeed the shaykh has heard their voices and answered them in spite of the long distance, whereas it is not the case. This is only done through the medium of Satan. And it has been narrated from some mashayikh who have experienced such [events] through unveiling (kashf) and mukhatabah, they say that: 'I see something shiny like water or glass, and in it that news which I seek appears and so I inform people of it. And through it the speech of those who seek my aid from my companions reaches me and so I answer them and my response reaches them'.

 

And these types of things of the extraordinary (khawariq) happen to many of the mashayikh who do not know the Qur'an and Sunnah, and do not act upon them. For indeed, Satan plays with people a lot and shows them things that are false in the appearance of the truth. So, he who has the insight (basirah) of the realities of faith (iman) and knows the Shari'ah of Islam, he knows that it is the deception of the Satan and he seeks aid with Allah Most High from him." (Majalis al-Abrar wa Masalik al-Akhyar, p.24)

 

{jb_bluedisc}8{/jb_bluedisc} 'Allamah Muhammad ibn Muflih al-Maqdisi (d. 762H) in Al-Furu', 6:165, and 'Allamah 'Ala al-Din al-Mardawi (d. 885H / may Allah have mercy on them) write in Al-Insaf, in the chapter "Ruling of the Apostate", "He said: Or he made between him and Allah intermediaries on whom he places his trust, to whom he supplicates (yad'u) and asks for help. While some said: Or he prostrated before the sun or the moon."

 

{jb_bluedisc}9{/jb_bluedisc} 'Allamah Sharf al-Din al-Hijawi (d. 960H / may Allah have mercy on him) stated in his book Al-Iqna', 4:285, in the chapter 'Ruling of the Apostate', "The shaykh said: [The ruling of apostasy is given towards one who] has an aversion towards the Messenger or what he came with, according to consensus. He added: or he took intermediaries between himself and Allah, relying on them and supplicating to them, according to consensus. Or, he prostrated before idols or the sun or the moon."

 

{jb_bluedisc}10{/jb_bluedisc} 'Allamah Khayr al-Din Sayyid Nu'man Alusi (d. 1317H) ibn Sayyid Shihab al-Din Mahmud Alusi al-Hanafi (d. 1270H / may Allah have mercy on them) has quoted Shaykh Muhammad Amin al-Suwaydi al-Shafi'i (d. 1246H) on the prohibition of istighathah. Shaykh Amin's father, Mulla 'Ali al-Suwaydi (d. 1237H / may Allah have mercy on them), was the teacher of the author of Ruh al-Ma'ani. He states in Jala' al-'Aynayn fi Muhakamat al-Ahmadayn,[7] "Shaykh Muhammad Amin al-Suwaydi al-Shafi'i stated: None can regard it lawful except one who is ignorant of the traditions of the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace). This was the reason that seeking help from the dead spread among the people during times of trouble and discord. They beseech the dead and supplicate to them, as if what they do with them is greater than their worship of Allah and their belief in the Lord of the Heavens."

 

{jb_bluedisc}11{/jb_bluedisc} Dr. Wahbah Mustafa al-Zuhayli, a contemporary Syrian Shafi'i Ash'ari scholar, was asked, "What is the ruling regarding istighathah (calling for assistance) that [some] Naqshbandis engage in after completing al-rabitah with the wording, 'Oh my teachers extend your aid towards us' and 'Oh my shaykhs, help us' and 'Oh my masters, help us' and 'Oh my guides, help us'?"

 

He replied, "These types of istighathah, in their apparent meanings, are haram, because they amount to seeking help from other than Allah, and help (madad) is granted by Allah alone, although the intercession (tawassul) of other than Allah from amongst the prophets and righteous people is correct according to Ahl al-Sunnah..."[8]

He further answered in a reply to an objection on visiting the graves, "Visiting graves is licit according to the wording of the hadith 'alaa fazuruhaa', and there is no connection to evil in that, because we visit graves as an admonishment and a lesson, we do not seek anything except from Allah, and we do not draw near to shirk, even by a hair-length."[9]

 

{jb_bluedisc}12{/jb_bluedisc}  Shaykh Wahbi ibn Sulayman al-Ghawji Albani, another contemporary Ash'ari scholar, writes, "After this introduction I want to mention some of the bid'ahs upon which the 'ulama and propagators of the religion need to agree as being prohibited since these are blameworthy innovations concerning which there cannot be silence: ... (8) "Of the bid'ah is that which some of the ignorant people do when visiting the grave: They ask the dead to cure them of their illnesses and to fulfill their needs. They tie strings of material to the material of the graves of saints and pious people, with the intention of making barren women fall pregnant or that an estranged husband should return to his wife and love her again, and other examples like this. But if these ignorant people were to be asked in a mild tone: 'Do they really believe that a pious man has power over anything after he has returned to the Mercy of Allah?!' The answer to them is: 'No, we believe that nobody else besides Allah Most High causes any real benefit or harm – none being able to cause such in their life or after their death. But this pious man is blessed, in that he has an honorable position in the sight of Allah and we are asking him because of that'. The truth is with those who teach and say to them: 'Ask Allah the One. And it is acceptable if you ask Allah through the piety of that Friend of Allah (wali), or through the religious uprightness of the devout pious man that Allah fulfils your needs. By the Will of Allah they will return to the lawful commands. They are thus being returned to something permissible, and they will be so returned, InshAllah."[10]

 

{jb_bluedisc}13{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyid al-Ta'ifah Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani (d. 561H / may Allah have mercy on him) said, "Follow [the Qur'an and Sunnah] and do not indulge in innovation (bid'ah). Remain in conformity and do not disagree. Remain obedient and not be disobedient. Be sincere and do not commit shirk. Declare Allah Most High to be One, and do not leave His door. Ask Him and do not ask anyone apart from Him. Seek aid from Him and do not seek aid from anyone apart from Him. Rely on Him and do not rely on anyone apart from Him." (Al-Fath al-Rabbani, p.313)

 

And he further writes, "You must carry out His commandments, observe His prohibition, comply with His decree, and keep your outer and inner calmly speechless in His presence, then you will experience what is good in this world and the hereafter. Do not ask creatures for anything for they are weak and poor, incapable of bringing harm or benefit to themselves or anyone else." (Al-Fath al-Rabbani, p.325)

When Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani was in the throes of the illness in which he died, he gave the following advice to his son 'Abd al-Wahhab, "... Do not rely on anyone but Him, address all your requests to Him (Exalted is He), and put your trust in no one other than Allah (Glory be to Him). Affirm His Oneness. All is contained within the affirmation of His Oneness." (Futuh al-Ghayb, p.185)

Some circles have brought forward a statement attributed to Shaykh al-Jaylani from a book titled Bahjat al-Asrar in support of istighathah. However, this particular quote attributed to Shaykh al-Jaylani is contrary to what we find in his books. Shaykh al-Jaylani never endorsed istighathah as is evident from his books from which the abovementioned quotes have been produced. Furthermore, Bahjat al-Asrar has been declared unreliable by senior scholars.

For example, Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi (d. 748H / may Allah have mercy on him), the great master in the science of analyzing the reliability of narrators (rijal), writes regarding the author of Bahjat al-Asrar, "He had great love for Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani. He compiled events of his life and his virtues in about three volumes and wrote in it all narrations from various people, both worthy and unworthy. Thereby, he spread many false stories about him." (Ma'rifat al-Qurra' al-Kibar, p.721)

Hafiz Shams al-Din Muhammad Jaz'ari al-Shafi'i (d. 833H / may Allah have mercy on him) has also brought forward this quote of Imam al-Dhahabi in his Tabaqat al-Qurra', 1:261.

Hafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d. 795H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes, "It [the book Bahjat al-Asrar] deals with the life-events and merits (manaqib) of Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir Jaylani in three volumes. He has filled it with everything, big and small. It is sufficient for one to be called a liar when he narrates everything he hears. I have seen a portion of this book and my heart does not feel secure in accepting or relying on anything in it, or relating anything from it, except that which is famous and well-known from other books, because of an excess of narrating from unknown individuals, deviations, major errors, [unfounded] claims, and false speech, such that it cannot be considered, nor is it appropriate to attribute such things to Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani." (Tabaqat al-Hanabilah, 2:194)

The historian Khayr al-Din Zirikli (d. 1396H) quotes a verdict of Hafiz Ibn Hajr al-'Asqalani (d. 852H / may Allah have mercy on them) regarding this book, "Ibn Hajr said that many strange and odd stories are mentioned in it by him [the author] and many people have objected [criticized] to many chains of narration and stories narrated in it." (Al-A'lam, 5:34) This quote is mentioned in Al-Durar al-Kaminah fi A'yan al-Mi'a al-Thaminah, 3:142, of Hafiz Ibn Hajr.

'Allamah Zayn al-Din ibn al-Wardi al-Shafi'i (d. 749H / may Allah have mercy on him) said, "Verily, there are many incorrect things and great exaggerations in this book [Bahjat al-Asrar] concerning the status of 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani that is only appropriate for divinity (rububiyyah)." (Kashf al-Zunun, 1:25)

Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad Abu 'l-Huda ibn Wadi al-Sayadi al-Rifa'i[[11] (d. 1328H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes regarding Bahjat al-Asrar, "There are many things written in the abovementioned book, Al-Bahjat, attributing which to Shaykh ['Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani] al-Gawth [al-A'zam], may he enjoy the pleasure of Allah, is incorrect. Many stories and untrue things were spread on his behalf. And numerous astonishing sayings were transmitted from a group of elders. Some defiant and bold people – and Allah's refuge is sought – even fabricated many false traditions and attributed them to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)." (Tariqah Rifa'iyyah, p.16)

He further writes, "As for the stories, words, and fabricated traditions written in the book named Bahjat al-Asrar by [Abu 'l-Hasan 'Ali] Al-Shattanawfi (d. 713H) regarding the merits of Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir, may Allah sanctify his pure secret, the elders have raised objections to these [stories], some of whom have accused Al-Shattanawfi of lying and opportunism. Amongst them is Hafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, may Allah bless his soul, as is mentioned in Tabaqat al-Hanabilah under the biography of Qutb al-Jili, may Allah benefit us with his assistance and knowledge, while some others said that he spread many stories, and they seem to have attributed to him stupidity and accepting [both] that which is accurate and that which is not." (Tariqah Rifa'iyyah, p.59)

 


 

Footnotes

[1] This has also been elucidated by many scholars, such as Shaykh Sun'allah al-Halabi Hanafi (d. 1120H), Shaykh 'Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah (d. 1417H), Shaykh al-Qur'an Mawlana Husayn 'Ali Wanbacharan al-Punjabi (d. 1363H), 'Allamah Zafar Ahmad 'Uthmani (d. 1394H), Mawlana Sayyid Murtada Hasan Chandpuri (d. 1370H), Hafiz al-Hadith Mawlana 'Abdullah Darkhawasti (d. 1994AD), Shaykh Sayyid Abu 'l-Hasan 'Ali Nadwi (d. 1420H), Mufti Sa'id Ahmad Palanpuri, and Mufti Zar Wali Khan (may Allah have mercy on them), just to name a few.

[2]The Grand Mufti of Hind Mufti Muhammad Kifayatullah al-Dahlawi (d. 1372H / may Allah have mercy on him) writes regarding Shirk fi 'l-'Ilm and Shirk fi 'l-Sam' wa 'l-Basr, "To attribute Allah's power of knowledge to others. For example, to say that a prophet or a pious man has the knowledge of the unseen, knows everything, is aware of all of our affairs, or can tell what is happening far and near; all this is Shirk fi 'l-'Ilm. Shirk fi 'l-Sam' wa 'l-Basr is to attribute Allah's powers of seeing and hearing to others. For example, t believe that a certain prophet or a pious person could hear things far and near, or could see all of our acts." (Ta'lim al-Islam, 4:15)

[3]Quote taken with permission from the English translation of Hujjat Allah al-Balighah by Marica K.Hermansen.

[4]Ibid

[5]Shaykh 'Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah writes, "Imam Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari would always recommend and advocate the works of Imam Lakhnawi." And Shaykh Kawthari himself said, "Shaykh Muhammad 'Abd al-Hayy al-Lakhnawi was the most erudite of his era in traditions pretaining to judicial rulings." (Bid'ah and the Salaf's Worship, p.xvi)

[6]Imam Shah 'Abd al-'Aziz Dahlawi praised Majalis al-Abrar in these words, "The book, Majalis al-Abrar, includes much beneficial discourses regarding the secrets of Islamic law, fiqh, suluk, refutation of bid'ah and reprehensible customs. We have no knowledge of the author in terms of his piety, godliness, depth in the sciences of Shari'ah, except that which this book reveals regarding him." (Mu'jam al-Matbu'at al-'Arabiyyah, 1:388) And 'Allamah 'Abd al-Hayy Lakhnawi writes regarding Majalis al-Abrar, "And it is an excellent and reliable book." (Iqamah al-Hujjah, p.19)

[7]Imam Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri (d. 1352H / may Allah have mercy on him) mentioned that one of his hadith teachers was Shaykh Muhaddith Muhammad Ishaq Kashmiri (d. 1322H / may Allah have mercy on him) who is a student of Khayr al-Din Sayyid Nu'man Alusi, and he in turn of his father the author of Ruh al-Ma'ani. Imam Kashmiri mentioned that Shaykh Nu'man Alusi is the author of many valuable books like Jala' al-'Aynayn fi Muhakamat al-Ahmadayn and Al-Jawab al-Fasih li ma lafaqqah 'Abd al-Masih. (Malfuzat Muhaddith Kashmiri, p.334)

[8]See fatwa of Dr. Zuhayli

[9]See fatwa of Dr. Zuhayli

[10]A guiding, knowledgeable word regarding bid'ah and its rulings by Shaykh Wahbi Sulayman al-Ghawiji, translated by IPSA students under the guidance of Shaykh Mahdi Hendricks.

[11]It says in Al-A'lam, 6:94, regarding Shaykh al-Sayadi al-Husayni, "He is the most famous of all scholars in his age, born in Khan Shaykhun (in the district of al-Ma'arrah) and educated at Aleppo and there he was with entrusted the responsibility of the Association of Ashraf. Later, he stayed at Astanah (Istanbul) and came in contact with the Ottoman Sultan 'Abd al-Hamid II, who gave him the post of Mashayikhat al-Mashayikh. He won his confidence and became one of his most trusted men and continued serving this post for around thirty years..."

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Sat, 16 Jun 2012 21:21:19 +0000
Life of Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) in the grave, Presentation of deeds & Salutations https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/life-of-rasul-ullah-sallaho-alaihe-wassallamin-the-grave-a-salutations-upon-him.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/life-of-rasul-ullah-sallaho-alaihe-wassallamin-the-grave-a-salutations-upon-him.html maksurah

{jb_quote} Sayyidina Anas (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: The prophets (AS) are alive in their graves and they pray. [Baihaqi].{/jb_quote}


Life of Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)in the grave & Salutations upon him

The worldly life of Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) has ended:

Allah (SWT) explicitly confirms that immortality was not granted to our beloved Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and indeed that his worldly life willone day come to an end:

وَمَا جَعَلۡنَا لِبَشَرٍ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ ٱلۡخُلۡدَ‌ۖ أَفَإِيْن مِّتَّ فَهُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِدُونَ

{jb_bluebox}[21:34] We did not assign immortality to any human (even) before you. So, if you die, will they live for ever?{/jb_bluebox}

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ۬ وَإِنَّہُم مَّيِّتُونَ

{jb_bluebox}[39:30] Verily, you are to die and they are to die.{/jb_bluebox}

Life of Shuhada (Martyrs):

Allah (SWT) explicitly confirms the life of Shuhada (martyrs) in the Qur'aan:

وَلَا تَقُولُواْ لِمَن يُقۡتَلُ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتُۢۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ۬ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَشۡعُرُونَ

{jb_bluebox}[2:154] Do not say of those who are slain in the way of Allah that they are dead. Instead, they are alive, but you do not perceive.{jb_bluebox}

The prophets of Allah (SWT) are the best and the most noble of Allah (SWT)'s creation with our beloved Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) ranked the most high amongst them therefore since the Shuhada (martyrs) are alive we can state that the prophets of Allah (SWT) including the best amongst all of them Nabi (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is also alive.

Bodies of Prophets (AS) don't decay:

The earth is forbidden from decomposing the bodies of the prophets of Allah (AS).

حَدَّثَنَا هَارُونُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ حَدَّثَنَا حُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْأَشْعَثِ الصَّنْعَانِيِّ عَنْ أَوْسِ بْنِ أَوْسٍ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ مِنْ أَفْضَلِ أَيَّامِكُمْ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فِيهِ خُلِقَ آدَمُ وَفِيهِ قُبِضَ وَفِيهِ النَّفْخَةُ وَفِيهِ الصَّعْقَةُ فَأَكْثِرُوا عَلَيَّ مِنْ الصَّلَاةِ فِيهِ فَإِنَّ صَلَاتَكُمْ مَعْرُوضَةٌ عَلَيَّ قَالَ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَكَيْفَ تُعْرَضُ صَلَاتُنَا عَلَيْكَ وَقَدْ أَرِمْتَ يَقُولُونَ بَلِيتَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَرَّمَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ أَجْسَادَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ

{jb_bluebox}Sayyidina Aws ibn Aws (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: Among the most excellent of your days is Friday; on it Adam (AS) was created, on it he (AS) died, on it the last trumpet will be blown, and on it the shout will be made, so invoke more blessings on me that day, for your blessings will be submitted to me. The people asked: Apostle of Allah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam), how can it be that our blessings will be submitted to you while your body is decayed? He (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) replied: Allah, the Exalted, has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of Prophets. [Abi Dawud]{jb_bluebox}

Prophets are alive and they pray in their graves:

(حديث مرفوع) أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو سَعْدٍ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْخَلِيلِ الصُّوفِيُّ ، رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ ، قَالَ : أنبأ أَبُو أَحْمَدَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَدِيٍّ الْحَافِظُ , قَالَ : ثنا قُسْطَنْطِينُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الرُّومِيُّ , قَالَ : ثنا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَرَفَةَ , قَالَ : حَدَّثَنِي الْحَسَنُ بْنُ قُتَيْبَةَ الْمَدَائِنِيُّ , ثنا الْمُسْتَلِمُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الثَّقَفِيُّ , عَنِ الْحَجَّاجِ بْنِ الأَسْوَدِ , عَنْ ثَابِتٍ الْبُنَانِيِّ , عَنْ أَنَسٍ , رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : " الأَنْبِيَاءُ أَحْيَاءٌ فِي قُبُورِهِمْ يُصَلُّونَ " , هَذَا حَدِيثٌ يُعَدُّ فِي إِفْرَادِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ قُتَيْبَةَ الْمَدَائِنِيِّ ، وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي بُكَيْرٍ ، عَنِ الْمُسْتَلِمِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ ، عَنِ الْحَجَّاجِ ، عَنْ ثَابِتٍ ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ .

{jb_bluebox}Sayyidina Anas (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: The prophets (AS) are alive in their graves and they pray. [Baihaqi]{jb_bluebox}

Nature of life of Prophets & Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam):

Prophets of Allah (AS) and Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) are alive in their graves and possess the life of Barzakh but in reality we do not know the exact nature and reality of their lives.

Angels convey the Salutations to Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) from distance:

When Salautations and Salawaat are sent to the noble and beloved Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) from a distance then it is carried by specially appointed Angels and presented in his noble and auspicious presence.

(حديث مرفوع) وَفِي هَذَا الْمَعْنَى الْحَدِيثُ الَّذِي أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْقَاسِمِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الطَّهْمَانِيُّ ، ثنا أَبُو الْحَسَنِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْكَارِزِيُّ ، ثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ , ثنا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ , ثنا سُفْيَانُ , عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ السَّائِبِ , عَنْ زَاذَانَ , عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ , رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : " إِنَّ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَلائِكَةً سَيَّاحِينَ فِي الأَرْضِ يُبَلِّغُونِي عَنْ أُمَّتِي السَّلامَ " .

{jb_bluebox}Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Masood (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: Indeed there are many Angels of Allah (SWT) who sojourn the Earth and bring the Salam of my Ummati to me.[Baihaqi]{jb_bluebox}

Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) personally hears Salutations from close:

((حديث مرفوع) أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بِشْرَانَ , أنبأ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ الرَّزَّازُ , ثنا عِيسَى بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الطَّيَالِسِيُّ , ثنا الْعَلاءُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو الْحَنَفِيُّ , ثنا أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ , عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ , عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ , عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ , رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ : " مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ عِنْدَ قَبْرِي سَمِعْتُهُ ، وَمَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ نَائِيًا مِنْهُ أُبْلِغْتُهُ " ، أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ هَذَا هُوَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَرْوَانَ السُّدِّيُّ فِيمَا أَرَى وَفِيهِ نَظَرٌ , وَقَدْ مَضَى مَا يُؤَكِّدُهُ . .

{jb_bluebox}Sayyidina Anas (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said:Whoever invokes blessings on me at my grave, I hear him, and whoever invokes blessings on me from afar, I am informed about it.[Baihaqi]{jb_bluebox}

This narration has been Authenticated by the famous Hadeeth Master Al-Hafidh Ibn Haj'r Al-Asqalani (RA):

بسند جيد بلفظ من صلى على عند قبري سمعته ومن صلى علي نائيا بلغته

Sahaba (RA) sending Salutations to Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam):

It has been an unbroken practise of the Muslims to send Salutations to not only Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) but also to Khalifatur-Rasool Sayyidina Abu-Bak'r As-Sideeq (RA) and also to Ameerul-Mumineen Sayyidina Umar (RA) in Madina and the practise of the Sahaba (RA) is confirmed by this Authentic Athar of Sayydina Abdullah Ibn Umar (RA).

فقد كان ابن عمر يقول : السلام عليك يا رسول الله ، السلام عليك يا أبا بكر ، السلام عليك يا أبتِ ، ثم ينصرف . صححه الحافظ ابن حجر


{jb_bluebox}Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar (RA) used to say, “Al-salaamu ‘alayka ya Rasool-Allaah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam), al-salaam ‘alayka ya Aba Bakr (RA), al-salaamu ‘alayka ya abati (O my father) (RA),” then he would go away. This was classed as saheeh by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar. {/jb_bluebox}

There is no harm in saying the Salutations in the words of one's own choice.


Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jammah believe that Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is alive in his grave!

Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

Question: Dear Mufti Could you give us proof from Quran and Sunnah what you have explain and you cliam that Ahlus sunnah Wal Jamaa beleive prophet Muhammed (saw) is alive in his grave. What really Ahlus sunnah Wal Jamaa believe in this matter is www.islam-qa.com; The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was a human being who suffered from sickness and real death the same as any other human being. Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning): "Verily, you (O Muhammad) will die, and verily, they (too) will die" [al-Zumar 39:30] "And We granted not to any human being immortality before you (O Muhammad); then if you die, would they live forever?" [al-Anbiyaa' 21:34] The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died and was buried in his grave, hence al-Siddeeq Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "Whoever used to worship Muhammad, Muhammad has died, but whoever used to worship Allaah, Allaah is alive and will never die."?

{jb_dropcap}I{/jb_dropcap}n your question, you have quoted a few Aayats and the incident of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu). In actual fact, these have nothing to do with Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) being alive in his grave because the Aayat and the incident of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) have to do with Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) passing away from this Dunyaa. This is an accepted fact. Everyone agrees that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) passed away for this earthly life.

Everyone also agrees that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) is alive in his grave but what has to be understood is how is Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) alive in his grave. If this is understood, I am sure that your objection will evaporate.

Firstly, it should be known that after the death of a person the life of Barzakh (interval between death and resurrection) takes place. In this regards, both the Muslim and the Kaafir are equal. This is the view of Ahlus sunnah wal Jamaa. This has been proven through many Ahaadith. To cite a few: When a person is placed in his grave and his companions depart from him, verily, he hears their footsteps, two angels come to him, they make him sit up, then they address him...' (Mishkaat pg.24; Qadeemi)

Once a Jewess came to Aaisha (Radhiallaahu Anha), she spoke about the punishment of the grave and then said, 'May Allah protect you from the punishment of grave.' Later, Hadhrat Aaisha (Radhiallaahu Anha) questioned Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) concerning the punishment of the grave. Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied, 'Yes, the punishment of the grave is Haqq...' (Mishkaat pg.25; Qadeemi)

These Ahaadith explicitly prove that after a person passes away, he enters into a different phase of living and this is the life of Barzakh. However, in regards to this life there are various levels. Allah Ta'ala says in regards to the Shuhadaa, 'And do not term those who have been killed in the path of Allah as dead. In fact, they are living but you perceive not.' (Baqarah 153). From here, it is even more evident that a person dying in the world does not affect his status of being alive in the life of Barzakh.

The question that now arises is, what is the meaning of them being alive? Mufti Shafi (RA) commentating on this verse in his Ma'ariful Qur'aan explains, 'It is well known that from the Islamic viewpoint, every dead person has a special type of life in Barzakh through which he experiences either punishment or enjoyment. However, there are different levels in this life. There is the level which is general for all, and there are special levels for the Ambiyaa, the martyrs and the pious. With regards to the reality of those levels, the best explanation is given by Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) in his Bayaanul Qur'aan.

The difference between the life of a martyr and of a normal person is that the effects of life is stronger in a martyr. Its example is that of the difference of feeling between the fingertips and the heel of the foot. Life flows in both of them, but feeling and perception is much greater in the fingertips. In the same manner is the effect of life greater in the martyr to the extent it even affects the body of the Shaheed in that it stays fresh in the grave and does not decompose, as is substantiated in the Ahaadith and from eye-witness accounts. This effect of life is only in regards to Barzakh, therefore, in Dunya all the laws that apply to a dead person will also apply to the martyr, his inheritance will be divided and his wife will be able to marry another person. A similar type of life is granted to the Anbiyaa but the effect of their life is even stronger to the extent that together with their bodies being preserved, some effects of their lives in Barzak also become apparent in Dunyaa, hence, their inheritance is not divisible and neither can their wives remarry.

This is what we mean when we speak of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) being alive in his grave. Now for some proofs:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} From Aayat2/253, it is proven that the martyrs are alive in their graves. Which this is established for the martyrs, then it is also established for the Anbiyaa, because;a ) This position has been bestowed on the martyrs as an honour for them. There is no doubt that there is no rank higher than the rank of the Anbiyaa and that the position of the Anbiyaa is higher and more perfect than the position of all the Shuhadaa. Therefore, it is impossible that this honour is given to the Shuhadaa and the Anbiyaa remained deprived of it, b) This position is granted to the Shuhadaa is a recompense for their Jihaad and for spending their lives in the way of Allah. Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) was the one who instituted this practice, who called them to this practice and guided them towards it. Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has said, 'Whoever institutes a noble practice, for him is its reward and the reward of those who act on it until the day of Qiyaamah.'

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Anas ibn Maaliki (Radhiallaahu Anhu) narrates that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'The Anbiyaa (Alayhis salaam) are living in their graves, they perform Salaat.' (Majmauz-zawaaid vol.8 pg.211)

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} The lives of the Anbiyaa (Alayhis salaam) are also proven through the Ahaadith of Mi'raaj narrated by Bukhari and Muslim where it is mentioned that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) led the Anbiyaa (Alayhis salaam) is Salaat and also his meeting them in Jannah.

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} ibn Mas'ood (Radhiallaahu Anhu) narrates that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'Verily, Allah has angels travelling through the earth, they bring to me the salaams of my Ummah.' (Targheeb wat Tarheeb vol.2 pg.498)

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'Whoever recites Salawaat upon me (in my presence, I hear it and whoever sends Salawaat to me and he is not by me, his Salawaat is brought to me.' (Nasaaie)

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah


Proofs That Deeds Are Presented To The Prophet

Shaykh Abd Al-Hafiz Makki (HA)

Translated by Ismaeel Nakhuda (HA)

Translator — The article below was published in Roshni,a religious supplement published each Friday with the Saudi-based Urdu News newspaper, in clarification of a column published a few weeks earlier, discussing a story about a man who was told on his death bed that he had been forgiven due to his devotion to sending Blessings and Peace (Salat wa Salam) to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) each morning.

The column also included a discussion on how, according to the writer, it is contrary to Islamic doctrine to believe that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is alive in his grave and that the Umma’s deeds are presented to him — viewpoints that Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hafiz felt compelled to clarify. The shaykh’s article was published on 4 Jumada ‘l-Ula, 1429 (9 May, 2008). Comments within square brackets are not part of the original article and have been included by the translator for clarity.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hafiz writes:

{jb_dropcap}T{/jb_dropcap}here are a few points to note in Dr Sayyid Sa’id ‘Abidi’s article, Are Our Actions Presented to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace)?, which appeared on page eight of the Roshni supplement on 27 Rabi’ al-Ula, 1429 (4 April, 2008).

In response to the above question, Dr ‘Abidi considers the story to be contrary to Islamic belief (‘aqida) and therefore makes some serious accusations against the author [of the book in which the story was originally mentioned]. In reality, the purpose of such stories, which the noble ‘ulama often include in their books, is not to explain belief but to encourage readers to diligently carry out actions mentioned within, as, sometimes, they are a means of gaining Allah Most High’s acceptance.

The author’s purpose [in narrating the story] was only to show that the mercy of Allah Most High turns to the writing and recitation of Blessings and Peace (Salat wa Salam) to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). It is unknown which action will be accepted; because of this one should persistently send Blessings and Peace to him. One should not consider such a deed to be trivial, as a great deal of encouragement to send Blessings and Peace to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has been narrated in the blessed hadiths. Hafiz Ibn al-Qayyim and others have mentioned innumerable benefits of this. The purpose of narrating this story is not to explain belief; rather, it is to encourage the sending of Peace and Blessings. It is for this that senior ‘ulama — such as Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi, Hafiz Ibn al-Qayyim, Hafiz Dhahabi and others — have always included such stories in their writings.

In fact, it has been narrated from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) himself that an immoral woman, seeing a thirsty dog at the side of a well, felt sorry and lowered her shoe inside. Having filled it, she gave the dog water to drink. On this, Allah Most High forgave her. It is not Islamic belief that is being explained here that — we seek refuge with Allah — sin as much as you want and then at the end feel sorry for an animal and feed it; you will be forgiven. Rather, Allah Almighty’s generosity and kindness is being explained that if He, who is the kindest of all (Akram al-akramin), wishes then he can even forgive such a sinful woman on such a small action. In other words, one is being encouraged to mercy the creation, something that draws Allah’s mercy.

Regarding the hadithabout the deeds of the Umma being presented to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace), Dr ‘Abidi, in an unbefitting fashion, writes: “Were the actions of the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) also presented to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) when he was alive? So, how and for what reason are they presented after the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) death?” Such boldness and disrespect is totally inapt.

The question of why actions are presented [as mentioned by Dr 'Abidi in his article] remains. However, the Messenger of Allah has clarified this in that very hadith[1]: “Whatever good I shall see, I shall praise Allah for that; and whatever bad I shall see, I shall seek repentance on your behalf.” The purpose has been explained by the Prophet of Guidance and Mercy (Allah bless him and give him peace) himself — something at which Dr ‘Abidi and all of us should rejoice. May Allah Most High, through His bounty, accept the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) repentance on our behalf and forgive us all of our sins. Amin.

What remains now is the issue surrounding this hadith, which Dr ‘Abidi has separated into two parts and then individually explained at great length. Regarding this, it suffices to say that seniorhadithscholars — those who have an extremely high standing in the subject — have considered it to be authentic (sahih). It is the words of these experts and specialists that will be relied upon and accepted. Personal opinions that run contrary to the views of these masters of hadith will definitely not be deliberated on. This is an accepted principle.

Hafiz ‘Iraqi says the chain of narration (isnad) of this hadithis excellent (jayyid). Imam Hafiz Haythami also mentions the same in Majma’ al-Zawa’id and writes that Imam Qastallani, the commentator of Sahih al-Bukhari, considers it to be authentic (sahih). The great hadith scholar, Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari has also mentioned it to be authentic in Sharh al-Shifa and writes that Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti has mentioned it to be authentic in his books. Imam Munawi has mentioned it to be authentic in Fayd al-Qadir, likewise, Imam Zurqani in Sharh al-Mawahib has considered it to be authentic and so has Imam Shihab al-Khafaji in Sharh al-Shifa.

In addition, the hadithhas been narrated mursal[2] from a different chain of narration — this has been mentioned by Hafiz Isma’il al-Qadi in Juz’ al-Salat ‘ala ‘l-Nabi. Shaykh Nasir al-Din al-Albani writes that it is mursal sahih and Hafiz Ibn ‘Abd al-Hadi al-Hanbali has mentioned it authentic in his book Al-Sarim al-Munki. The great hadith scholar ‘Allama ‘Abd Allah al-Ghumari has also penned a booklet,entitled Nihayat al-Amal fi Sihha wa Sharh Hadith ‘Ard al-’Amal, solely on this hadith.

Further to this, Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi — who has been quoted by Dr ‘Abidi, and who is considered to be among those hadithscholars known for their critical research and stringency — has penned a brilliant two-volume book on the Prophet’s life, entitled Al-Wafa bi Ahwal al-Mustafa (Allah bless him and give him peace). In its introduction to the book, Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi writes that he has only included authentic hadiths and kept it completely clear of lies. Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi also devotes an individual chapter comprising three hadithsto the subject — Al-Bab al-Sabi’wa w’l-Arba’un fi ‘Ard ‘Amal Ummatihi ‘Alayh (The Forty-Seventh Chapter Regarding the Presentation of His Umma’s Action to Him).

The first of these hadithshas been narrated by Sayyiduna Aws ibn Aws (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Noble Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “The best of your days is Friday. On that day Adam (peace be upon him) was created, on that day he died, on that day the Trumpet will be blown and on that day all of creation will swoon. So send a great deal of blessings upon me, for your blessings will be shown to me.” They said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, how will our blessings upon you be shown to you when you have turned to dust?” He said, “Allah has forbidden the Earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets (peace be upon them).”

The second hadithis the one mentioned by Dr ‘Abidi — not the one from Sayyiduna ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, but one from Bakr ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Muzani, which is mursal and which Shaykh Albani says is mursal sahih.

The third hadithhas been narrated by Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “My life is also good for you in that wahy (revelation) comes to me from the sky and that I can inform you about what is permissible and what is impermissible; and my death is also good for you in that your actions will be presented to me every Friday. So whatever is good, I shall praise Allah for that; and whichever sins I shall see, I shall seek repentance on your behalf.”

In sum, it can be said that the hadiths about the presentation of deeds — including the presentation of Peace and Blessings, as that is also a deed— have been narrated from three individuals: Sayyiduna ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik and Bakr ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Muzani.

One of the hadithsregarding “peace and blessings” has been narrated from Sayyiduna Aws ibn Aws and one from Sayyiduna Abu ‘l-Darda’, which, at the end, includes the wording: “Hence the Messenger of Allah is alive and being given his sustenance.” This hadith[contrary to what Dr 'Abidi writes in his article] has also been considered authentic by Hafiz Mundhiri, ‘Allama Zurqani, Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari, Qadi Shawkani and others. Further to this, the noble ‘ulama and great hadithscholars have said the ‘ulama are united (ijma’) that “the Noble Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is alive in his grave and is being given sustenance (rizq).”

Regarding this, Hafiz Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah mercy him) in his book, Zad al-Ma’ad, writes in detail that: “It is definitely known that the pure body of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is completely fresh in his blessed grave. The Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) asked the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) how Peace and Blessings would be presented to him after his death? At this, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said that Allah Most High has forbidden the Earth from consuming the bodies of the Messengers. If the Prophet’s pure body was not in the noble grave then he would definitely not have replied as such. Likewise, it has been authentically established from the Prophet that Allah Most High has appointed angels at his noble grave to convey the greetings of his Umma. It is also authentically established that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) once stood between Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna ‘Umar and said: ‘We will be raised like this.’

“With all these truths, it is also absolute that the Prophet’s blessed soul is in the Highest Heaven (A’laIlliyyin) at the Rafiq al-A’la together with the souls of the other messengers (peace be upon them). Hence, the soul is there and is in connection with his pure body, which is in his blessed grave. The relationship between the soul and the body is such that the Prophet offers prayer (salat) in his noble grave and responds to the greetings of those who visit him. On the basis of this relationship between the soul and the body, he saw Sayyiduna Musa (peace be upon him) offering prayer standing in his grave.”

In conclusion, there is no room for anyone to reject in anyway that which has been clearly mentioned in the blessed hadiths regarding the life of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) in the afterlife (barzakh) — this is regardless of whether one can or cannot comprehend the issue. One should supplicate to Allah Most High that He grants us the ability to make our minds and comprehension subject to that which is explicit in the Qur’an and Sunna — this is the straight path. May Allah grant us all steadfastness on it, and bestow us with His proximity by granting us sincerity and piety in all our actions and states. Amin.

  1. Translator – In his article, Dr ‘Abidi mentions this hadith from Sunan Nasai on the authority of Sayyiduna ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him). []
  2. Translator – Mursal is that hadith whose chain of narration’s end link has not been mentioned. In other words the Tabi’i (Follower) mentions from the Prophet of Allah (peace and blessings upon him) missing out the Companion (Sahabi). (See Mufti Sa’id Ahmad al-Palanpuri’s Tuhfat al-Durar Sharh Nukhbat al-Fikar). []

Are the Prophets alive in the grave? 

Shaykh (Maulana) Mohammad Yasir (HA)

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Thu, 29 Dec 2011 11:49:32 +0000
Karamat of Auliya & Islamic Belief https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/karamat-of-auliya-a-islamic-belief.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/karamat-of-auliya-a-islamic-belief.html ALLAH12

{jb_quote}[10:62]Listen, the friends of Allah shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.{/jb_quote}


By Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah (RA)

{jb_brownbox}وَمِنْ أُصًولِ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ: التَّصْدِيقُ بِكَرَامَاتَ الأَوْلِيَاءِ وَمَا يُجْرِي اللهُ عَلَى أَيْدِيهِم مِّنْ خَوَارِقِ الْعَادَاتِ فِي أَنْوَاعِ الْعُلُومِ وَالْمُكَاشَفَاتِ وَأَنْوَاعِ الْقُدْرَةِ وَالتَّأْثِيرَات ، وَالمَاثُور عَنْ سَالِفِ الأُمَمِ فِي سُورَةِ الْكَهْفِ وَغَيْرِهَا، وَعَنْ صَدْرِ هَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ مِنَ الصَّحَابَةِ وَالتَّابِعِينَ وَسَائِرِ فِرق الأُمَّةِ، وَهِيَ مَوْجُودَةٌ فِيهَا إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۔{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_bluebox}The testimony of the Karamat (charismata) occurred by the Auliya (those righteous people who are close to Allah) also forms part of the principles of Ahlus-Sunnah, as also the testimony of all those extraordinary occurrences and habits which Allah manifests through them in terms of various knowledges, spiritual experiences, powers, and influences and those that are mentioned in the Qur'anic Surah Al Kahf etc. regarding former communities and about the initial period of the Sahaba and Taba'een of this Ummah till today and will continue to remain till the day of judgement.{/jb_bluebox}

Note: Arabic & English text taken verbatim from Sharh Al-Aqeedat-il-Wasitiyah printed by Dar-us-Salam publications (Riyadh, KSA).

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Fri, 18 Nov 2011 20:07:15 +0000
Tawassul and it's position in Islam https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/tawassul-and-its-position-in-islam.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/tawassul-and-its-position-in-islam.html tawassul

{jb_quote} Many contemporaries have mixed both these forms up; a) asking directly from the deceased and, b) asking Allah Alone, through the medium of some deceased) and have passed one ruling of Shirk for both forms. This is clearly a gross oversight on their path.{/jb_quote}


Tawassul and it's position in Islam

By Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

Question: I am told that waseela is permitted as long as we do not address our needs directly to anyone other than Allah. It is also said that if this precaution is taken then one could ask a Prophet or a saint to pray to Allah on our behalf or conversely we could ask Allah to accept our duas for the sake of his Prophets and/or the auliyas. As the Prophets are not alive how do we make waseela through them ? If waseela is ja'iz through Prophets then does that mean waseela through people who have passed away is permitted ? Is it permitted to make ziyarat of the graves of the Prophets other than Sallahu alaihi wassallam and other auliyas ?What is your opinion about the book AR-Rah written by ibn Al Qayyim Al Jauziah ?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Please see below our detailed answer on Tawassul.

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

TAWASSUL

Q: With regards to asking the dead or the absent to supplicate to Allah on our behalf, what is the understanding of the Ulama about this issue?

{jb_dropcap}T{/jb_dropcap}awassul and Waseelah literally means to make a request or supplicate through a means. It is permissible for one to request Allah Ta'ala to accept his du'aa through the medium of some deeds or the rank of certain individuals as this may be closer to acceptance.

There are various forms of Tawassul and Waseela:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} To make Tawassul to Almighty Allah that He accepts the Du'aa due to one having performed a certain good deed is permissible and unanimously accepted. It is supported by the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari in which three people were trapped in a cave. Each of them made Du'aa to Allah Ta'ala to move the obstructing rock and they requested Allah Ta'ala to accept their du'aas due to some good deed that each of them had done.

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} To make Tawassul with the names and attributes of Almighty Allah: This is also permissible and is supported by the following verse, 'And Allah has beautiful names, so call unto Him through them.' (Surah A'araaf v.180). Example: If someone says, 'Oh Allah, I ask you through your attributes and beautiful names to grant my specific wish.'

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} To make Tawassul to Allah Ta'ala through the rank and position of certain individuals, alive or deceased, in the sight of Almighty Allah This includes the Prophets [alayhimus salaam], the martyrs and any other pious servant of Allah. Example: If one says, 'Oh Allah, I beseech you to accept my du'aa due to the status of Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] in Your eyes.' This form of Tawassul is also permissible according to the vast majority of the Ulama (scholars) and it has in fact remained part of their practise.

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Some scholars even mention a fourth type of Tawassul, where a person requests some living pious servant of Allah to make du'aa for him: This is also unanimously accepted.

The only type of Tawassul that is disputed is number3, where one makes Tawassul through individuals that are alive or deceased by saying, 'O Allah, I besech you to accept my Du'aa due to the status that Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] (or some other pious person) hold in Your eyes.' The first opposition against this form of Tawassul was in the 7th century of Islam. (shifaa-u-siqaam)

There are numerous proofs that support the permissibility of Tawassul through individuals. The following are some substantiations:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] narrates that once a blind person came to Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] and said:

{jb_bluebox}  'O Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam]! Ask Allah to cure me.' Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] replied, 'If you wish I will make Du'aa or else you may be patient and this is better for you.' The man said, 'Make Du'aa instead', Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] then commanded him to make Wudhu properly and that he recites the following Du'aa, 'Oh Allah, verily, I ask of you and I turn to you through your prophet, the prophet of mercy, O Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam], verily, I have turned to my Lord through you so that my need be fulfilled. Oh Allah, accept his intercession on my behalf.' (Musnad Ahmad vol.4 pg.138; Sunan Tirmidhi; Sunan ibn Majah; Mustadrak Haakim and others). Imaams Tirmidhi, ibn Khuzaymah and Haakim have classified this Hadith as authentic. The words, 'I turn to you through your prophet' clearly proves Tawassul through the position of a person. Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] also told him that he should make the same supplication whenever he needed to. (al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen pg.145){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] taught this du'aa to someone after the demise of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam]. That person's need was also fulfilled.

{jb_bluebox}Abu Umaamah ibn Sahl ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] reports that a person requested Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Affaan [radhiallaahu anhu] to fulfil his need. Sayyiduna Uthmaan [radhiallaahu anhu] did not attend to him. The person complained to Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] about his plight. Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] told him to make Wudhu, go to the Musjid, offer 2 Rakaats of Salaat and recite the following Du'aa: 'O Allah, verily I ask you and I turn to you through our prophet, the prophet of mercy (Rasulullah - sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). O Muhammad! Verily, I have turned to our Lord through you so that He may fulfil my need.' The person then went to Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Affaan [radhiallahu anhu] who then [radhiallaahu anhu] immediately fulfilled his need and told him to return whenever he had any need in the future. (al-Mu'jamus sagheer vol.1 pg.184; al-Mu'jamul Kabeer vol.9 pg.17; Dalaailun-nubuwwah of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.6 pg.167-168){/jb_bluebox}

Imaam Tabrani has mentioned that this Hadith is authentic. (al-Mu'jamus sagheer vol.1 pg.184). Allamah Mahmood Zaahid Al- Kawthari has also classified the chains of Baihaqi to be Saheeh (authentic). (Maqaalatul-Kawthari pg.391). For a detailed analysis refer to al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen of Shaykh Abdullah Siddique al-Ghumarie pgs.141-157; Raf'ul Manaarah of Shaykh Mahmood Sa'eed Mamdooh pgs.125-131

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna Anas ibn Maalik [radhiallaahu anhu] reports that when the mother of Sayyiduna Ali [radhiallahu anhu] passed away (Faatima bint Asad - radhiallaahu anha], Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] made the following Du'aa before burying her:

{jb_bluebox}'O Allah, The One who gives life and death, and Who is living and will never die, forgive my mother Faatima bint Asad [radhiallaahu anha], and make her arguments known to her, i.e. make the answering of Munkar and Nakeer easy, and make her grave spacious for her. (I ask you) through the right of your prophet and all the prophet's before me, for verily You are Most Merciful.' (al-Mu'jamul awsat vol.1 pg.152; Hilya vol.3 pg.121){/jb_bluebox}

'Bi haqqi nabiyyika' (through the right of your prophet). This narration is classified as authentic according to the standards of Imaam ibn Hibbaan and Haakim. (Raf'ul Manaarah pg.147; Maqaalaatul Kawthari). Haafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami(RA) that its chain of narrators is good.(Refer to his footnotes on Al-Manaasik of Imaam Nawawi(RA) pg.500...)

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} When a person leaves the Musjid, the following du'aa is recorded, 'Allaahumma inniy as-aluka bi haqqis-saa-ileena alayka, wa bi haqqi mamshaaya haaza...'. (Translation: Oh Allah, I ask you through the right of those who ask you and through the right of the act of my walking...)

In this narration, Tawassul through people is established, '...through the right of those who ask' and Tawassul through one's deeds is supported by the second part. This Hadith is recorded in Sunan ibn Maajah, Musnad Ahmad (vol.3 pg.21), Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah and others. The following Muhadditheen have regarded it as authentic: Imaam ibn Khuzaymah (Kitaab Tawheed pg.17), Hafiz Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi (al-Naseehah), Hafiz Abul-Hasan al-Maqdisi - teacher of Allaamah Munzhiri (refer al-Targheeb vol.3 pg.273), Allamah al-Iraqi - Ustaadh of Hafiz ibn Hajar (Takhrijul Ihyaa), Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (Nataa-ijul Afkaar vol.1 pg.272), Hafiz Dimyati (Al-Matjarur-raabih). These are six great Muhadditheen that have accepted this Hadith to be authentic, hence, there remains no doubt at all concerning its acceptability.

The following two proofs illustrate to us the practise of the Sahaaba [radhiallaahu anhum] as well.

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Sayyiduna Maalik al-Daar, the treasurer of food during the time of Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab [radhiallaahu anhu], reports that once the people had been experiencing a drought in the era of Sayyiduna Umar [radhiallaahu anhu], a man went to the grave of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] and said:

{jb_bluebox} 'O Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam], ask for rain on behalf of your Ummah, for verily, they are being destroyed.' Thereafter this person was instructed in a dream to go to Sayyiduna Umar [radhiallaahu anhu] and tell him that, 'the rains will soon come and say to him, Be intelligent', When Umar [radhiallaahu anhu] was informed of this, he began to cry and he said, 'O My Lord, I will only leave out what I am unable to do.' (Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah vol.12 pg.31-32; Dalaailun-nubuwwah of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.7 pg.47). Hafiz ibn Katheer [ra] has stated that the chain of narrators is 'good and strong' (Musnadul Faarooq vol.1 pg.223). Hafiz ibn Hajar has also indicated to its authenticity in Fathul Bari.{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Abul-Jawzaa - Aws ibn Abdullah [radhiallaahu anhu] reports that once, the people of Madinah were experiencing a severe drought. They complained to Sayyidatuna Aaisha [radhiallahu anha].

{jb_bluebox}She advised them that they should make a hole in the tomb of the roof of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] so that the grave is exposed to the skies. He says, 'When they made a hole, heavy rains came down and crops also began to grow.' (Sunan Darimi vol.1 pg.56){/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Imaam Haakim and others have narrated on the authority of Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab [radhiallaahu anhu] that Rasulullah [Sallallahu alayhi wasallam] said, 'When Adam [alayhis salaam] ate from the forbidden tree, he said,

{jb_bluebox}'O My Lord, I ask you through the right of Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] that you forgive me.' The words used were, 'Bi haqqi Muhammad' Allah Ta'ala accepted Aadam's [alayhis salaam] repentance. (al-Mustadrak vol.2 pg.615; Dalaailun-Nubuwwah of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.5 pg.489; al-Mu'jamus saghir of Imaam Tabrani vol.2 pg.82){/jb_bluebox}

The status of this narration has been extensively disputed by the various Muhadditheen. Some have accepted it to be authentic and others rejected it. However, there is another narration that supports this narration recorded by Imaam Abul-Hasan ibn Bishraan [ra] on the authority of Sayyidatuna Maysarah [radhiallaahu anha]. The chain of narrators for this Hadith is totally different from the previous one. And in fact, Hafiz ibn Hajar [ra] has stated concerning a completely different narration which has the very same chain of narrators, that this chain of narrators is strong. (al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen pgs.138-139; al-Ahaadeethul Muntaqaa pg.14, both of Shaykh Abdullah Siddique al-Ghumarie). These narrations have all proven beyond a shadow of doubt that this form of Tawassul is permissible and was widely practised as well.

Hereunder follows a list of some of the many illustrious Ulama of the past who had practised upon Tawassul through the rank of the pious, deceased or alive:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Imaam Hasan ibn Ibrahim al-Hallal [ra] has stated that whenever he had any urgent need, he would go to the grave of Imaam Moosa ibn Ja'far [ra] and make Tawassul through him. Allah Ta'ala would fulfil his need. (refer Taarikh Baghdaad)

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Imaam Shaafi'ee [ra] would make Tawassul at the grave of Imaam Abu Hanifa [ra]. (Taarikh Baghdaad). Allaamah al-Kawthari has classified this incident as authentic. (Maqaalaatul Kawthari pg.381)

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Allaamah Taajuddeen al-Subki [ra] has mentioned that the people would go to the grave of Imaam ibn Foorak(ra), the teacher of Imaam Bayhaqi [ra] and make Du'aa and their Du'aas would get accepted.

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Hafiz Al-Zarkashi [ra] has made Tawassul in the introduction to his commentary to Sahih al-Bukhari entitled, 'al-Tanqeeh'.

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Hafiz Taqi-u-ddin al-Subki [ra], the father of Taajuddin al-Subki [ra], has approved of this firm of Tawassul and he has written a detailed treatise on this topic. (See his book: Shifaa-u-Siqaam pgs.293-318)

{jb_bluedisc}6{/jb_bluedisc} Allamah Nawawi [ra] has mentioned that from among the etiquettes of visiting the grave of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] one should make Tawassul through Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] to Allah Ta'ala to accept his Du'aas. Thereafter, Allamah Nawawi states, '...and one of the best things that one should do is what has been related by Allaamah al-Mawardi [ra], al-Qaadhi Abu Teeb [ra] and all our Ulama and they have all regarded it as commendable, and that is the incident of Imaam al-Utabi [ra] that he said, 'I was once seated by the grave of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam], when a Bedouin came and said, 'Peace be upon you, oh, Messenger of Allah. O Messenger of Allah, I have heard Almighty Allah say in the Qur'aan "And if they, when they had been unjust to themselves, had come to you (Muhammad Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and begged Allah's forgiveness and the messenger had begged forgiveness for them, indeed they would have found Allah All-Forgiving. Most merciful.(Al-Nisaa:64) hence, I have come to you in a state that I seek forgiveness of my sins by seeking your intercession by my Lord', thereafter he recited a few couplets and departed. Imaam al-Utabi [ra] states, 'I then fell asleep and I saw Rasulullah [sallallahu alayhi wasallam] instructing me by the words, 'O Utabi, go to that Bedouin and give him the glad tidings that Almighty Allah has forgiven him.' (Refer al-Majmoo vol.8 pg.456 - Cairo and Manaasikul-Imaam-Al-Nawawi pg.498-499 Maktabah Salafia). This incident has been related by many Ulama in their respective compilations. Some of them are: Haafiz Ibn-Katheer in his Tafseer, Allamah Abu-Muhammad ibn Qudaamah in Al-Mughni vol.3 pg.556, Imaam Abul-Faraj in Al-Sharhul-Kabeervol.3 pg.495, etc.)

{jb_bluedisc}7{/jb_bluedisc} Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal(RA) has also encouraged making Tawassul through Rasulullah [sallallahu alayhi wasallam] in ones duas. (Fataawa ibn Taimiyyah vol.1 pg.140, Also see Mafaaheem pg.137)

{jb_bluedisc}8{/jb_bluedisc} Haafiz Shamsud-Deen Al-Sakhawi (RA), the grand student of Haafiz ibn Hajr Al-Asqalaani(RA) made Tawassul on many occasions through Rasulullah [Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam] in his books, see for example Al-Tuhfatul-Lateefah vol.1 pg.3, 17; al-Ibtihaaj bi azkaaril musaafiril haaj

{jb_bluedisc}9{/jb_bluedisc} Allamah Muhammad ibn-ul-Jazri(RA) the famous Muhaddith and Master of Qira'aat has mentioned that from amongst the Aadaab etiquettes of dua is that one makes Tawassul with the Ambiyaa and the pious ones.(Al-Hisnul Haseen)

{jb_bluedisc}10{/jb_bluedisc} Imaam Al-Shawkaani Al-Salafi(RA) has also permitted Tawassul. (Tuhfatu-Zaakireen pg.50)

These are ten Different types of Ulama (i.e. some are Fuqahaa, some Muhadditheen and some are Qurraa). All have either practised on Tawassul or at least permitted it. And the list could go on....(refer to Maqaalatul Kawthari pg.378-397). After contemplating on all that was mentioned above, any person with sound intelligence would believe without a shadow of doubt in the permissibility of this form of Tawassul.

More so when one realizes that this remained the practise of the Ummah for centuries. Allamah Taqee-ud-Deen Al-Subki(RA) and other Muhadditheen have stated that Haafiz Ibn-Taimiyyah(RA) - who passed away in the year 728 Hijri - was the first to refute the permissibility of this form of Tawassul (Shifaa-us-Siqaam pg.293) In fact, Abu-Abdillah Al-Tilmisani Al-Maaliki(RA) (a renown scholar of the 7th century) has written a book concerning how this remained the practise of the entire Ummah since its existence. (Refer Maqaalatul Kawthari pg.397)

Lastly, we would like to draw your attention to the fact that the above permissibility is in regard to one who asks Allah Ta'ala for a particular need and in doing so, he uses some honourable personality as his Waseela (means) without thinking or believing that the person is being supplicated to or that he will fulfil his need. Yes, if one asks directly from the deceased and he believes that the Anbiyaa [alayhimus salaam] and the pious [rahimahumullah] independently possess the power to provide, then this would be Shirk (polytheism) because he is now ascribing partners to Allah in the quality of 'Providing'.

Many contemporaries have mixed both these forms up; a) asking directly from the deceased and, b) asking Allah Alone, through the medium of some deceased) and have passed one ruling of Shirk for both forms. This is clearly a gross oversight on their path.

and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Ml. Muhammad ibn Moulana Haroon Abasoomar

FACULTY OF SPECIALTY IN HADITH SCIENCES

CHECKED & APPROVED: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Fatwa Dept.)

 


Tawassul (Supplicating Allah through an intermediary)

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: This question is about 'Tawassul'. Clearly, the sect of the Salafs state that it is shirk to do this act of worship and it breaks the Aqeedah of tawheed, even the people of the city of Saudi Arabia have dislike in this, and this Aqeedah has even been adopted by the Imams and Khateebs of the Harmain (two sacred Harams). Please give your words of wisdom on this controversial issue?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

{jb_dropcap}T{/jb_dropcap}awassul (using intermediaries in supplication to Allah) through the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace), Awliya and righteous believers is permitted, rather recommended according to the four schools of Sunni Islam.

This has been the mainstream belief held by scholars of this Ummah throughout the eras. The Salaf (predecessors) from the earliest generations had this understanding and this has been the way of the four Sunni Madhhabs in Fiqh.

The meaning of Tawassul is: To ask Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another person. For example, one says: "O Allah! I ask forgiveness for my sins through the Wasila (intercession) of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)".

Tawassul can be carried out through one's own righteous deeds, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), righteous people who have passed away and those who are still alive. All these types of Tawassul are permitted and acceptable.

The permissibility of 'Tawassul' is proven from the Qur'an, Sunnah, continued practice of the Ummah and reason.

Some of the proofs on the validity of Tawassul:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Allah Most High says:

 

{jb_bluebox}"O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek a means (wasila) to him" (Surah al-Ma'ida, V: 35){/jb_bluebox}

The word "Wasila" (a means of approach) in its general indication includes Tawassul (intercession) by persons, and through actions.

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Allah Almighty says:

 

{jb_bluebox}"If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you (Prophet, Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Messenger of Allah had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed forgiving and Most Merciful". (Surah al-Nisa, V: 64){/jb_bluebox}

These two verses are clear on the permissibility and recommendation of Tawassul. The distinction made by some, between the living and the dead in this matter only comes from one who believes in the perishing of souls upon death, which would lead to denying resurrection.

Also, when one uses Tawassul in supplication, one does not ask and seek from other than Allah. Only the high position, status and rank of the person through whom Wasila is carried out is used as intercession. In other words, the servant is saying: "O Allah! This certain Prophet or servant of yours is very close to you. I do not possess any good deeds, but I have love for the pious. O Allah! Pardon me and forgive my sins due to this love and connection I have with this pious servant of yours".

Now, every person with a sound mind will determine the fact that there is no reason to distinguish and differentiate between the living and the dead. This is the reason why scholars such as Imam Subki, Hafidh Ibn Kathir, Imam an-Nawawi and many others have declared the permissibility of Tawassul through the righteous, whether alive or passed away to the Mercy of Allah.

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} Imam al-Tirmidhi (Allah have Mercy on him) and others relate from Uthman ibn Hunaif (Allah be pleased with him):

{jb_bluebox}"A blind man came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and said: "I've been afflicted in my eyesight, so pray to Allah for me". The Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: "Go perform ablution (Wudu), perform two rak'at Salat and then say: "O Allah! I ask you and turn to you through my Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy. O Muhammad! I seek your intercession with my lord for the return of my eyesight, that it may be fulfilled. O Allah! Grant him intercession for me". The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) then said: "and if there is some other need, do the same". (Recorded by Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i, Tabrani and others, with a sound chain of narrators).{/jb_bluebox}

The express content of this Hadith proves the legal validity of Tawassul through a living person. It implicitly proves the validity of Tawassul through a deceased person, as Tawassul through a living or dead person is not through a physical body or through life or death, rather, through the positive meaning attached to the person in both life and death.

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} Moreover, Tabrani relates in his ' Mu'jam al-Kabir ' reporting from the same Uthman ibn Hunaif that a person repeatedly visited him concerning something he needed, but Uthman paid no attention to him. The man met his son and complained to him about the matter- this was after the death of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) and after the caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar (Allah be pleased with them)- so Uthman (who collected Hadith and was from the learned) said :

{jb_bluebox}"Go to the place of Wudu, then come to the Masjid, perform two Rak'ats and then say : "O Allah!, I ask you and turn to you through our Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy. O Muhammad! I turn through you to my lord, that He fulfil my need"....... until the end of the Hadith.{/jb_bluebox}

This is an explicit and clear text from a Companion proving the legal validity of Tawassul through the dead. The Hadith has been classed as authentic (Sahih) by al-Bayhaqi, Mundhiri, al-Haythami and many others.

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} In the Hadith recorded by Imam al-Bukhari and others, the Companion Umar (Allah be pleased with him) made Tawassul through the uncle of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), Abbas (Radhi Allahu Anhu), in asking Allah for rain at the time of drought.

These and many other Ahadith are clear on the permissibility and validity of Tawassul. This is the reason, why the great traditional Sunni scholars have held this belief throughout the ages. Even in the present era, most of the Muslims who belong to the Ahl Sunnah Wa al-Jama'ah in most parts of the world have this belief.

Many books in Arabic and other languages have been written in refutation of those who regard Tawassul as Shirk. Scholars from Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Emirates, India, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia itself have rejected the position held by the minority -so called- Salafi sect.

As far as some of the scholars of the Haramayn are concerned, there views in matters of Aqida are generally from the blind following of Imam Ibn Taymiyya... The Imam, despite having great knowledge, in many issues chose a path which was different from the path of the majority of the Ummah, and the Scholars by and large did not accept his views.

At the same time, one should be precautious in not having any wrong belief in Aqidah. There should be the conviction that Allah Almighty alone has influence over everything, outwardly and inwardly. Also, one should not have the belief that the supplication (Dua) is not accepted without Tawassul.

This is the real Tawhid.

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

 


The Tawassul Challenge

By Ibn Saad

This is an open Challenge to those who are opposed to Tawassul. Please look at the quotes below and answer all of the following questions in the comment section:

 

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} Are the statements below correctly ascribed to their respective Imam, if not which is a false statement and why?

 

{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} If indeed these Imams did make these claims, should Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Imam Ibn Khuzaima, Imam Ibn Hibban, Imam Nawawi and Imam Shawkani be considered kuffar based on this?

 

{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} If not, are they Muslims, but guilty of Shirk of some degree?

 

{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} If not, are they mubtadi'een?

 

{jb_bluedisc}5{/jb_bluedisc} Were they jahils to allow/perform tawassul without (supposedly) any daleels?

 

If you have said NO so far, can we agree that Tawassul is a Fiqh issue instead of an Aqeedah one?

Imam Ahmad and Tawassul:

{jb_brownbox}:( المرداوي في الإنصاف ( 2:456 "... يجوز التوسل بالرجل الصالح على الصحيح من المذهب، وقيل: يُستحب. قال الإمام أحمد للمروذي : يتوسل بالنبي صلى اله عليه وسلم في دعائه وجزم به في المستوعب وغيره.."{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_bluebox}Al-Mardawi said: "The correct position of the [Hanbali] madhhab is that it is permissible in one's du'a to use as one's means a pious person (saalih), and it is said that it is desirable (mustahabb). Imam Ahmad said to Abu Bakr al-Marwazi: 'Let him use the Prophet as a means in his supplication to Allah.'" (Al-Insaf 2:456) This is also cited by Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmu' Al-Fatawa (1:140).{/jb_bluebox}

Imam Shawkani and Tawassul:

{jb_brownbox}قال الشوكاني في تحفة الذاكرين: "وفي الحديث دليل على جواز التوسل برسول الله صلى اله عليه وسلم إلى الله عز وجل مع اعتقاد أن الفاعل هو الله سبحانه وتعالى، وأنه المعطي والمانع ما شاء .(10/ كان وما لم يشأ لم يكن" (تحفة الأحوذي 34{/jb_brownbox}

Al-Shawkani said, in Tuhfatul Dhakireen:

{jb_bluebox}"And in this hadith is proof for the permissibility of tawassul through the Prophet [s] to Allah, with the conviction that the [actual] doer is Allah, and that He is the Giver and the Withholder. What He wills is, and what He does not will, will never be."{/jb_bluebox}

Al-Albani on Imam Hanbal and Imam Al-Shawkani:

{jb_brownbox}:( الألباني في "التوسل أنواعه وأحكامه" ( 38 "...مع أنه قد قال ببعضه بعض الأئمة، فأجاز الإمام أحمد التوسل بالرسول وحده فقط، وأجاز غيره كالإمام الشوكاني التوسل به وبغيره من الأنبياء والصالحي{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_bluebox}Al-Albani in 'Al-Tawassul': "Even though some of them have been allowed by some of the Imams, so for instance Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal allowed tawassul through the Prophet alone, and others such as Imam Al-Shawkani allowed tawassul through his [pbuh] and through others from the Prophets and the righteous."{/jb_bluebox}

Imam Nawawi on Tawassul:

{jb_brownbox}النووي في المجموع شرح المهذب (كتاب الحج): ثم يرجع إلى موقفه الأول قبالة وجه رسول الله صلى اله عليه وسلم ويتوسل به في حق نفسه، ويستشفع به إلى ربه سبحانه وتعالى{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_bluebox}[The pilgrim] should then face the shrine of the Messenger of Allah (s) , make him an intermediary [to Allah], and intercede through him to Allah... (Majmu' Sharh Al-Madhhab – Kitab Al-Hajj){/jb_bluebox}

Imam Ibn Khuzaymah and Tawassul:

{jb_brownbox}:( 7/ ابن حجر في تهذيب التهذيب ( 339 قال (الحاكم النيسابوري) وسمعت أبا بكر محمد بن المؤمل بن الحسن بن عيسى يقول خرجنا مع امام أهل الحديث أبي بكر بن خزيمة وعديله أبي علي الثقفي مع جماعة من مشائخنا وهم إذ ذاك متوافرون إلى زيارة قبر علي بن موسى الرضى بطوس قال فرأيت من تعظيمه يعنى ابن خزيمة لتلك البقعة وتواضعه لها وتضرعه عندها ما تحيرنا.{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_bluebox}Ibn Hajar (Tahdhib 7:339) narrates the account of the Imam of Ahlul-Hadith Ibn Khuzaymah, under the entry of the same Ali bin Musa Al-Ridha. He relates that Ibn Khuzaymah also performed tawassul at the grave of Al-Ridha.{/jb_bluebox}

Ibn Hibban and Tawassul:

{jb_brownbox}:( 8/456/ ابن حبان في كتابه الثقات ( 14411 مات على بن موسى الرضا بطوس من شربة سقاه إياها المأمون فمات من ساعته وذلك في يوم السبت آخر يوم سنة ثلاث ومائتين وقبره بسناباذ خارج النوقان مشهور يزار بجنب قبر الرشيد، قد زرته مرارا كثيرة وما حلت بي شدة في وقت مقامى بطوس فزرت قبر على بن موسى الرضا صلوات الله على جده وعليه ودعوت الله إزالتها عنى إلا أستجيب لي وزالت عنى تلك الشدة وهذا شيء جربته مرارا فوجدته كذلك أماتنا الله على محبة المصطفى وأهل بيته صلى الله عليه وعليهم أجمعين.{/jb_brownbox}

{jb_bluebox}In his Rijal book Al-Thuqat (8:456:14411), under the entry of Ali bin Musa al-Ridha, Ibn Hibban relates his own account of going to Al-Ridha's grave, performing tawassul through him and states that whenever "I was afflicted with a problem during my stay in Tus, I would visit the grave of Ali bin Musa (Allah's blessings be upon his grandfather and him) and ask Allah to relieve me of that problem and it (my dua) would be answered and the problem alleviated. And this is something I did, and found to work, many times ..."{/jb_bluebox}

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Thu, 17 Nov 2011 21:01:16 +0000
Establishing Matters of Aqeedah with AHAD Narrations https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/establishing-matters-of-aqeedah-with-ahad-narrations.html https://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Beliefs/establishing-matters-of-aqeedah-with-ahad-narrations.html mutawatir ahad

{jb_quote} Matters of Aqidah can and have been proven by Ahad narrations and accepted by the majority of the Ummah. Yes, those integrals of Aqidah on which an individual’s Iman depends can not be established by Ahad narrations. As a result, denying beliefs that are proven by Ahad will not constitute Kufr, rather a sin.{/jb_quote}


By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: Could you please explain the difference between Ahad and Mutawatir Hadith? In particular, could you specify how many narrations make a Hadith Mutawatir? Also, are Ahad hadith taken into Aqeedah or only Mutawatir?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

{jb_dropcap}A{/jb_dropcap} Hadith Mutawatir (continuous) is that which is related by whole groups of individuals from whole group of individuals, in multiple contiguous channels of transmission leading back to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace), such as that the sheer number of separate channels at each stage of transmission is too many for it to be possible for all to have conspired to fabricate the Hadith.

As such, a Hadith is classified as Mutawatir only when it fulfils the following conditions:


{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} It is reported by such a large number of narrators that under normal circumstances it would be impossible for them to conspire a lie.


{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Such a number exists throughout the chain of narration, i.e. from the beginning to the end.


{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc} The reporters must base their report on sense perception, i.e. on something that is heard or seen.


{jb_bluedisc}4{/jb_bluedisc} That the narration necessitates certain knowledge for the listener. (Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani, Sharh Nukhba al-Fikr, P.21).

Example of a Mutawatir Hadith is:

{jb_bluebox}"Whoever lies about me deliberately must prepare himself for a place in the fire of Hell" (Sahih al-Bukhari & Sahih muslim). {/jb_bluebox}

Imam an-Nawawi (Allah have mercy on him) states that this narration has been narrated from approximately 200 Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) (Introduction to Sahih Muslim).

The Ahad or solitary Hadith (also known as Khabar al-Wahid) is the Hadith which fails to fulfil the requirement of Mutawatir. Ahad Hadith may be sound (sahih), good (hasan) or weak (Da'eef). It is a Hadith which does not impart positive knowledge on its own unless it is supported by extraneous or circumstantial evidence.

According to the majority of the four Sunni schools, acting upon Ahad is obligatory even if Ahad fails to engender positive knowledge provided certain conditions are met.

As far as establishing matters of Aqidah is concerned, the majority of the scholars are of the view that Ahad may not be relied upon as the basis of belief (aqidah), for matters of belief must be founded in certainty. Therefore, issues that revolve between belief (iman) and disbelief (kufr) can not be proven by Ahad narrations (Fawatih al-Rahmut, 2/136).

However, this refers to beliefs on which the actual Iman is dependent. As for Ahad narrations pertaining to subsidiary matters which are not essential to belief such as intercession (shafa'ah), etc..., these must be accepted and believed. Anyone who denies them is a sinner (fasiq) but not a Kafir, as he denies something which is not decisively proven (Abu Zahra, Usul al-Fiqh, P.85).

None of the previous scholars rejected any belief that was not established by Hadith Mutawatir. In fact, the great Hadith expert, Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (Allah have mercy on him) states in his monumental commentary of Sahih al-Bukhari that, Ahad narrations are a source of evidence when the Ummah accepts it and acts upon it. It then has the power to become firm belief (Fath al-Bari, V.13, P.234).

Many beliefs have been established by Ahad narrations, yet they have not been rejected by the great scholars of this Ummah. Beliefs such as the intercession (shafa'ah) of the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace), descriptions of the angels, Jinn, Jannah, Jahannam, and much more.

In conclusion, matters of Aqidah can and have been proven by Ahad narrations and accepted by the majority of the Ummah. Yes, those integrals of Aqidah on which an individual's Iman depends can not be established by Ahad narrations. As a result, denying beliefs that are proven by Ahad will not constitute Kufr, rather a sin.

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

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globalpeace@gmail.com (Central-Mosque Administrator) Beliefs Wed, 10 Aug 2011 13:28:08 +0000